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Delaware County 


And Its People 

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History of Delaware County 



A century ago all that part of the great and beautiful State of Iowa, of 
which the County of Delaware is a part, was practically terra incognita, a vast 
wilderness, given over by the Almighty to wild beasts, birds of the air and their 
masters, the Indians, who roamed the plains and forests at will, claiming and 
securing an existence from the bounteous hand of Nature. * Here the deer, 
buffalo and other fur bearing animals found a habitat and the main streams 
gave generously of the palatable fish. The red man had no care for the morrow. 
No thought came to him that his possessions would ever be disturbed by the 
pale face. So he continued his dreams. The hunt was his daily avocation, 
broken in upon at intervals by a set-to with a hostile tribe of aborigines, that 
was always cruel and bloody in its results and added spoils to the victor and 
captives for torture. He knew not of the future and cared less. But the time 
was coming, was upon him, when he was called upon to make way for a stronger 
and a progressive race of men ; when the fair land that was his birthright and his 
hunting grounds, resplendent with the gorgeous flower and emerald sod, must 
yield to the husbandman. The time had come for the buffalo, deer and elk to 
seek pastures new, that the alluvial soil might be turned to the sun and fed with 
grain, to yield in their seasons the richest of harvests. 

It is hard for the present generation to realize the rapid pace of civilization 
on the western continent in the past one hundred years ; and when one confines 
his attention to the advancement of the State of Iowa in the past seventy-five 
years, his amazement is all the more intense. Evidences of progress are on 
every hand as one wends one's way across the beautiful state. Manufacturing 
plants are springing up hither and yon ; magnificent edifices for religious worship 
point their spires heavenward ; schoolhouses, colleges and other places of learning 
and instruction make the state stand out prominently among her sisters of this 
great republic. Villages are growing into towns and towns are taking on the 
dignity of a city government, until today Iowa is noted throughout the Union 
for the number, beauty and thrift of her towns and cities. The commonwealth 
is cobwebbed with her telegraph, telephone and railroad lines and all these 
things above mentioned have been made possible by the thrift, determination 
and high character of the people who claim citizenship w T ithin her borders. 


It is conceded by historians who have given the subject deep thought and 
careful research that this country was inhabited by a race of human beings 

T* I— 1 

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distinct from the red man. But that is beyond the province of this work. The 
men and women who opened up the State of Iowa and the County of Delaware 
to civilization had only the red man to dispute their coming and obstruct their 
progress; and in that regard something should be recorded in these pages. 

So far as the writer can ascertain, the Indians were the first inhabitants of 
Iowa. For more than one hundred years after Marquette and Joliet had trod 
the virgin soil of Iowa and admired its fertile plains, not a single settlement 
had been made or attempted, nor even a trading post established. The whole 
country remained in the undisputed possession of the native tribes. These 
tribes fought among themselves and against each other for supremacy and the 
choicest hunting grounds became the reward for the strongest and most valiant 
of them. 

When Marquette visited the country in 1673, the Illini were a powerful 
people and occupied a large portion of the state, but when the country was again 
visited by the whites, not a remnant of that once powerful tribe remained on 
the west side of the Mississippi, and Iowa was principally in the possession of 
the Sacs and Foxes, a warlike tribe which, originally two distinct nations residing 
in New York and on the waters of the St. Lawrence, had gradually fought their 
way westward and united, probably after the Foxes had been driven out of th£ 
Fox River country in 1846 and crossed the Mississippi. The death of Pontiac, 
a famous Sac chieftain, was made the pretext for war against the Illini, and a 
fierce and bloody struggle ensued, which continued until the Illini were nearly 
destroyed and their possessions went into the hands of their victorious foes. 
The Iowas also occupied a portion of the state for a time in common with the 
Sacs, but they, too, were nearly destroyed by the Sacs and Foxes and in the 
"Beautiful Land" these natives met their equally warlike and bloodthirsty 
enemies, the Northern Sioux, with whom they maintained a constant warfare 
for the possession of the country for a great many years. 

In 1803 when, under the administration of Thomas Jefferson, then President 
of the United States, Louisiana was purchased from Napoleon Bonaparte, emperor 
of France, the Sacs, Foxes and Iowas possessed the entire State of Iowa and the 
two former tribes also occupied most of Illinois. The Sacs had four principal 
villages where most of them resided. Their largest and most important town, 
from which emanated most of the obstacles encountered by the Government in 
the extinguishment of Indian titles to land in this region, was on the Rock 
River, near Rock Island ; another was on the east bank of the Mississippi, near 
the mouth of Henderson River; the third was at the head of the Des Moines 
Rapids, near the present site of Montrose; and the fourth was near the mouth 
of the Upper Iowa. The Foxes had three principal villages. One was on the 
west side of the Mississippi, six miles above the rapids of Rock River; another 
was about twelve miles from the river, in the rear of the Dubuque lead mines ; 
and the third was on Turkey River. 

The Iowas, at one time identified with the Sacs of Rock River, had withdrawn 
from them and become a separate tribe. Their principal village was on the 
Des Moines River, in Van Buren County, on the site where Iowaville now 
stands. Here the last great battle between the Sacs and Foxes and Iowas was 
fought, in which Black Hawk, then a young man, commanded one division of 
the attacking forces. The following account of the battle has been given : 

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" Contrary to long established custom of Indian attack, this battle was com- 
menced in the daytime, the attending circumstances justifying this departure 
from the well settled usages of Indian warfare. The battlefield was a level 
river bottom, about four miles in length and two miles wide near the middle, 
narrowing to a point at either end. The main area of this bottom rises perhaps 
twenty feet above the river, leaving a narrow strip of low bottom along the 
shore covered with trees that belted the prairie* on the river side with a thick 
forest, and the immediate bank of the river was fringed with a dense growth 
of willows. Near the lower end of this prairie, near the river bank, was situated 
the Iowa Village. About two miles above it and near the middle of the prairie 
is a mound, covered at the time with a small clump of trees and underbrush 
growing on its summit. In the rear of this little elevation or mound lay a belt 
of wet prairie, covered at that time with a dense growth of rank, coarse grass. 
Bordering this wet prairie on the north, the country rises abruptly into elevated 
broken river bluffs, covered with a heavy forest for miles in extent and in places 
thickly clustered with undergrowth, affording convenient shelter for the stealthy 
approach of an enemy. 

"Through this forest the Sac and Fox war party made their way in the 
night and secreted themselves in the tall grass spoken of above, intending to 
remain in ambush during the day and make such observations as this near 
proximity to their intended victims might afford, to aid them in their con- 
templated attack on the town during the following night. From this situation 
their spies could take a full survey of the village and watch every movement of 
the inhabitants, by which means they were soon convinced that the Iowas had 
no suspicion of their presence. 

"At the foot of the mound above mentioned the Iowas had their race course, 
where they diverted themselves with the excitement of horse racing and schooled 
their young warriors in cavalry evolutions. In these exercises mock battles 
were fought and the Indian tactics of attack and defense carefully inculcated. 
by which means a skill in horsemanship was acquired that is rarely excelled. 
Unfortunately for them, this day was selected for their equestrian sports, and, 
wholly unconscious of the proximity of their foes, the warriors repaired to the 
race ground, leaving most of their arms in the village and their old men, women 
and children unprotected. 

"Pash-a-popo, who was chief in command of the Sacs and Foxes, perceived at 
once the state of things afforded for a complete surprise of his now doomed 
victims and ordered Black Hawk to file off with his young warriors through the 
tall grass and gain the cover of the timber along the river bank and with the 
utmost speed reach the village and commence the battle, while he remained with 
his division in the ambush to make a simultaneous attack on the unarmed men 
whose attention was engrossed with the excitement of the races. The plan was 
skilfully laid and dexterously executed. Black Hawk with his forces reached 
the village undiscovered and made a furious onslaught upon the defenseless 
inhabitants by firing one general volley into their midst and completing the 
slaughter witfi the tomahawk and scalping knife, aided by the devouring flames 
with which they enveloped the village as soon as the firebrand could spread from 
lodge to lodge. 

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4 'On the instant of the report of firearms at the village, the forces under 
Pash-a-popo leaped from their couchant position in the grass and sprang, tiger- 
like, upon the unarmed Iowas in the midst of their racing sports. The first 
impulse of the latter naturally led them to make the utmost speed toward their 
arms in the village and protect, if possible, their wives and children from the 
attack of their merciless assailants. The distance from the place of attack on 
the prairie was two miles and a great number fell in their flight by the bullets 
and tomahawks of their enemies, who pressed them closely with a running fire 
the whole way and the survivors only reached their town to witness the horrors 
of its destruction. Their whole village was in flames and the dearest objects 
of their lives lay in slaughtered heaps admist the devouring element and the 
agonizing groans of the dying, mingled with the hideously exulting shouts of the 
enemy, filled their hearts with maddening despair. Their wives and children 
who had been spared the general massacre were prisoners, and their weapons in 
the hands of the victorious savages; all that could be done was to draw off 
their shattered and defenseless forces and save as many lives as possible by a 
retreat across the Des Moines River, which they effected in the best possible 
manner and took a position among the Soap Creek Hills. ,, 

The Sioux located their hunting grounds north of the Sacs and Foxes. They 
were a fierce and warlike nation and often disputed possession in savage and 
fiendish warfare. The possessions of these tribes were mostly located in Minne- 
sota but extended over a portion of Northern and Western Iowa to the Missouri 
River. Their descent from the north upon the hunting grounds of Iowa fre- 
quently brought them into collision with the Sacs and Foxes and after many a 
sanguine conflict, a boundary line was established, between them by the Govern- 
ment of the United States in a treaty held at Prairie du Chien in 1825. Instead 
of settling the difficulties, this caused them to quarrel all the more, in consequence 
of alleged trespasses upon each other 's side of the line. So bitter and unrelent- 
ing became these contests that in 1830 the Government purchased of their 
respective tribes of the Sacs and Foxes and the Sioux, a strip of land twenty 
miles wide on both sides of the line, thus throwing them forty miles apart by 
creating a " neutral ground/ ' and commanded them to cease their hostilities. 
They were, however, allowed to fish on the ground unmolested, provided they 
did not interfere with each other on United States territory. 

Soon after the acquisition of Louisiana the United States Government adopted 
measures for the exploration of the new territory, having in view the conciliation 
of the numerous tribes of Indians by whom it was possessed and also the selec- 
tion of proper sites for the establishment of military posts and trading stations. 
The Army of the West, General Wilkinson commanding, had its headquarters at 
St. Louis. From this post Captains Lewis and Clarke, with a sufficient force, 
were detailed to explore the unknown sources of the Missouri, and Lieut. Zebulon 
M. Pike to ascend to the headwaters of the Mississippi. Lieutenant Pike, with 
one sergeant, two corporals and seventeen privates, left the military camp near 
St. Louis, in a keel boat, with four months' rations, August 9, 1805. On the 
20th of the same month the expedition arrived within the present limits of the 
State of Iowa, at the foot of the Des Moines Rapids, where Pike* met William 
Ewing, who had just been appointed Indian agent at this point; a French 
interpreter, four chiefs, fifteen Sac and Fox warriors. At the head of the 

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rapids where Montrose is now situated, Pike held a council with the Indians, in 
which he addressed them substantially as follows: 

' 'Your great father, the President of the United States, wishes to be more 
acquainted with the situation and wants of the different nations of red people 
in our newly acquired Territory of Louisiana and has ordered the general to 
send a number of his warriors in different directions to take them by the hand 
and make such inquiries as might afford the satisfaction required. 9 ' 

At the close of the council he presented the red men with some knives, tobacco 
and whiskey. On the 23d of August he arrived at what is supposed from his 
description to be the site of the present City of Burlington, which he selected 
as the location for a military post. He describes the place as "being on a hill, 
forty miles above the River de Moyne Rapids, on ,the west side of the river, in 
latitude about forty degrees, twenty-one minutes north. The channel of the 
river runs on that shore. The hill in front is about sixty feet perpendicular 
and nearly level at the top. About four hundred yards in the rear is a small 
prairie, fit for gardening, and immediately under the hill is a limestone spring, 
sufficient, for the consumption of a whole regiment." In addition to this 
description, which corresponds to Burlington, the spot is laid down on his map 
at a bend in the river a short distance below the mouth of the Henderson, 
which pours its waters into the Mississippi from Illinois. The fort was built 
at Fort Madison but from the distance, latitude, description and map furnished 
by Pike, it could not have been the place selected by him, while all the circum- 
stances corroborate the opinion that the spot he selected was the place where 
Burlington is now located, called by the early voyagers on the Mississippi 
"Flint Hills." In company with one of his men Pike went on a short hunting 
expedition, and following a stream which they supposed to be a part of the 
Mississippi, they were led away from their course. Owing to the intense heat 
and tall grass, his two favorite dogs, which he had taken with him, became 
exhausted and he left them on the prairie, supposing they would follow him as 
soon as they should get rested and went on to overtake his boat. After reaching 
the river he waited for some time for his canine friends but they did not come 
and as he deemed it inexpedient to detain the boat longer, two of his men 
volunteered to go in pursuit of them. He then continued on his way up the 
river, expecting the men would soon overtake him. 

They lost their way, however, and for six days were without food, except a 
few morsels gathered from the stream. They might have perished had they not 
accidently met a trader from St. Louis, who induced two Indians to take them 
up the river, overtaking the boat at Dubuque. At the latter place Pike was 
cordially received by Julien Dubuque, a Frenchman, who held a mining claim 
under a grant from Spain. He had an old field piece and fired a salute in 
honor of the advent of the first American who had visited that part of the 
territory. He was not, however, disposed to publish the wealth of his mines 
and the young and evidently inquisitive officer obtained but little information in 
that regard. 

Upon leaving this place Pike pursued his way up the river but as he passed 
beyond the limits of the present State of Iowa, a detailed history of his explora- 
tions does not properly belong to this volume. It is sufficient to say that on the 

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site of Fort Snelling, Minnesota, he held a council with the Sioux, September 
23d, and obtained from them a grant of 100,000 acres of land. 

Before the Territory of Iowa could be opened to settlement by the whites 
it was first necessary that the Indian title should be extinguished and the 
aborigines removed. The territory had been purchased by the United States 
but was still occupied by the Indians, who claimed title to the soil by right of 
possession. In order to accomplish this purpose, large sums of money were 
expended, warring tribes had to be appeased by treaty stipulations and oppres- 
sion by the whites discouraged. 


When the United States assumed control of the country by reason of its 
purchase from France, nearly the whole state was in possession of the Sacs and 
Foxes, a powerful and warlike nation, who were not disposed to submit without 
a struggle to what they regarded the encroachment on their rights of the pale 
faces. Among the most noted chiefs and one whose restlessness and hatred of 
the whites occasioned more trouble to the Government than any other of his 
tribe, was Black Hawk, who was born at the Sac Village, on Rock River, in 
1767. He was simply the chief of his own band of Sac warriors; but by his 
energy and ambition he became the leading spirit of the united nation of the 
Sacs and Foxes, and one of the prominent figures in the history of the country 
from 1804 until his death. In early manhood he attained distinction as a fight- 
ing chief, having led campaigns against the Osages and other neighboring tribes. 
About the beginning of the nineteenth century he began to appear prominent 
in affairs on the Mississippi. His life was a marvel. He is said by some to have 
been the victim of a narrow prejudice and bitter ill feeling against the Americans. 

November 3, 1804, a treaty was concluded between William Henry Harrison, 
then governor of the Indian Territory, on behalf of the United States, and five 
chiefs of the Sac and Fox nation, by which the latter, in consideration of $2,234 
in goods then delivered, and a yearly annuity of $1,000 to be paid in goods at 
just cost, ceded to the United States all that land on the west side of the Missis- 
sippi extending from a point opposite the Jefferson, in Missouri, to the Wiscon- 
sin River, embracing an area of 51,000,000 acres. To this treaty Black Hawk 
always objected and always refused to consider it binding upon his people. 
He asserted that the chiefs and braves who made it had no authority to relin- 
quish the title of the nation to any of the lands they held or occupied and 
moreover, that they had been sent to St. Louis on quite a different errand, 
namely, to get one of their people released, who had been imprisoned at St. Louis 
for killing a white man. 

In 1805 Lieutenant Pike came up the river for the purpose of holding friendly 
council with the Indians and selecting sites for forts within the territory recently 
acquired from France by the United States. Lieutenant Pike seems to have 
been the first American whom Black Hawk had met or had a personal interview 
with and was very much impressed in his favor. Pike gave a very interesting 
account of his visit to the noted chief. 

Fort Edwards was erected soon after Pike's expedition at what is now 
Warsaw, Illinois, also Fort Madison, on the site of the present town of that name, 

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the latter being the> first fort erected in Iowa. These movements occasioned great 
uneasiness among the Indians. When work was commenced on Fort Edwards, 
a delegation from the nation, headed by their chiefs, went down to see what the 
Americans were doing and had an interview with the commander, after which 
they returned home and were apparently satisfied. In like manner, when Fort 
Madison was being erected, they sent down another delegation from a council 
of the nation held at Rock River. According to Black Hawk's account, the 
American chief told them he was building a house for a trader, who was coming 
to sell them goods cheap and that the soldiers were coming to keep him company 
— a statement which Black Hawk says they distrusted at the time, believing that 
the fort was an encroachment upon their rights and designed to aid in getting 
their lands away from them. It is claimed by good authority that the building 
of Fort Madison was a violation of the treaty of 1804. By the eleventh article 
of that treaty the United States had the right to build a fort near the mouth of 
the Wisconsin River, and by article six they bound themselves "that if any 
citizen of the United States or any other white person should form a settlement 
upon their lands such intruder should forthwith be removed." Probably the 
authorities of the United States did not regard the establishment of military 
posts as coming properly within the meaning of the term " settlement/ ' as used 
in the treaty. At all events, they erected Fort Madison within the territory 
reserved to the Indians, who became very indignant. Very soon after the fort 
was built a party led by Black Hawk attempted its destruction. They sent spies 
to watch the movements of the garrison, who ascertained that the soldiers were 
in the habit of marching out of the fort every morning and evening for parade 
and the plan of the party was to conceal themselves near the fort and attack 
and surprise them when they were outside. On the morning of the proposed 
day of the attack five soldiers came out and were fired upon by the Indians, two 
of them being killed. The Indians were too hasty in their movements, for the 
parade had not commenced. However, they kept up the siege several days, 
attempting the old Fox strategy of setting fire to the fort with blazing arrows 
but finding their efforts unavailing, they desisted and returned to their wigwams 
on Rock River. In 1812, when the war was declared between this country and 
Great Britain, Black Hawk and his band allied themselves with the British, 
partly because he was dazzled by their specious promises but more probably 
because they were deceived by the Americans. Black Hawk himself declared 
they were forced into the war by having been deceived. He narrates the circum- 
stances as follows: " Several of the head men and chiefs of the Sacs and Foxes 
were called upon to go to Washington to see their great father. On their return 
they related what had been said and done. They said the great father wished 
them, in the event of war taking place with England, not to interfere on either 
side but to remain neutral. He did not want our help but wished us to hunt 
and support our families and live in peace. He said that British traders would 
not be permitted to come on the Mississippi to furnish us with goods but that we 
should be supplied by an American trader. Our chiefe then told him that the 
British traders would have plenty of goods; that we should go there in the fall 
and he would supply us on credit, as the British traders had done." Black 
Hawk seems to have accepted the proposition and he and his people were very 
much pleased. Acting in good faith, they fitted out for their winter's hunt and 

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went to Fort Madison in high spirits to receive from the trader their outfit of 
supplies; but after waiting some time they were told by the trader that he would 
not trust them. In vain they pleaded the promise of their great father at 
Washington. The trader was inexorable. Disappointed and crestfallen, the 
Indians turned sadly to their own village. Says Black Hawk: "Few of us 
slept that night. All was gloom and discontent. In the morning a canoe was 
seen ascending the river ; it soon arrived bearing an express who brought intelli- 
gence that a British trader had landed at Rock Island with two boats filled with 
goods and requested us to come up immediately, because he had good news for 
us and a variety of presents. The express presented us with pipes, tobacco and 
wampum. The news ran through our camp like fire on the prairie. Our lodges 
were soon taken down and all started for Rock Island. Here ended all our hopes 
of remaining at peace, having been forced into the war by being deceived.' ' 
He joined the British, who flattered him and styled him "General Black Hawk," 
decked him with medals, excited his jealousy against the Americans and armed 
his band, but he met with defeat and disappointment and soon abandoned the 
service and returned home. 

There was a portion of the Sacs and Foxes whom Black Hawk, with all his 
skill and cunning, could not lead into hostilities against the United States. With 
Keokuk, "the Watchful Fox," at their head, they were disposed to abide by 
the treaty of 1804 and to cultivate friendly relations with the American people. 
So when Black Hawk and his band joined the fortunes of Great Britain, the rest 
of the nation remained neutral and for protection organized with Keokuk for 
their chief. Thus the nation was divided into the "war party" and "peace 
party." Keokuk became one of the nation's great chiefs. In person he was tall 
and of portly bearing. He has been described as an orator, entitled to rank with 
the most gifted of his race, and through the eloquence of his tongue he prevailed 
upon a large body of his people to remain friendly to the Americans. As has 
been said, the treaty of 1804 between the United States and the Sac and Fox 
nations was never acknowledged by Black Hawk and in 1831 he established 
himself with a chosen band of warriors upon the disputed territory, ordering 
the whites to leave the country at once. The settlers complaining, Governor 
Reynolds, of Illinois, dispatched General Gaines with a company of regulars 
and 1,500 volunteers to the scene of action. Taking the Indians by surprise, 
the troops burnt their village and forced them to conclude a treaty, by which 
they ceded all their lands east of the Mississippi and agreed to remain on the 
west side of the river. 

Necessity forced the proud spirit of Black Hawk into submission, which made 
him more than ever determined to be avenged upon his enemies. Having rallied 
around him the warlike braves of the Sac and Fox nations, he recrossed the 
Mississippi in the spring of 1832. Upon hearing of the invasion, Governor 
Reynolds hastily gathered a body of 1,800 volunteers, placing them under 
Brig.-Gen. Samuel Whiteside. The army marched to the Mississippi, and, 
having reduced to ashes the village known as "Prophet's Town," proceeded 
several miles up Rock River to Dixon to join the regular forces under General 
Atkinson. They formed at Dixon two companies of volunteers, who, sighing for 
glory, were dispatched to reconnoitre the enemy. They advanced under com- 
mand of General Stillman to a creek, afterward called "Stillman's Run," and 

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while encamping there saw a party of mounted Indians at a distance of a mile. 
Several of Stillman's men mounted their horses and charged the Indians, killing 
three of them, but attacked by the main body under Black Hawk, they were 
routed and by their precipitate flight spread such a panic through the camp that 
the whole company ran off to Dixon as fast as their legs could carry them. On 
their arrival it was found that eleven had been killed. For a long time after- 
ward Major Stillman and his men were subjects of ridicule and merriment, 
which was as undeserving as their expedition was disastrous. Stillman's defeat 
spread consternation throughout the state and nation. The number of Indians 
was greatly exaggerated and the name of Black Hawk carried with it associa- 
tions of great military talent, cunning and cruelty. He was very active and 
restless and was continually causing trouble. 

After Black Hawk and his warriors had committed several depredations and 
added more scalp locks to their belts, that restless chief and his savage partisans 
were located on Rock River, where he was in camp. On July 19th, General 
Henry, being in command, ordered his troops to march. After having gone fifty 
miles they were overtaken by a terrible thunderstorm which lasted all night. 
Nothing cooled in their ardor and zeal, they marched fifty miles the next day, 
encamping near the place where the Indians encamped the night before. Hurry- 
ing along as fast as they could, the infantry keeping up an equal pace with the 
mounted men, the troops on the morning of the 21st crossed the river connecting 
two of the four lakes, by which the Indians had been endeavoring to escape. 
They found on their way the ground strewn with kettles and articles of baggage, 
which in the haste of retreat the Indians were obliged to abandon. The troops, 
imbued with new ardor, advanced so rapidly that at noon they fell in with the 
rear guards of the enemy. Those who closely pursued them were saluted by a sud- 
den fire of musketry from a body of Indians who had concealed themselves in the 
high grass of the prairie. A most desperate charge was made on the four who, 
unable to resist, retreated obliquely in order to outflank the volunteers on the 
right but the latter charged the Indians in their ambush and expelled them from 
the thickets at the point of the bayonet and dispersed them. Night set in and 
the battle ended, having cost the Indians sixty-eight of their bravest men, while 
the loss of the Illinoisans was but one killed and eight wounded. Soon after 
this battle Generals Atkinson and Henry joined forces and pursued the Indians. 
General Henry struck the main trail, left his horses behind, formed an advance 
guard of eight men and marched forward upon the trail. When these eight 
men came in sight of the river they were suddenly fired upon and five of th6m 
killed, the remaining three maintaining their ground until General Henry came 
up. Then the Indians, charged upon with the bayonet, fell back upon their 
main force. The battle now became general. The Indians fought with desperate 
valor but were furiously assailed by the volunteers with their bayonets, cutting 
many of the Indians to pieces and driving the rest of them into the river. Those 
who escaped from being drowned found refuge on an island. On hearing the 
frequent discharge of musketry, General Atkinson abandoned the pursuit of 
the twenty Indians under Black Hawk himself and hurried to the scene of 
action, where he arrived too late to take part in the battle. He immediately 
forded the river with his troops, the water reaching up to their necks, and landed 
on the island where the Indians had secreted themselves. The soldiers rushed 

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upon the Indians, killed several of them, took others prisoners and chased the 
rest into the river, where they were either drowned or shot before reaching the 
opposite shore. Thus ended the battle, the Indians losing 300, besides fifty 
prisoners ; the whites but seventeen killed and twelve wounded. 

Black Hawk with his twenty braves retreated up the Wisconsin River. The 
Winnebagoes, desirous of securing the friendship of the whites, went in pursuit 
and captured and delivered them to General Street, the United States Indian 
agent. Among the prisoners were the son of Black Hawk and the prophet of 
the tribe. These with Black Hawk were taken to Washington, D. C, and soon 
consigned as prisoners to Fortress Monroe. At the interview Black Hawk had 
with the President he closed his speech delivered on the occasion in the following 
words: "We did not expect to conquer the whites. They have too many houses, 
too many men. I took up the hatchet, for my part, to revenge injuries which my 
people would no longer endure. Had I borne them longer without striking, 
my people would have said : 'Black Hawk is a woman ; he is too old to be a chief ; 
he is no Sac/ These reflections caused me to raise the war whoop. I say no 
more. It is known to you. Keokuk once was here ; you took him by the hand 
and when he wished to return to his home you were willing. Black Hawk 
expects, like Keokuk, he shall be permitted to return too." 

By order of the President, Black Hawk and his companions who were in 
confinement at Fortress Monroe were set free on the 4th day of June, 1833. 
After their release from prison they were conducted in charge of Major Gar- 
land through some of the principal cities that they might witness the power of 
the United States and learn their own ability to cope with them in war. Great 
multitudes flocked to see them wherever they were taken and the attention paid 
them rendered their progress through the country a triumphal procession 
instead of prisoners transported by an officer. At Rock Island the prisoners 
were given their liberty amid great and impressive ceremony. In 1838 Black 
Hawk built him a dwelling near Des Moines, this state, and furnished it after 
the manner of the whites and engaged in agricultural pursuits, together with 
hunting and fishing. Here, with his wife, to whom he was greatly attached, he 
passed the few remaining days of his life. To his credit it may be said that 
Black Hawk remained true to his wife and served her with devotion uncommon 
among Indians, living with her upwards of forty years. 

At all times when Black Hawk visited the whites he was received with marked 
attention. He was an honored guest of the Old Settlers ' reunion in Lee County, 
Illinois, and received marked tokens of esteem. In September, 1838, while on 
his way to Rock Island to receive his annuity from the Government, he contracted 
a severe cold, which resulted in an intense attack of bilious fever and terminated 
his life October 3d. After his death he was dressed in the uniform presented 
him,by the President while in Washington. He was buried in a grave six feet in 
depth, situated upon a beautiful eminence. The body was placed in the middle 
of the grave, in a sitting position upon a seat constructed for the occasion. On 
his left side the cane given him by Henry Clay was placed upright, with his 
right hand resting upon it. His remains were afterward stolen and carried away 
but they were recovered by the governor of Iowa and placed in the museum at 
Burlington, of the Historical Society, where they were finally destroyed by fire. 

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The territory known as the " Black Hawk Purchase/ ' although not the first 
portion of Iowa ceded to the United States by the Sacs and Foxes, was the first 
opened to actual settlement by the tide of emigration which flowed across the 
Mississippi as soon as the Indian title was extinguished. The treaty which pro- 
vided for this cession was made at a council held on the west bank of the Missis- 
sippi, where now stands the City of Davenport, on ground now occupied by the 
Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific Railroad Company, September 21, 1832. This 
was just after the Black Hawk war and the defeated savages had retired from 
east of the Mississippi. At the council the Government was represented by 
Gen. Winfield Scott and Governor Reynolds, of Illinois. Keokuk, Pash-a-popo 
and some thirty other chiefs and warriors were there. By this treaty the Sacs 
and Foxes ceded to the United States a strip of land on the eastern border of 
Iowa, fifty miles wide, from the northern boundary of Missouri to the mouth of 
the Upper Iowa River, containing about six million acres. The western line of 
the purchase was parallel with the Mississippi. In consideration for this cession 
the United States agreed to pay annually to the confederated tribes, for thirty 
consecutive years, $20,000 in specie, and to pay the debts of the Indians at 
Rock Island, which had been accumulating for seventeen years and amounted 
to $50,000, due to Davenport & Faraham, Indian traders. The Government also 
donated to the Sac and Fox women and children, whose husbands and fathers 
had fallen in the Black Hawk war, thirty-five beef cattle, twelve bushels of salt, 
thirty barrels of pork, fifty barrels of flour and 6,000 bushels of corn. 

The treaty was ratified February 13, 1833, and took effect on the 1st of June 
following, when the Indians quietly removed from the ceded territory and this 
fertile and beautiful region was opened by white settlers. 

By the terms of the treaty, out of the " Black Hawk Purchase' ' was reserved 
for the Sacs and Foxes 400 square miles of land, situated on the Iowa River and 
including within its limits Keokuk village, on the right bank of that river. 
This tract was known as Keokuk's Reserve and was occupied by the Indians 
until 1836, when by a treaty made in September between them and Governor 
Dodge, of Wisconsin Territory, it was ceded to the United States. The council 
was held on the banks of the Mississippi above Davenport and was the largest 
assemblage of the kind ever held by the Sacs and Foxes to treat for the sale of 
land. About one thousand of their chiefs and braves were present, Keokuk 
being the leading spirit of the occasion and their principal speaker. 


By the terms of this treaty the Sacs and Foxes were removed to another 
reservation on the Des Moines River, where an agency was established at what 
is now the Town of Agency, in Wapello County. The Government also gave 
out of the " Black Hawk Purchase/' to Antoine LeClaire, interpreter, in fee 
simple, one section of land opposite Rock Island and another at the head of the 
first rapids above the island, on the Iowa side. This was the first land title 
granted by the United States to an individual in Iowa. 

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Gen. Joseph M. Street established an agency among the Sacs and Foxes very 
soon after the removal of the latter to their new reservation. He was transferred 
from the agency of the Winnebagoes for this purpose. A farm was selected, 
upon which the necessary buildings were erected, including a comfortable farm 
house for the agent and his family, at the expense of the Indian fund. A 
salaried agent was employed to superintend the farm and dispose of the 
crops. Two mills were erected — one on Soap Creek and the other on Sugar 
Creek. The latter was soon swept away by a flood but the former did good 
service for many years. 

Connected with the agency were Joseph Smart and John Goodell, inter- 
preters. The latter was interpreter for Hard Fishes' band. Three of the Indian 
chiefs — Keokuk, Wapello and Appanoose — had each a large field improved, the 
two former on the right bank of the Des Moines and back from the river in 
what was "Keokuk's Prairie/ ' and the latter on the present site of Ottumwa. 
Among the traders connected with their agency was J. P. Eddy, who established 
his post at what is now the site of Eddyville. The Indians at this agency 
became idle and listless in the absence of their natural excitements and many 
of them plunged into dissipation. Keokuk himself became dissipated in the 
latter years of his life and it has been reported that he died of delirium tremens 
after his removal with his tribe to Kansas. In May, 1843, most of the Indians 
were removed up the Des Moines River, above the temporary line of Red Rock, 
having ceded the remnants of their land in Iowa to the United States, September 
21, 1837, and October 11, 1842. By the terms of the latter treaty, they held 
possession of the "New Purchase' ' until the autumn of 1845, when most of them 
were removed to their reservation in Kansas, the balance being removed in 

Before any permanent settlement was made in the Territory of Iowa, white 
adventurers, trappers and traders, many of whom were scattered' along the 
Mississippi and its tributaries, as agents and employes of the American Fur 
Company, intermarried with the females of the Sac and Fox Indians, producing 
a race of half-breeds, whose number was never definitely ascertained. There 
were some respectable and excellent people among them, children of some 
refinement and education. 


The first permanent settlement made by the whites within the limits of Iowa 
was by Julien Dubuque in 1788, when, with a small party of miners, he settled 
on the site of the city that now bears his name, where he lived until his death 
in 1810. What was known as the Girard Settlement in Clayton County was 
made by some parties prior to the commencement of the nineteenth century. 
It consisted of three cabins in 1805. Louis Honori settled on the site of the 
present Town of Montrose, probably in 1799, and resided there probably until 
1805, when his property passed into other hands. Indian traders had established 
themselves at other points at an* early date. Mr. Johnson, an agent of the 
American Fur Company, had a trading post below Burlington, where he carried 
on traffic with the Indians some time before the United States came into posses- 
sion of Louisiana. In 1820, Le Moliese, a French trader, had a station at what 

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is now Sandusky, six miles above Keokuk, in Lee County. The same year a 
cabin was built where the City of Keokuk now stands by Dr. Samuel C. Muir, 
a surgeon in the United States Army. His marriage and subsequent life were 
very romantic. While stationed at a military post on the Upper Mississippi, the 
post was visited by a beautiful Indian maiden — whose native name unfortunately 
has not been preserved — who in her dreams had seen a white brave unmoor his 
canoe, paddle it across the river and come directly to her lodge. She felt 
assured, according to the superstitious belief of her race, that in her dreams 
she had seen her future husband and had come to the fort to find him. Meeting 
Doctor Muir she instantly recognized him as the hero of her dream which, with 
childlike simplicity and innocence, she related to him. Charmed with the dusky 
maiden's beauty, innocence and devotion, the doctor took her to his home in 
honorable wedlock ; but after a while the sneers and jibes of his brother officers — 
less honorable than he — made him feel ashamed of his dark-skinned wife, and 
when his regiment was ordered down the river to Bellefontaine, it is said he 
embraced the opportunity to rid himself of her, never expecting to see her 
again and little dreaming that she would have the courage to follow him. But 
with her infant this intrepid wife and mother started alone in her canoe and 
after many days of weary labor and a lonely journey of 900 miles, she at 
last reached him. She afterward remarked, when speaking of this toilsome 
journey down the river in search of her husband: "When I got there I was 
all perished away — so thin." The doctor, touched by such unexampled devotion, 
took her to his heart and ever after until his death treated her with marked 
respect. She always presided at his table with grace and dignity but never 
abandoned her native style of dress. In 1819-20 he was stationed at Fort 
Edwards, now Warsaw, but the senseless ridicule of some of his brother officers 
on account of his Indian tfife induced him to resign his commission. He then 
built a cabin, as above stated, where Keokuk is now situated and made a claim 
to some land. This land he leased to parties in the neighborhood and then 
moved to what is now Galena, where he practiced his profession for ten years, 
when he returned to Keokuk. His Indian wife bore him four children : Louise, 
James, Mary and Sophia. Doctor Muir died suddenly, of cholera, in 1832, but 
left his property in such condition that it was wasted in vexatious litigation 
and his brave and faithful wife, left friendless and penniless, became discouraged, 
so with her two younger children she disappeared. It is said she returned to her 
people on the Upper Missouri. 


After the "Black Hawk Purchase' ' immigration to Iowa was rapid and 
steady and provisions for civil government became a necessity. Accordingly, 
in 1834, all the territory comprising the present states of Iowa, Wisconsin and 
Minnesota, was made subject to the jurisdiction of Michigan Territory. Up to 
this time there had been no county or other organization in what is now the 
State of Iowa, although one or two justices of the peace had been appointed and 
a postoffice was established at Dubuque in 1833. In September of 1834, there- 
fore, the Territorial Legislature of Michigan created two counties on the west 
side of the Mississippi River — Dubuque and Des Moines — separated by a line 

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drawn westward from the foot of Rock Island. These counties were partially 
organized. John King was appointed chief justice of Dubuque County and 
Isaac Deffler of Des Moines County was appointed by the governor. 

In October, 1835, Gen. George W. Jones, in recent years a citizen of Dubuque, 
was elected a delegate to Congress. April 20, 1836, through the efforts of 
General Jones, Congress passed a bill creating the Territory of Wisconsin, which 
went into operation July 4th of the same year. Iowa was then included in the 
Territory of Wisconsin, of which Gen. Henry Dodge was appointed governor; 
John S. Horner, secretary; Charles Dunn, chief justice; David Irwin and 
William C. Frazier, associate justices. September 9, 1836, a census of the new 
territory was taken. Des Moines County showed a population of 6,257, and 
Dubuque County, 4,274. 


The question of the organization of the Territory of Iowa now began to be 
acritated and the desires of the people found expression in a convention held 
November 1st, which memorialized Congress to organize a territory west of the 
Mississippi River and to settle the boundary line between Wisconsin Territory 
and Missouri. The Territorial Legislature of Wisconsin, then in session in Bur- 
lington, joined in the petition. The act was passed dividing the Territory of 
Wisconsin and providing for the territorial government of Iowa. This was ap- 
proved June 12, 1838, to take effect and be in force on and after July 3, 1838. 

The new territory embraced "all that part of the present Territory of Wis- 
consin west of the Mississippi River and west of the line drawn due north from 
the headwaters of sources of the Mississippi River to the territorial line." The 
organic act provided for a governor, whose term of office should be three years; 
a secretary, chief justice, two associate justices, an attorney general and mar- 
shal, to be appointed by the President. The act also provided for the election, 
by the white citizens over twenty-one years of age, of a House of Representa- 
tives, consisting of twenty-six members and a council to consist of thirteen 
members. It also appropriated $5,000 for a public library and $20,000 for 
the erection of public buildings. In accordance with this act, President Van 
Buren appointed ex-Governor Robert Lucas, of Ohio, to be the first governor 
of the territory; William B. Conway, of Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, secretary; 
Charles Mason, of Burlington, chief justice; Thomas S. Wilson, of Dubuque, 
and Joseph Williams, of Pennsylvania, associate justices; Mr. Van Allen, of 
New York, attorney ; Francis Gehon, of Dubuque, marshal ; Augustus C. Dodge, 
register of the land office at Burlington ; and Thomas C. Knight, receiver of the 
land office at Dubuque. 

On the 10th of September, 1838, an election was held for members of the 
Legislature and on the 12th of the following November the first session of that 
body was held at Burlington. Both branches of this General Assembly had a 
large democratic majority but notwithstanding that fact, Gen. Jesse B. Brown, 
a whig, of Lee County, Des Moines and Dubuque counties having been previously 
divided into other counties, was elected president of the Council and Hon. Wil- 
liam H. Wallace, of Henry County, also a whig, speaker of the House. The 
first session of the Iowa Territorial Legislature was a stormy and exciting one. 

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By the organic law the governor was clothed with almost unlimited veto power. 
Governor Lucas was disposed to make free use of this prerogative and the inde- 
pendent Hawkeyes could not quietly submit to arbitrary and absolute rule. 
The result was an unpleasant controversy between the executive and legisla" 
tive departments. Congress, however, by act approved March 3, 1839, amended 
the organic law by restricting the veto. power of the governor to the two-thirds 
rule and took from him the power to appoint sheriffs and magistrates. Among 
the first important matters demanding attention was the location of the seat of 
government and provision for the erection of public buildings, for which Con- 
gress had appropriated $20,000. Governor Lucas in his message had recom- 
mended the appointment of commissioners with a view to selecting a central 
location. The extent of the future State of Iowa was not known or thought of. 
Only a strip of land fifty miles wide, bordering on the Mississippi River, was 
alienated by the Indians to the general government and a central location meant 
some central point within the confines of what was known as the "Black Hawk 
Purchase.' ' 

The friends of a central location favored the governor's suggestion. The 
southern members were divided between Burlington and Mount Pleasant but 
finally united on the latter as the proper location for the seat of government. 
The central and southern parties were very nearly equal and in consequence 
much excitement prevailed. The central party at last was triumphant and on 
January 21, 1839, an act was passed appointing commissioners to select a site 
for a permanent seat of government within the limits of Johnson County. All 
things considered, the location of the capital in Johnson County was a wise 
act. Johnson County was from north to south in the geographical center of 
the purchase and as near the east and west geographical center of the future 
State of Iowa as could then be made. The site having been determined, 
640 acres were laid out by the commissioners into a town and called 
Iowa City. On a tract of ten acres the capitol was built, the corner-stone 
of which was laid, with appropriate ceremonies, July 4, 1840. Monday, Decem- 
ber 6, 1841, the fourth Legislature of Iowa met at the new capital, Iowa City, 
but the capitol building not being ready for occupancy, a temporary frame 
house erected for the purpose was used. 

In 1841 John Chambers succeeded Robert Lucas as governor and in 1845 
he gave place to James Clarke. The Territorial Legislature held its eighth and 
last session at Iowa City in 1845. James Clarke was the same year appointed 
the successor of Governor Chambers and was the third and last territorial 


The Territory of Iowa was growing rapidly in its population and soon began 
to look for greater things. Her ambition was to take on the dignity and impor- 
tance of statehood. To the furtherance of this laudable ambition the Terri- 
torial Legislature passed an act, which was approved February 12, 1844, pro- 
viding for the submission to the people of the question of the formation of a 
state constitution and providing for the election of delegates to a convention to 
be convened for that purpose. The people voted on this at their township 

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elections the following April. The measure was carried by a large majority and 
the members elected assembled in convention at Iowa City, October 7, 1844. On 
the 1st day of November following^ the convention completed its work and 
adopted the first state constitution. By reason of the boundary lines of the 
proposed state being unsatisfactorily prescribed by Congress, the constitution 
was rejected at an election held August 4, 1845, by a vote of 7,656 to 7,235. 
May 4, 1846, a second convention met at Iowa City and on the 18th of the same 
month another constitution, prescribing the boundaries as they now are, was 
adopted. This was accepted by the people August 3d, by a vote of 9,492 to 
9,036. The new constitution was approved by Congress and Iowa was admitted 
as a sovereign state in the Union, December 28, 1846, and the people of the 
territory, anticipating favorable action by Congress, held an election for state 
officers, October 26, 1846, which resulted in the choice of Ansel Briggs for 
governor; Elisha Cutler, Jr., secretary; James T. Fales, auditor; Morgan Reno, 
treasurer; and members of both branches of the Legislature. 

The act of Congress which admitted Iowa into the Union as a state gave 
her the sixteenth section of every township of land in the state, or its equiva- 
lent, for the support of schools; also seventy-two sections of land for the pur- 
poses of a university; five sections of land for the completion of her public 
buildings; the salt springs within her limits, not exceeding twelve in number, 
with sections of land adjoining each ; also in consideration that her public lands 
should be exempt from taxation by the state. The state was given 5 per cent 
of the net proceeds of the sale of public lands within the state. 

The constitutional convention of 1846 was made up largely of democrats 
and the instrument contains some of the peculiar tenets of the party that day. 
All banks of issue were prohibited within the state. The state was prohibited 
from becoming a stockholder in any corporation for pecuniary profit and the 
General Assembly could only provide for private corporations by general stat- 
utes. The constitution also limited the state's indebtedness to $100,000. It 
required the General Assembly to provide for schools throughout the state for 
at least three months during the year. Six months' previous residence of any 
white male citizen of the United States constituted him an elector. 

At the time of the organization of the state, Iowa had a population of 116,- 
651, as appears by the census of 1847. There were twenty-seven organized 
counties and the settlements were being rapidly pushed toward the Missouri 

The western boundary of the state, as now determined, left Iowa City too 
far toward the eastern and southern boundary of the state. This was con- 
ceded. Congress had appropriated five sections of land for the erection of 
public buildings and toward the close of the first session of the General Assem- 
bly a bill was introduced providing for tjie relocation of the seat of govern- 
ment, involving to some extent, the location of the state university, which had 
already been discussed. This bill gave rise to much discussion and parliamen- 
tary maneuvering almost purely sectional in its character. February 25, 1847, 
an act was passed to locate and establish a state university and the unfinished 
public buildings at Iowa City, together with the ten acres of land on which they 
were situated, were granted for the use of the university, reserving their use, 

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however, for the General Assembly and state officers until other provisions were 
made by law. 

Four sections and two half sections of land were selected in Jasper County 
by the commissioners of the new capital. Here a town was platted and called 
Monroe City. The commissioners placed town lots on sale in the new location 
but reported to the Assembly small sales at a cost exceeding the receipts. The 
Town of Monroe was condemned and failed of becoming the capital. An act was 
passed repealing the law for the location at Monroe and those who had bought 
lots there were refunded their money. 

By reason of jealousies and bickerings the first General Assembly failed 
to elect United States senators, but the second did better, and sent to the 
upper house of Congress Augustus Caesar Dodge and George Jones. The 
first representatives were S. Clinton Hastings, of Muscatine, and Sheppard Leff- 
ler, of Des Moines County. 

The question of the permanent seat of government was not settled and in 
1851 bills were introduced for its removal to Fort Des Moines. The latter 
locality seemed to have the support of the majority but was finally lost in the 
House on the question of ordering it to a third reading. At the next session, 
in 1853, a bill was again introduced in the Senate for the removal of the capital 
and the effort was more successful. On January 15, 1855, a bill relocating the 
capital of the State of Iowa within two miles of the Raccoon fork of the Des 
Moines River, and for the appointment of commissioners, was approved by 
Governor Grimes. The site was Selected in 1856, in accordance with the pro- 
visions of this act, the land being donated to the state by citizens and property 
holders of Des Moines. An association of citizens erected a temporary building 
for the capital and leased it to the state at a nominal rent. 


The passage by Congress of the act organizing the territories of Kansas and 
Nebraska, and the provision it contained abrogating that portion of the Mis- 
souri bill that prohibited slavery and involuntary servitude north of 36° 30', 
was the beginning of a political revolution in the Northern States, and in none 
was it more marked than in the State of Iowa. Iowa was the " first free child 
born of the Missouri Compromise." In 1856 the republican part of the state 
was duly organized, in full sympathy with that of the other free states, and 
at the ensuing presidential election, the electoral vote of the state was cast 
for John C. Fremont. 

Another constitutional convention assembled in Iowa City in January, 1857. 
One of the most pressing demands for this convention grew out of the pro- 
hibition of banks under the old constitution. The practical result of this pro- 
hibition was to flood the state with every species of " wildcat' ' currency. The 
circulating medium was made up in part of the free-bank paper of Illinois 
and Indiana. In addition to this there was paper issued by Iowa brokers, who 
had obtained bank charters from the Territorial Legislature of Nebraska, and 
had had their pretended headquarters at Omaha and Florence. The currency 
was also variegated with the bills of other states, generally such as had the best 
reputation where they were least known. This paper was all at 2, and some 

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of it from 10 to 15 per cent discount. Every man who was not an expert at 
detecting counterfeit bills and who was not posted in the methods of bank- 
ing institutions, did business at his peril. The new constitution adopted at 
this convention made ample provision for home banks under the supervision 
of laws of the state, and other changes in the old constitution were made that 
more nearly met the views of the people. 

The permanent seat of government was fixed at Des Moines, and the uni- 
versity at Iowa City. The qualifications of electors remained the same as 
under the old constitution, but the schedule provided for a vote of the people 
upon a separate proposition to strike out the word " white' ' from the suffrage 
clause. Since the early organization of Iowa there had been upon the statute 
books a law providing that no negro, mulatto or Indian should be a compe- 
tent witness in any suit at law or proceeding, to which a white man was a 
party. The General Assembly of 1856-57 repealed this law and the new con- 
stitution contained a clause forbidding such disqualification in the future. 
It also provided for the education of "all youth of the state" through a system 
of common schools. 


October 19, 1857, Governor Grimes issued a proclamation declaring the 
City of Des Moines to be the capital of the State of Iowa. The removal of the 
archives and offices was commenced at once and continued through the fall. 
It was an undertaking of no small magnitude. There was not a mile of rail- 
road to facilitate the work and the season was unusually disagreeable. Rain, 
snow and other accompaniments increased the difficulties and it was not until 
December that the last of the effects — the safe of the state treasurer, loaded on 
two large " bob-sleds' ' drawn by ten yoke of oxen — was deposited in the new 
capitol. Thus Iowa City' ceased to be the capital of the state after four Terri- 
torial Legislatures, six State Legislatures, and three constitutional conventions 
had held their regular sessions there. 

In 1870 the General Assembly made an appropriation and provided for a 
board of commissioners to commence the work of building a new capitol. The 
corner-stone was laid with appropriate ceremonies, November 23, 1871. The 
estimated cost of the building was two and a half million dollars, and the struc- 
ture was finished and occupied in 1874, the dedicatory exercises being held in 
January, of that year. Hon. John A. Kasson delivered the principal address. 
The state capitol is classic in style, with a superstructure of buff limestone. 
It is 363 feet in length, 247 feet in width, with a central dome rising to the 
height of 275 feet. At the time of completion it was only surpassed by the 
capitol building of the State of New York, at Albany. 


In former years considerable objection was made to the prevalence of high 
winds in Iowa, which is somewhat greater than in the states south and east. 
But climatic changes have lessened that grievance. The air, in fact, is pure and 
generally bracing, particularly so during the winter. Thunderstorms are also 

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more violent in this state than in those of the East and South, but not near 
so much as toward the mountains. As elsewhere in the Northwestern States, 
westerly winds bring rain and snow, while easterly ones clear the sky. While 
the highest temperature occurs in August, the month of July averages the 
hottest and January the coldest. The mean temperature of April and Octo- 
ber nearly corresponds to the mean temperature of the year, as well as to the 
seasons of spring and fall, while that of summer and winter is best represented 
by August and December. " Indian summer" is delightful and well prolonged. 


The state lies wholly within and comprises a part of a vast plain. There 
are no mountains and scarcely any hilly country within its borders, for the 
highest point is but 1,200 feet below the lowest point. These two points are 
nearly three hundred miles apart and the whole state is traversed by gently 
flowing rivers. We thus find there is a good degree of propriety in regarding 
the whole state as belonging to a great plain, the lowest point of which within 
its borders, the southeastern corner of the state, is only 444 feet above the 
level of the sea. The average height of the whole state above the level of the 
sea is not far from eight hundred feet, although it is over a thousand miles 
from the nearest ocean. These remarks, of course, are to be understood as 
only applying to the state at large, or as a whole. On examining its surface 
in detail we find a great diversity of surface for the formation of valleys out 
of the general level, which have been evolved by the actions of streams during 
the unnumbered years of terrace epoch. These river valleys are deepest in 
the northwestern part of the state and consequently it is there that the country 
has the greatest diversity of surface and its physical features are most strongly 

It is said that 95 per cent of the surface of ^Iowa is capable of a high state 
of cultivation. The soil is justly famous for its fertility and there is probably 
no equal area of the earth's surface that contains so little untillable land or 
whose soil has so high an average of fertility. 


The largest of Iowa's lakes are Spirit and Okoboji, in Dickinson County, 
Clear Lake, in Cerro Gordo County, and Storm Lake, in Buena Vista County. 
Its rivers consist of the Mississippi and Missouri, the Chariton, Grand, Platte, 
One Hundred and Two, Nodaway, Nishnabotna, Boyer, Soldier, Little Sioux, 
Floyd, Rock, Big Sioux, Des Moines, Skunk, Iowa, Cedar, Wapsipinicon, Tur- 
key and Upper Iowa. 


Iowa was born a free state. Her people abhorred the "peculiar institu- 
tion" of slavery and by her record in the war between the states proved her- 
self truly loyal to her institutions and the maintenance of the Union. By 
joint resolution in the General Assembly of the state in 1857, it was declared 

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that the State of Iowa was " bound to maintain the union of these states by- 
all the means in her power.' ' The same year the state furnished a block of 
marble for the Washington Monument at the national capital and by order 
of the Legislature there was inscribed on its enduring surface the following: 
"Iowa — Her affections, like the river of her borders, flow to an inseparable 
Union." The time was now come when these declarations of fidelity and attach- 
ment to the nation were to be put to a practical test. There was no state in 
the Union more vitally interested in the question of national unity than Iowa. 
The older states, both North and South, had representatives in her citizenship. 
Iowans were practically immigrants bound to those older communities by the 
most sacred ties of blood and most 'enduring recollections of early days. The 
position of Iowa as a state — geographically — made the dismemberment of the 
Union a matter of serious concern. Within her borders were two of the great 
navigable rivers of the country, and the Mississippi had for years been its 
highway to the markets of the world. The people could not entertain the 
thought that its navigation should pass to the control of a foreign nation. But 
more than this was to be feared — the consequence of introducing and recogniz- 
ing in our national system the principle of secession and of disintegration of 
the states from the Union. "That the nation possessed no constitutional power 
to coerce a seceding state," as uttered by James Buchanan in his last annual 
message, was received by the people of Iowa with humiliation and distrust. 
And in the presidential campaign of 1860, when Abraham Lincoln combatted 
with all the force of his matchless logic and rhetoric this monstrous political 
heresy, the issue was clearly drawn between the North and the South, and it 
became manifest to many that in the event of the election of Lincoln to the . 
presidency war would follow between the states. The people of Iowa nursed 
no hatred toward any section of the country but were determined to hold such 
opinions upon questions of public interest and vote for such men as to them 
seemed for the general good, uninfluenced by any threat of violence or civil 
war. So it was that they anxiously awaited the expiring hours of the Buchanan 
administration and looked to the incoming President as to an expected deliverer 
that should rescue the nation from the hands of the traitors and the control 
of those whose resistance invited her destruction. The firing upon the flag of 
Fort Sumter aroused the burning indignation throughout the loyal states of 
the republic, and nowhere was it more intense than in Iowa. And when the 
proclamation of the President was published April 15, 1861, calling for 75,000 
volunteer soldiers to "maintain the honor, the integrity and the existence of our 
national Union, and the perpetuity of popular government," they were more 
than willing to respond to the call. Party line gave way and for a while, at 
least, party spirit was hushed and the cause of our common country was supreme 
in the affections of the people. Fortunate indeed was the state at this crisis 
in having a truly representative man as executive of the state. Thoroughly 
honest and as equally earnest, wholly imbued with the enthusiasm of the hour 
and fully aroused to the importance of the crisis and the magnitude of the 
struggle upon which the people were entering, with an indomitable will under 
the control of a strong common sense, Samuel J. Kirkwood was indeed a worthy 
chief to organize and direct the energies of the people in what was before them. 
Within thirty days after the date of the President's call for troops, the first 

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Iowa regiment was mustered into the service of the United States, a second 
regiment was in camp ready for service, and the General Assembly of the 
state was convened in special session and had by joint resolutions solemnly 
pledged every resource of men and money to the national cause. So urgent 
were the offers of companies that the governor conditionally accepted enough 
additional companies to compose two regiments more. These were soon accepted 
by the secretary of war. Near the close of May, the adjutant general of the 
state reported that 170 companies had been tendered the governor to serve 
against the enemies of the Union. The question was eagerly asked: " Which 
of us will be allowed to go?" It seemed as if Iowa was monopolizing the, 
honors of the period and would send the largest part of the 75,000 wanted from 
the whole North. There was much difficulty and considerable delay experienced 
in fitting the first three regiments for the field. For the first regiment a com- 
plete outfit of clothing was extemporized, partly by the volunteer labor of 
loyal women in the different towns, from material of various colors and quali- 
ties, obtained within the limits of the state. The same was done in part for 
the second infantry. Meantime, an extra session of the General Assembly had 
been called by the governor to convene on the 15th of May. With but little 
delay that body authorized a loan of $800,000 to meet the extraordinary 
expenses incurred, and to be incurred, by the executive department in conse- 
quence of the emergency. A wealthy merchant of the state, ex-Governor Mer- 
rill, immediately took from the governor a contract to supply a complete outfit 
of clothing for three regiments organized, agreeing to receive, should the gov- 
ernor so elect, his pay therefor in the state bonds at par. This contract he 
executed to the letter, and a portion of the clothing was delivered at Keokuk, 
the place at which the troops had rendezvoused, in exactly one month from 
the day in which the contract had been entered into. The remainder arrived 
only a few days later. This clothing was delivered to the soldiers but was 
subsequently condemned by the Government for the reason that its color was 
gray, and blue had been adopted as the color to be worn by the national troops. 
Other states had also clothed their troops, sent forward under the first call of 
President Lincoln, with gray uniforms, but it was soon found that the Con- 
federate forces were also clothed in gray and that color was at once abandoned 
for the Union soldier. 

At the beginning of the war the population of Iowa included about one 
hundred and fifty thousand men, presumably liable to render military service. 
The state raised for general service thirty-nine regiments of infantry, nine regi- 
ments of cavalry and four companies of artillery, composed of three years' 
men, one regiment composed of three months' men, and four regiments and 
one battalion of infantry composed of one hundred days' men. The original 
enlistments in these various organizations, including 1,727 men raised by draft, 
numbered about sixty-nine thousand. The reenlistments, including upwards 
of seven thousand veterans, numbered nearly eight thousand. The enlistments 
• in the regular army and navy organizations of other states will, if added, raise 
the total to upwards of eighty thousand. The number of men who under special 
enlistments and as militia took part at different times in the operations on the 
exposed borders, was probably five thousand. 

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Every loyal state of the Union had many women who devoted much time 
and great labor toward relieving the wants of our sick and wounded soldiery 
but for Iowa can be claimed the honor of inaugurating the great charitable 
movement, which was so successfully supported by the noble women of the North. 
Mrs. Harlan, wife of Hon. James Harlan, United States senator, was the first 
woman of the country among those moving in high circles of society who per- 
sonally visited the army and ministered to the wants of the defenders of her 
country. In many of her visits to the army, Mrs. Harlan was accompanied by 
Mrs. Joseph T. Fales, wife of the first state auditor of Iowa. No words can 
describe the good done, the lives saved and the deaths made easy by the host 
of noble women of Iowa, whose names it would take a volume to print. Every 
county, every town, every neighborhood had these true heroines, whose praise 
can never be known till the final rendering of all accounts of deeds done in the 
body. The contributions throughout the state to " sanitary fairs" during the 
war, were enormous, amounting to hundreds of thousands of dollars. Highly 
successful fairs were held in the principal cities and towns of the state, which 
all added to the work and praise of the "Florence Nightingales" of Iowa, whose 
heroic sacrifices have won for them the undying gratitude of the nation. It is 
said, to the honor and credit of Iowa, that while many of the loyal states, older 
and larger in population and wealth, incurred heavy state debts for the pur- 
pose of fulfilling their obligations to the general government, Iowa, while she 
was foremost in duty, while she promptly discharged all her obligations to her 
sister states and the Union, found herself at the close of the war without any 
material additions to her pecuniary liabilities incurred before the war com- 
menced. Upon final settlement after restoration of peace, her claims upon the 
Federal Government were found to be fully equal to the amount of her bonds 
issued and sold during the war, to provide the means for raising and equipping 
her troops sent into the field and to meet the inevitable demands upon her 
treasury in consequence of the war. It was in view of these facts that Iowa had 
done more than her duty during the war, and that without incurring any con- 
siderable indebtedness, and that her troops had fought most gallantly on nearly 
every battlefield of the war, that the Newark (New Jersey) Advertiser and 
other prominent eastern journals, called Iowa the "Model State of the Republic." 


School teachers here were among the first immigrants to Iowa. This gives 
point to the fact that the people of Iowa have ever taken a deep interest in 
education and in this direction no state in the Union has a better record. The 
system of free public schools was planted by the early settlers and it has ex- 
panded and improved until now it is one of the most complete, comprehensive 
and liberal in the country. The lead mining regions of the state were the first 
to be settled by the whites and the hardy pioneers provided the means for 
the education of their children even before they had comfortable dwellings for 
themselves. Wherever a little settlement was made, the schoolhouse was the 
first thing undertaken by the settlers in a body, and the rude, primitive struc- 
tures of the early times only disappeared when the communities increased in 
population and wealth and were able to replace them with more commodious 

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and comfortable buildings. Perhaps in no single instance has the magnificent 
progress of the State of Iowa been more marked and rapid than in her common- 
school system and in her schoolhouses. Today the schoolhouses which every- 
where dot the broad and fertile prairies of Iowa are unsurpassed by those of 
any other state in this great Union. More especially is this true in all her cities 
and villages, where liberal and lavish appropriations have been voted by a 
generous people for the erection of large, commodious and elegant buildings, 
furnished with all the modern improvements, and costing from $10,000 to $60,- 
000 each. The people of the state have expended more than twenty-five million 
dollars for the erection of public school buildings, which stand as monuments of 


Dubuque saw within its limits the first school building erected in the State 
of Iowa, which was built by J. J. Langworthy and a few other miners in the 
fall of 1833. When it was completed, George Cabbage was employed as teacher 
during the winter of 1833-34 and thirty-five pupils answered to his roll call. 
Barrett Whittemore taught the school term and had twenty-five pupils in 
attendance. Mrs. Caroline Dexter commenced teaching in Dubuque in March, 
1836. She was the first female teacher there and probably the first in Iowa. 
In 1839 Thomas H. Benton, Jr., afterwards for ten years superintendent of 
public instruction, opened an English and classical school in Dubuque. The 
first tax for the support of schools at Dubuque was levied in 1840. A com- 
modious log schoolhouse was built at Burlington in 1834 and was one of the 
first buildings erected in that settlement. A Mr. Johnson taught the first 
school in the winter of 1834-35. In Scott County, in the winter of 1835-36, 
Simon Crazen taught a four months' term of school in the house of J. B. 
Chamberlin. In Muscatine County, the first term of school was taught by 
(Jeorge Baumgardner in the spring of 1837. In 1839 a log schoolhouse was 
erected in Muscatine, which served for a long time as schoolhouse, meeting 
house and public hall. The first school in Davenport was taught in 1838. In 
Fairfield, Miss Clarissa Sawyer, James F. Chambers and Mrs. Reed taught school 
in 1839. 

Johnson County was an entire wilderness when Iowa City was located as 
the capital of the Territory of Iowa in May, 1839. The first sale of lots took 
place August 18, 1839, and before January 1, 1840, about twenty families had 
settled in the town. During the same year Jesse Berry opened a school in a 
small frame building he had erected on what is now known as College Street. 

In Monroe County the first settlement was made in 1843 by John R. Gray, 
about two miles from the present site of Eddyville, and in the summer of 1844 
a log schoolhouse was built by Gray and others, and the first school was opened 
by Miss Uriana Adams. About a year after the first cabin was built in Oska- 
loosa, a log schoolhouse was built, in which school was opened by Samuel W. 
Caldwell, in 1844. 

At Fort Des Moines, now the capital of the state, the first school was taught 
by Lewis Whitten, clerk of the District Court, in the winter of 1846-47, in one 
of the rooms on "Coon Row," built for barracks. 

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The first school in Pottawattamie County was opened by George Green, 
a Mormon, at Council Point, prior to 1849, and until about 1854 nearly all the 
teachers in that vicinity were Mormons. 

The first school in Decorah was taught in 1855 by Cyrus C. Carpenter, since 
governor of the state. During the first twenty years of the history of Iowa 
the log schoolhouse prevailed, and in 1861 there were 893 of these primitive 
structures in use for school purposes in the state. Since that time they have 
been gradually disappearing. In 1865 there were 796; in 1870, 336; in 1875, 
121 ; and today there is probably not a vestige of one Remaining. 

In 1846, the year of Iowa's admission as a state, there were 20,000 pupils in 
schools, out of 100,000 inhabitants. About four hundred school districts had 
been organized. In 1850 there were 1,200 and in 1857 the number had increased 
to 3,265. The system of graded schools was inaugurated in 1849 and now schools 
in which more than one teacher is employed, are universally graded. Teach- 
ers' institutes were organized early in the history of the state. The first official 
mention of them occurs in the annual report of Hon. Thomas H. Benton, Jr., 
made December 2, 1850, who said: "An institution of this character was organ- 
ked a few years ago, composed of the teachers of the mineral regions of Illinois, 
Wisconsin and Iowa. An association of teachers has also been formed in the 
County of Henry and an effort was made October last to organize a regular 
institute in the County of Jones." 

Funds for the support of public schools are derived in various ways. The 
sixteenth section of every congressional township was set apart by the general 
government for school purposes, being one-thirty-sixth part of all the lands in 
the state. The minimum price of all these lands was fixed at $1.25 per acre. 
Congress also made an additional donation to the state of 500,000 acres and 
an appropriation of 5 per cent on all the sales of public lands to the school 
fund. The state gives to this fund the proceeds of the sales of all lands which 
escheat to it, the proceeds of all fines, for the violation of liquor and criminal 
laws. The money derived from these sources constitutes the permanent school 
fund of the state, which cannot be diverted to any other purpose. The penal- 
ties collected by the courts in fines and for forfeitures go to the school fund in 
the counties according to their request, and the counties loan the money to indi- 
viduals for long terms at 8 per cent interest, on security of lands valued at 
three times the value of the loan, exclusive of all buildings and improvements 
thereon. The interest on these loans is paid into the state treasury and becomes 
the available school fund of the state. The counties are responsible to the state 
for all money so loaned and the state is likewise responsible to the school fund 
for all money transferred to the counties. The interest on these loans is appor- 
tioned by the state auditor semi-annually to the several counties of the state, 
in proportion to the number of persons between the ages of five and twenty-one 
years. The counties also levy a tax for school purposes, which is apportioned 
to the several district townships in the same way. A district tax is also levied 
for the same purpose. The money arising from these several sources constitutes 
the support of the public schools and is sufficient to enable every sub-district 
in the state to afford from six to nine months' school each year. The burden 
of district taxation is thus lightened and the efficiency of schools is increased. 
The taxes levied for the support of the schools are self-imposed. Under the 

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admirable school laws of the state no taxes can be legally assessed or collected 
for the erection of schoolhouses until they have been ordered by the election of 
a school district at a school meeting legally called. The teachers' and con- 
tingent funds are determined by the board of directors under certain legal 
instructions. These boards are elected annually. <The only exception to this 
method of levying taxes for school purposes is the county tax, which is deter- 
mined by the county board of supervisors. In each county a teachers' institute 
is held annually under the direction of the county superintendent, the state 
distributing annually a sum of money to each of these institutes. 


By act of Congress, approved July 20, 1840, the secretary of the treasury 
was authorized to "set apart and reserve from sale, out of any public lands 
within the Territory of Iowa not otherwise claimed or appropriated, a quantity 
of land not exceeding two entire townships, for the use and support of a uni- 
versity within said territory when it becomes a state.' ' The first General Assem- 
bly, therefore, by act approved February 25, 1847, established the "State Uni- 
versity of Iowa" at Iowa City, then the capital of the state. The public 
buildings and other property at Iowa City were appropriated to the univer- 
sity but the legislative sessions and state offices were to be held in them until 
a permanent location for a capital was made. The control and management 
of the university were committed to a board of fifteen trustees and five were to 
be chosen every two years. The superintendent of public instruction was made 
president of this board. The organic act provided that the university should 
never be under the control of any religious organization whatever, and that 
as soon as the revenue from the grant and donations should amount to $2,000 
a year, the university should commence and continue the instruction free of 
charge, of fifty students annually. Of course the organization of the univer- 
sity was impracticable so long as the seat of government was retained at Iowa 

In January, 1849, two branches of the university and three normal schools 
were established. The branches were located at Fairfield and Dubuque and 
were placed upon an equal footing, in respect to funds and all other matters, 
with the university at Iowa City. At Fairfield the board of directors organized 
and erected a building at a cost of $2,500. This was nearly destroyed by a 
hurricane the following year but was rebuilt more substantially by the citizens 
of Fairfield. This branch never received any aid from the state and, January 
24, 1853, at the request of the board, the General Assembly terminated its 
relations to the state. The branch at Dubuque had only a nominal existence. 
The normal schools were located at Andrew, Oskaloosa and Mount Pleasant. 
Each was to be governed by a board of seven trustees to be appointed by the 
trustees of the university. Each was to receive $500 annually from the income 
of the university fund, upon condition that they should educate eight common 
school teachers, free of charge for tuition, and that the citizen should contribute 
an equal sum for the erection of requisite buildings. The school at Andrew 
was organized November 21, 1849, with Samuel Ray as principal. A building 
was commenced and over one thousand dollars expended on it but it was never 

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completed. The school at Oskaloosa was started in the courthouse, September 
13, 1852, under charge of Prof. G. M. Drake and wife. A two-story brick 
building was erected in 1853, costing $2,473. The school at Mount Pleasant was 
never organized. Neither of these schools received any aid from the university 
fund, but in 1857 the Legislature appropriated $1,000 for each of the two 
schools and repealed the laws authorizing the payment to them of money from 
the university fund. From that time they made no further effort to continue 
in operation. 

From 1847 to 1855 the board of trustees of the university was kept full 
by regular elections by the Legislature and the trustees held frequent meet- 
ings, but there was no actual organization of the university. In March, 1855, 
it was partially opened for a term of sixteen weeks. July 16, 1855, Amos Dean, 
of Albany, New York, was elected president but he never fully entered into 
his duties. The university was again opened in September, 1855, and continued 
in operation until June, 1856, under Professors Johnson, Van Valkenburg and 
Griffin. The faculty was then reorganized with some change and the university 
was again opened on the third Wednesday of September, 1856. There were 
124 students (eighty- three males and forty-one females) in attendance during 
the year 1856-57, and the first regular catalogue was published. At a special 
meeting of the board, September 22, 1857, the honorary degree of Bachelor 
of Arts was conferred on D. Franklin Wells. This was the first degree con- 
ferred by the university. 

By the constitution of 1857 it was provided that there be no branches of 
the state university. In December of that year the old capitol building was 
turned over to the trustees of the university. In 1858, $10,000 was appro- 
priated for the erection of a students' boarding hall. The board closed the 
university April 27, 1858, on account of insufficient funds and dismissed all 
the faculty with the exception of Chancellor Dean. At the same time a resolu- 
tion was passed excluding females. This was soon after reversed by the Gen- 
eral Assembly. The university was reopened September 19, 1860, and from 
this time the real existence of the university dates. Chancellor Dean had 
resigned before this and Silas Totten, D. D., LL. D., was elected president, at 
a salary of $2,000. August 19, 1862, he resigned and was succeeded by Oliver 
M. Spencer. President Spencer was granted leave of absence for fifteen months 
to visit Europe. Prof. Nathan R. Leonard was elected president pro tern. 
President Spencer resigning, James Black, D. D., vice president of Washing- 
ton and Jefferson College, of Pennsylvania, was elected president. He entered 
upon his duties in September, 1868. 

The law department was established in June, 1868, and soon after the Iowa 
Law School at Des Moines, which had been in successful operation for three 
years, was transferred to Iowa City and merged in the department. The 
medical department was established in 1869, and since April 11, 1870, the 
government of the university has been in the hands of a board of regents. The 
university has gained a reputation as one of the leading educational institu- 
tions of the West and this position it is determined to maintain. 

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Cedar Falls, the chief city of Black Hawk County, holds the State Normal 
School, which is an institution for the training of teachers and is doing most 
excellent work. 


By act of the Legislature, approved March 23, 1858, the State Agricultural 
College and Farm was established at Ames, in Story County. In 1862 Congress 
granted to Iowa 240,000 acres of land for the endowment of schools of agri- 
culture and the mechanical arts. In 1864 the General Assembly voted $20,000 
for the erection of the college buildings. In 1866, $91,000 more was appro- 
priated for the same purpose. The building was completed in 1868 and the 
institution was opened the following year. The institution is modeled to some 
extent after the Michigan Agricultural College. In this school of learning 
admission is free to all students of the state over sixteen years of age. Stu- 
dents are required to work on the farm 2y 2 hours each day. The faculty is 
of a very high character and the college one of the best of its kind. The sale 
of spirits, wine or beer is prohibited within three miles of the farm. The cur- 
rent expenses of this institution are paid by the income from the permanent 
endowment. Besides the institution here mentioned are many others through- 
out the state. Amity College is located at College Springs, in Page County, 
Burlington University at Burlington, Drake University at Des Moines, Iowa 
College at Grinnell, etc. 



The Legislature established the institution for the deaf and dumb, January 
24, 1855, and located it at Iowa City. A great effort was made for its removal 
to Des Moines, but it was finally located at Council Bluffs. In 1868 an appro- 
priation was made by the Legislature of $125,000 for the erection of new build- 
ings, and ninety acres of land were selected south of the city. October, 1870, 
the main building and one wing were completed and occupied. In February, 
1877, fire destroyed the main building and east wing. About one hundred and 
fifty students were in attendance at the time. There is a regular appropria- 
tion for this institution of $22 per capita per month for nine months of each 
year, for the payment of officers' and teachers' salaries and for a support fund. 
The institution is free to all of school age, too deaf to be educated in the com- 
mon schools, sound in mind and free from immoral habits and from contagious 
and offensive diseases. No charge is made for board or tuition. # The session 
of the school begins the first day of October and ends the last day of June 
of each year. 


In 1852 Prof. Samuel Bacon, himself blind, established a school for the 
instruction of the blind at Keokuk. He was the first person in the state to 
agitate a public institution for the blind, and in 1853 the institute was adopted 

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by the Legislature, by statute, approved January 18, 1853, and removed to 
Iowa City. During his first term twenty-three pupils were admitted. Pro- 
fessor Bacon was a fine scholar, an economical manager and in every way 
adapted to his position. During his administration the institution was in a 
great measure self-supporting by the sale of articles of manufacture by the 
blind pupils. There was also a charge of $25.00 as an admission fee for 
each pupil. In 1858 the citizens of Vinton, Benton County, donated a 
quarter section of land and $5,000 for the establishment of the asylum at 
that place. May 8th of the same year the trustees met at Vinton and made 
arrangements for securing the donation and adopted a plan for the erection 
of a suitable building. In 1860 the contract for the building was let for $10,420, 
and in August, 1862, the goods and furniture were removed from Iowa City 
to Vinton, and in the fall of the same year the school was opened with twenty- 
four pupils. There is a regular appropriation of $22 per capita per month 
for nine months of each year to cover support and maintenance. The school 
term begins on the first Wednesday in September and usually ends about the 
1st of June. They may be admitted at any time and are at liberty to go home 
at any time their parents may send for them. The department of music is 
supplied with a large number of pianos, one pipe organ, several cabinet organs 
and a sufficient number of violins, guitars, bass viols and brass instruments. 
Every pupil capable of receiving it is given a complete course in this depart- 
ment. In the industrial department the girls are required to learn knitting, 
crocheting, fancy work, hand and machine sewing; the boys, netting, broom 
making, mattress making and cane seating. Those of either sex who desire 
may learn carpet weaving. 


The hospital for the insane was established by an act of the Legislature, 
January 24, 1855. The location for the institution was selected at Mount 
Pleasant, Henry County, and $500,000 appropriated for the buildings, which 
were commenced in October of that year. One hundred patients were admitted 
within three months after it was opened. The Legislature of 1867-68 provided 
measures for an additional hospital for the insane and an appropriation of 
$125,000 was made for the purpose. Independence was selected by the com- 
missioners as the most desirable location and 320 acres were secured one mile 
from the town on the west side of the Wapsipinicon River and about a mile from 
its banks. The hospital was opened May 1, 1873. The amount allowed for 
the support of these institutions is $12.0Q per month for each patient. All 
expenses of the hospital except for special purposes are paid from the sum 
so named and the amount is charged to the counties from which the patients are 


The Soldiers' Orphans' Home is located at Davenport and was originated 
by Mrs. Anne Whittenmeyer, during the late rebellion of the states. This noble 
hearted woman called a convention at Muscatine, September 7, 1863, for the 

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purpose of devising means for the education and support of the orphan chil- 
dren of Iowa whose fathers had lost their lives in the defense of their country's 
honor. The public interest in the movement was so great that all parts of the 
state were largely represented and an association was organized called the Iowa 
State Orphan Asylum. The first meeting of the trustees was held February 
14, 1864, at Des Moines, when Governor Kirkwood suggested that a home for 
disabled soldiers should be connected with the asylum and arrangements were 
made for collecting funds. At the next meeting in Davenport the following 
month, a committee was appointed to lease a suitable building, solicit dona- 
tions and procure suitable furniture. This committee obtained a large brick 
building in Lawrence, Van Buren County, and engaged Mr. Fuller at Mount 
Pleasant, as steward. The work of preparation was conducted so vigorously 
that July 13th following, the executive committee announced it was ready to 
receive children. Within three weeks twenty-one were admitted and in a 
little more than six months seventy were in the home. The home was sus- 
tained by voluntary contributions until 1866, when it was taken charge of by 
the state. The Legislature appropriated $10 per month for each orphan actu- 
ally supported, and provided for the establishment of three homes. The one 
in Cedar Falls was organized in 1865. An old hotel building was fitted up 
for it and by the following January there were ninety-six inmates. In October, 
1869, the home was removed to a large brick building about two miles west 
of Cedar Falls and was very prosperous for several years, but in 1876 the Leg- 
islature devoted this building to the State Normal School. The same year 
the Legislature also devoted the buildings and grounds of the soldiers' orphans' 
home at Glenwood, Mills County, to an institution for the support of feeble 
minded children. It also provided for the removal of the soldiers' orphans at 
Glenwood and Cedar Falls homes to the one located at Davenport. There is 
in connection with this institution a school building, pleasant, commodious 
and well lighted, and it is the policy of the board to have the course of instruc- 
tion of a high standard. A kindergarten is operated for the very young pupils. 
The age .limit to which children are kept in the home is sixteen years. Fewer 
than 20 per cent remain to the age limit. A library of well selected juvenile 
literature is a source of pleasure and profitable entertainment to the children, 
as from necessity their pleasures and pastimes are somewhat limited. It is 
the aim to provide the children with plenty of good, comfortable clothing and 
to teach them to take good care of the same. Their clothing is all manufactured 
at the home, the large girls assisting in the work. The table is well supplied 
with a good variety of plain, wholesome food and a reasonable amount of 
luxuries. The home is now supported by a regular appropriation of $12 per 
month for each inmate, and the .actual transportation charges of the inmates 
to and from the institution. Each county is liable to the state for the sup- 
port of its children to the extent of $6 per month, except soldiers' orphans, 
who are cared for at the expense of the state. 


An act of the General Assembly, approved March 17, 1878, provided for 
the establishment of an asylum for feeble minded children at Glenwood, Mills 

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County, and the buildings and grounds of the soldiers' orphans' home were 
taken for that purpose. The asylum was placed under the management of 
three trustees, one of whom should be a resident of Mills County. The institu- 
tion was opened September 1, 1876. By November, 1877, the number of pupils 
was eighty-seven. The purpose of this institution is to provide special methods 
of training for that class of children deficient in mind or marked with such 
peculiarities as to deprive them of the benefits and privileges provided for 
children with normal faculties. The object is to make the child as nearly self- 
supporting as practicable and to approach as nearly as possible the movements 
and actions of normal people. It further aims to provide a home for those 
who are not susceptible of mental culture, relying wholly on others to supply 
their simple wants. 


The industrial school for boys is established at Eldora. By act, approved 
March 31, 1868, the General Assembly established a reform school at Salem, 
Henry County, and provided for a board of trustees from each congressional 
district. The trustees immediately leased the property of the Iowa Manual 
Labor Institute, and October 7th following, the school received its first inmate. 
The law at first provided for the admission of both sexes under eighteen years 
of age. The trustees were directed to organize a separate school for girls. In 
1872 the school for boys was permanently located at Eldora, Hardin County, 
and some time later the one for girls was established at Mitchellville. There 
is appropriated for these schools and their support, the sum of $13 monthly 
for each boy, and $16 monthly for each girl inmate. The object of the institu- 
tion is the reformation of juvenile delinquents. It is not a prison. It is a com- 
pulsory educational institution. It is a school where wayward and criminal 
boys and girls are brought under the influence of Christian instructors and 
taught by example as well as jprecept the better ways of life. It is a training 
school, where the moral, intellectual and industrial education of the child 
is carried on at one and the same time. 


The governor, by an act approved January 25, 1839, was authorized to draw 
the sum of $20,000, appropriated by an act of Congress in 1838, for public 
buildings in the Territory of Iowa and establish a state penal institution. The 
act provided for a board of directors, consisting of three persons, to be elected 
by the Legislature, who should superintend {he building of a penitentiary to 
be located within a mile of the public square, in the Town of Port Madison, 
Lee County, provided that the latter deeded a suitable tract of land for the 
purpose, also a spring or stream of water for the use of the penitentiary. The 
citizens of Fort Madison executed a deed of ten acres of land for the build- 
ing. The work was soon entered upon and the main building and the war- 
den's house were completed in the fall of 1841. It continued to meet with 
additions and improvements until the arrangements were all completed accord- 
ing to the designs of the directors. The labor of the convicts is let out to 

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contractors, who pay the state a stipulated sum for services rendered, the state 
furnishing shops and necessary supervision in preserving order. The Iowa 
Farming Tool Company and the Fort Madison Chair Company are the present 


The first steps toward the erection of a penitentiary at Anamosa, Jones 
County, were taken in 1872, and by an act of the General Assembly, approved 
April 23, 1884, when three commissioners were selected to construct and con- 
trol prison buildings. They met on the 4th of June following, and chose a 
site donated by the citizens of Anamosa. Work on the building was com- 
menced September 28, 1872. In 1873 a number of prisoners were transferred 
from the Fort Madison prison to Anamosa. The labor of the convicts at this 
penitentiary is employed in the erection and completion of the buildings. The 
labor of a small number is let to the American Cooperage Company. This insti- 
tution has a well equipped department for female prisoners, also a department 
for the care of the criminal insane. 


A state historical society in connection with the university was provided 
for by act of the General Assembly, January 25, 1857. At the commencement 
an appropriation of $250 was made, to be expended in collecting and pre- 
serving a library of books, pamphlets, papers, paintings and other materials 
illustrative of the history of Iowa. There was appropriated $500 per annum 
to maintain this society. Since its organization the society has published three 
different quarterly magazines. From 1863 to 1874 it published the Annals of 
Iowa, twelve volumes, now called the first series. From 1885 to 1902, it pub- 
lished the Iowa Historical Record, eighteen volumes. From 1903 to 1907, the 
society has published the Iowa Journal of History and Politics, now in its 
fifth volume. Numerous special publications have been issued by the society, 
the most important of which are the Messages and Proclamations of the Gov- 
ernors of Iowa, in seven volumes, the Executive Journal of Iowa, 1838-1843, 
and the Lucas Journal of the War of 1812. 

iowa soldiers' home 

The Iowa Soldiers' Home was built and occupied in 1888, at Marshall- 
town. The first year it had 140 inmates. In 1907 there were 794 inmates, 
including 112 women. The United States Government pays to the State of 
Iowa the sum of $100 per year for each inmate of the soldiers' home who served 
in any war in which the United States was engaged, which amount is used as 
part of the support fund of the institution. Persons who have property or 
means for their support, or who draw a pension sufficient therefor, will not 
be admitted to the home, and if after admission an inmate of the home shall 
receive a pension or other means sufficient for his support, or shall recover 
his health so as to enable him to support himself, he will be discharged from 

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the home. Regular appropriation by the state is $14 per month for each mem- 
ber and $10 per month for each employe not a member of the home. 


There are Clarinda and Cherokee state hospitals for the insane and one 
at Knoxville for the inebriate. 

It is strange, but true, that in the great State of Iowa, with more than 
60 per cent of her population engaged in agricultural pursuits and stock- 
raising, it was not until the year 1900 that a department of the state govern- 
ment was created in the interests of, and for the promotion of agriculture, 
animal industry, horticulture, manufactures, etc. The Iowa Department of 
Agriculture was created by an act of the twenty-eighth General Assembly. In 
1892 the Iowa Geological Survey was established and the law which provided 
therefor outlined its work to be that of making "a complete survey of the 
natural resources of the state in the natural and scientific aspects, including 
the determination of the characteristics of the various formations and the 
investigation of the different ores, coal, clays, building stones and other use- 
ful materials.' ' It is intended to cooperate with the United States Geological 
Survey in the making of topographical maps of those parts of the state whose 
coal resources make such maps particularly desirable and useful. The State 
Agricultural Society is one of the great promoters of the welfare of the people. 
The society holds an annual fair which has occurred at Des Moines since 1878. 
At its meetings subjects of the highest interest and value are discussed and 
these proceedings are published at the expense of the state. 


By John C. Parrish 

In the year 1907 the State of Iowa closed the first half century of existence 
under the constitution of 1857. In April, 1906, the General Assembly, look- 
ing forward to the suitable celebration of so important an anniversary, passed 
an act appropriating $750 to be used by the State Historical Society of Iowa, 
in a commemoration of the fiftieth anniversary of the constitution of 1857. It 
was eminently desirable that the celebration should occur at Iowa City, for 
it was at that place, then the capital of the state, that the constitutional con- 
vention of 1857 was held. And it was particularly fitting that the exercises 
should be placed under the auspices of the State Historical Society of Iowa, for 
the same year, 1857, marks the birth of the society. While the convention was 
drafting the fundamental law of the state in a room on the lower floor of the 
Old Stone Capitol, the sixth General Assembly in the legislative halls upstairs 
in the same building passed an act providing for the organization of a State 
Historical Society. Thus the event of 1907 became a celebration of the fiftieth 
anniversary of the State Historical Society as well as a commemoration of the 
semi-centennial of the constitution of 1857. 

In due time plans were matured for a program covering four days, begin- 
ning on Tuesday, March 19, and closing on Friday, March 22, 1907. It con- 

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sisted of addresses by men of prominent reputation in constitutional and his- 
torical lines, together with conferences on state historical subjects. On Tuesday 
evening Prof. Andrew C. McLaughlin, of Chicago University, delivered an 
address upon "A Written Constitution in Some of its Historical Aspects." 
He dwelt in a scholarly way upon the growth of written constitutions, showing 
the lines along which their historical development has progressed. 

The speaker of Wednesday was Prof. Eugene Wambaugh, of the Harvard 
Law School, one of the leading authorities in the country upon questions of 
constitutional law and formerly a member of the faculty of the college of law 
of the University of Iowa. Professor Wambaugh, taking for his subject, "The 
Relation Between General History and the History of Law," outlined the his- 
tory of the long rivalry between the civil law of Rome and the common law in 
their struggle for supremacy, both in the old world and the new. In closing, 
he referred to the constitution of Iowa as typical of the efforts of the American 
people to embody in fixed form the principles of right and justice. 

Thursday morning was given over to the conference on the teaching of 
history. Prof. Isaac A. Loos, of the State University of Iowa, presided, and 
members of the faculties of a number of the colleges and high schools of the 
state were present and participated in the program. In the afternoon the 
conference of historical societies convened, Dr. P. E. Horack, of the State His- 
torical Society of Iowa, presiding. Reports were read from the historical depart- 
ment at Des Moines and from nearly all of the local historical societies of the 
state. Methods and policies were discussed and much enthusiasm was aroused 
looking toward the better preservation of the valuable materials of local his- 

The history of the Mississippi Valley is replete with events of romantic 
interest. From the time of the early French voyagers and explorers, who 
paddled down the waters of the tributaries from the North, down to the days 
of the sturdy pioneers of Anglo-Saxon blood, who squatted upon the fertile 
soil and staked out their claims on the prairies, there attaches an interest that 
is scarcely equaled in the annals of America. On Thursday evening, Dr. Reu- 
ben Gold Thwaites, superintendent of the State Historical Society of Wis- 
consin, now deceased, delivered an address upon "The Romance of Mississippi 
Valley History.' ' He traced the lines of exploration and immigration from 
the Northeast and East and drew interesting pictures of the activities in the 
great river valley when the land was young and the ways full of wonder to 
the pioneer adventurer. 

Friday's program closed the session. On this day Gov. Albert B. Cummins 
attended and participated in the celebration. At the university armory before 
a larg6 gathering, he spoke briefly on the Constitution of the United States, pay- 
ing it high tribute and at the same time showing the need of amendment to 
fit present-day needs. He then introduced Judge Emlin McClain, of the 
Supreme Court of Iowa, who delivered the principal address of the day. Judge 
McClain took for his subject "The Constitutional Convention and the Issues 
Before It." He told of that memorable gathering at the Old Stone Capitol in 
Iowa City fifty years ago, when thirty-six men met in the Supreme Court room 
to draft the fundamental law for the commonwealth. 

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The members of the convention of 1857 were from various occupations. 
The representatives of the legal profession led in numbers with fourteen mem- 
bers, among whom were many men of prominence. William Penn Clarke, 
Edward Johnstone and J. C. Hall were there. James P. Wilson, afterward 
so prominent in national politics, was a member, then only twenty-eight years 
of age. J. C. Hall was the only delegate who had served in either of the pre- 
ceding constitutional conventions of the state, having represented Henry County 
in the convention of 1844. There were twelve farmers in the convention of 
1857 — rugged types of those men who settled upon land and built into the 
early history of the state its elements of enduring strength. Among the remain- 
ing members were merchants, bankers and various other tradesmen. They 
were a representative group of men and they attacked the problems before 
them with characteristic pioneer vigor. 

The convention of 1857 chose for its presiding officer, Francis Springer, 
an able farmer and lawyer from Louisa County. Many were the discussions 
that stirred the convention. One of the first was over the proposition to move 
the convention bodily to Dubuque or to Davenport. The Town of Iowa City 
it seems had not provided satisfactory accommodations for the delegates, and 
for hours the members gave vent to their displeasure and argued the question 
of a removal. But inertia won and the convention finally decided to remain 
in Iowa City and settled down to the discussion of more serious matters. 

The constitution of 1846 had prohibited banking corporations in the state. 
But there was strong agitation for a change in this respect, and so the con- 
vention of 1857 provided for both $ state bank and for a system of free banks. 
The matter of corporation was a prominent one before the convention. So also 
was the question of the status of the negro. The issues were taken up with 
fairness and argued upon their merits. The convention was republican in 
proportion of twenty-one to fifteen. The delegates had been elected upon a 
party basis. Yet they did not allow partisanship to control their actions as 
members of a constituent assembly. On the 19th of January they had come 
together and for a month and a half they remained in session. They adjourned 
March 5th and dispersed to their homes. 

That the members of the convention did their work well is evidenced by 
the fact that in the fifty years that have followed only four times has the con- 
stitution of 1857 been amended. Nor did these amendments embody changes, 
the need of which the men of 1857 could have well foreseen. The first two 
changes in the fundamental law were due to the changed status of the negro 
as a result of the Civil war. In 1882 the prohibitory amendment was passed 
but it was soon declared null by the Supreme Court of Iowa because of tech- 
nicalities in its submission to the people and so did not become a part of the 
constitution. The amendments of 1884 were concerned largely with judicial 
matters and those of 1904 provided for biennial election and increased the num- 
ber of members of the House of Representatives. 

With these changes the work of the constitutional convention of 1857 has 
come down to us. Fifty years have passed and twice has the convention been 
the subject of a celebration. In 1882, after a quarter of a century, the sur- 
viving members met at Des Moines. Francis Springer, then an old man, was 
present and presided at the meeting. Out of the original thirty-six members, 

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only twenty responded to the roll call. Eight other members were alive but 
were unable to attend. The remainder had given way to the inevitable reaper. 
This was in 1882. In 1907 occurred the second celebration. This time it was 
not a reunion of the members of the convention, for only one survivor appeared 
on the scene. It was rather a commemoration of the fiftieth birthday of the 
constitution of the state. Only one member of the convention, John H. Peters, 
of Manchester, Iowa, is reported to be now living. 

The celebration of the fiftieth anniversary of the adoption of our funda- 
mental law was marked by a unique feature. There were present and partici- 
pated in the program three aged pioneers of the state, a survivor of each of the 
three constitutional conventions. These three conventions met in 1857, in 1846 
and 1844 respectively, fifty, sixty-one and sixty-three years ago. On the 
opening day of the celebration, J. Scott Richman appeared upon the scene. 
Sixty-one years ago he had come to Iowa City as a delegate of the convention 
of 1846. Eighty-eight years old, with patriarchal beard and slow step, he came 
as the only living member of the convention that framed the constitution under 
which Iowa entered the Union. On Thursday there came from Marion, Samuel 
Durham, a tall pioneer ninety years of age, the sole survivor of Iowa's first 
constitutional convention — that of 1844. His memory ran back to the days of 
Iowa's first governor, Robert Lucas, for he had reached Iowa from Indiana 
in the year 1840. On the last day of the program these two old constitution 
makers of 1844 and 1846 were joined by a third, John H. Peters, who had come 
from Delaware" County as a member of the last constitutional convention of 
fifty years ago. They sat down together at the luncheon on Friday noon and 
responded to toasts with words that took the hearers back to the days when 
Iowa was the last stopping place of the immigrant. 

Thus the celebration was brought to an end. From every point of view 
it was a success. Probably never again will the state see the reunion of repre- 
sentatives of all three constitutional conventions. Time must soon take away 
these lingering pioneers of two generations ago, but the state will not soon 
forget their services, for they have left their monument in the fundamental law 
of the commonwealth. 

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Delaware County belongs to Northeastern Iowa, a region that has become 
noted the world over by reason of McGee's exhaustive memoir on its Pleistocene 
history. Delaware lies directly west of Dubuque County and its northeast 
corner is only about eight or ten miles distant in a direct line from the Missis- 
sippi River. Its fertile lands early attracted the stream of settlers overflowing 
from the mining region around Dubuque. The main body of the county is in- 
cluded in the great Iowan drift plain, but in the extreme northeast it embraces 
some of the rugged irregularities of the Driftless Area. Delaware has Clayton 
County on the north, Buchanan on the west, and Jones and Linn bound it on 
the south. The eastern boundary of the county is twelve miles west of the 
fifth principal meridian, the north-south line to which all the ranges of town- 
ships in the state are referred. The county is cut into approximately sym- 
metrical north and south halves by the Second Correction line. Sixteen con- 
gressional townships are included in the area, the eight townships north of the 
correction line being severally somewhat larger than those south of it. 

The area at present included in Delaware County was among the first re- 
gions west of the Mississippi to be studied by geologists. It was traversed in 
the autumn of 1839 by a party organized, under the direction of Dr. David 
Dale Owen, to explore the mineral lands of the United States. Each township 
was examined, quarter section by quarter section, and notes were made on the 
timber, soils and rock exposures. 

Owen's work of that year began below Davenport and was carried, in Iowa, 
as far north as McGregor, and so Delaware County is only a small part of the 
area explored by the remarkable survey of the autumn of the year 1839. The 
soils are graded as first, second and third class — first class soils, in the judgment 
of the pioneer explorer, being rather rare, even in Delaware County. No 
minerals were noted in the area we are considering except some indications of 
iron ore. 


One system controls nearly all the drainage of Delaware County. The 
Maquoketa River enters the county in Richland Township and flows nearly 
southeast, leaving the county finally in South Fork Township. Above Forest- 
ville, in Richland Township, the valley for some distance is a rock-walled gorge 
cut in Niagara limestone, and for two or three miles below Forestville the 
valley retains the gorge-like character as it passes through loess-covered high- 
lands. In the southern part of Richland Township, however, the stream enters 
the Iowan drift plain through which it flows until it passes Manchester. Two 





miles below Manchester it leaves the low plain of Iowan drift to follow a 
canyon cut in the highlands that extend from that point to the southern limits 
of the county. The valley at certain points in the highlands is more than two 
hundred feet deep. The singular habit, first fully described by McGee, of 
streams avoiding low plains and cutting deep chasms through rocky highlands, 
is well illustrated at many points along the Maquoketa in Delaware and Jones 
counties. This puzzling behavior has not yet been fully explained. 

Contrary to the view sometimes entertained, these deep valleys dissecting 
uplands are much older than the age of the loess, older than the Iowan drift, 
older than the Kansan. Undisturbed loess comes down on the side of the deep 
valley to the level of the water at Fleming's Mill, south of Delhi. The red- 
dish brown Buchanan gravels, in beds undisturbed since the close of the Kansan 
Age of the glacial epoch, lie in the lowest parts of the valley at Hartwick and 
Hopkinton. The erosion in the bottom of this valley, like the erosion on the 
drift plain itself, has been inappreciable since the disappearance of the Iowan ice. 

The tributaries of the Maquoketa from the west are mostly small, unim- 
portant prairie streams that have their headwaters in the sloughs of the Iowan 
drift plain, frairie Creek, or Coffin's Grove Creek, as it is sometimes called, 
begins in slough lands in the eastern part of Buchanan County and flows east- 
ward through the southern part of Coffin's Grove Township to join the Ma- 
quoketa a mile above Manchester. In section 28 of Coffin's Grove, the channel 
of Prairie Creek is cut through a rocky hill, timbered and covered with some 
loess, but elsewhere the channel of the stream is a shallow depression cut but 
little below the general level of the adjacent prairie. 

Buck Creek and its branches drain the undulating prairie land of Hazel 
Green Township and part of Milo and Adams. The upper branches of the 
stream have no definitely marked channels, the drainage waters being con- 
ducted along the sags or sloughs. Near the center of Hazel Green Township 
the channel has better definition but is a mere shallow ditch in the prairie. In 
the western part of Union Township, Buck Creek enters a gap in the loess- 
covered plateau and flows thence to its junction with the Maquoketa in a deep 
valley, sometimes between rocky walls that rise 125 feet above the level of the 
stream. The walls are developed into picturesque, rugged, fissured, weather 
beaten cliffs in section 9, of Union Township. 

A few streams flow into the Maquoketa from the east. Honey Creek, with 
its principal tributary, Lindsey Creek, drains the larger part of Honey Creek 
Township and the northern part of Delaware. It joins the Maquoketa above 
Manchester. Honey Creek, together with its branches, is throughout most of 
its course a simple prairie stream flowing in a shallow channel through the 
ordinary drift plain ; but in the west half of section 35, Honey Creek Township, 
the stream wanders in a broad valley bounded by rocky cliffs twenty-five feet 
high. The region contains some deposits of loess but there are no signs of 
Iowan drift. All the drift exposed below the loess or at the surface is of 
Kansan type. 

Plum Creek is the largest affluent of the Maquoketa in Delaware County. 
Its ramifying branches extend to the northern part of Oneida and Bremen 
townships, and the southwest part of Elk Township pays tribute to this stream 
through a system of undefined channels or sloughs. The initial branches and 

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upper reaches of Plum Creek conform to the usual type of streams flowing 
in an uneroded drift plain ; but east of Earlville the creek enters the region of 
the Delhi plateau, flowing through rock gorges and among loess hills that over- 
look the drift plain throughout most of the remainder of its course, to its 
junction with the Maquoketa in section 11, of Union Township. For a short 
distance, in sections 20, 28 and 29 of North Fork Township, Plum Creek follows 
the western margin of the low drift plain from which the Delhi plateau rises 
abruptly to the westward, but in section 33 of the township named, it turns 
away from the drift plain to follow a rock-walled chasm cut through a portion 
of the plateau. At the top of the chasm the rock ledges are overlain by residual 
chert and Eansan drift, but the Iowan drift does not rise above the plain which 
constitutes the paradoxical divide between Plum Creek and North Maquoketa 

The North Maquoketa River flows through the eastern part of North Fork 
Township, and through sections 1 and 12 of South Fork. The area draining 
into the North Maquoketa is unimportant. Above Rockville in North Fork 
Township and in its short course in South Fork this stream flows in a deep 
valley, the borders of which rise conspicuously above the general level of the 
neighboring plains. For a few miles below Rockville the North Maquoketa 
has a channel in the Iowan plain, a condition that affords a feasible crossing 
for the Farley & Cedar Rapids branch of the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul 

Bear Creek has its origin in a number of small branches draining the central 
part of Colony Township. It flows southward through sections 2 and 10 of 
Bremen, emerging from the loess-Kansan area and passing out upon the Iowan 
drift near the southwest corner of the last named section. During the occupa- 
tion of the county by Iowan glaciers the lower part of the valley of Bear Creek 
was choked with ice and the valley was undrained except by overflow to the 
north into the valley of Little Turkey River. As a result of the conditions 
noted Bear Creek was robbed of part of its drainage area, the waters from the 
northern part of this area being permanently turned into the Little Turkey. 
From section 10 of Bremen Township, Bear Creek flows near the margin of 
the Iowan drift, in an ancient valley that was only partially filled by glacial 
debris and enters the North Maquoketa at Dyersville. 

The northeastern part of Elk Township and the, northern part of Colony 
are drained by branches of Turkey* River. The main drainage channels in the 
locations named trend toward the north. Elk Creek flows in a rock-bound valley 
that is more than two hundred feet in depth, and the valley of Little Turkey 
River, before crossing the north line of Colony Township, attains a depth of 
nearly three hundred feet. The valleys of Elk Creek and Little Turkey prop- 
erly belong to the Driftless Area. 

Buffalo Creek receives the drainage from the greater part of Adams Town- 
ship and from part of Prairie. With the exception of Robinson Creek its af- 
fluents in Delaware County are without definite channels. Buffalo Creek is 
a prairie stream flowing in a broad concave depression in the drift, all the ero- 
sion it has accomplished being represented by the channel a few feet in depth. 
The difference between the amount of erosion represented by the valley of 

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Little Turkey River in the northeast corner of the county and the inconsider- 
able channel of Buffalo Creek in the southwest is well nigh immeasureable. 

The greater part of the surface of Prairie Township does not reveal a single 
well defined water course. Over most of the drift plain, indeed, there has been 
practically no erosion since the withdrawal of the Iowan glaciers, and even in 
the beds of the larger streams the post-Iowan deepening of the channels has 
been at most only a few feet. The deep valleys of the Richland and Delhi high- 
lands, as well as the similar valley of the North Maquoketa, resemble canyons 
of preglacial origin. The highly oxidized, reddish brown Buchanan gravels 
near Hopkinton and Hartwick demonstrate that, at all events, they are older 
than the Kansan stage of the Pleistocene. 


The Maquoketa shales are the oddest of the geological formations naturally 
exposed in Delaware County. They are best seen in the deep, driftless valleys 
of Elk Creek and Little Turkey River, as well as in the lateral ravines opening 
into the valleys mentioned. There is, however, a very interesting occurrence of 
these shales at the old mill dam at Rockville. 

The thin-bedded, shaly limestone, above the level of the river, has a thick- 
ness of twenty-five feet, and is overlain by heavy ledges of dolomitic limestone 
that are unquestionably of the age of the Niagara. The shaly limestones, how- 
ever, probably all belong to the Maquoketa stage. 

The best exposures of Maquoketa shales in Delaware County occur along 
Little Turkey River and its branches in sections 2 and 3 of Colony Township. 
A deep lateral gorge, eroded by a small tributary of the Little Turkey in sec- 
tions 2 and 3, cuts through nearly the whole thickness of the formation and 
affords a number of fairly satisfactory sections. At what is known as the "big 
spring* ' in the southeast quarter of the northeast quarter of section 3 the bottom 
of the gorge coincides with the base of the transition beds and the spring issues 
on top of the shaly portion. 

The spring is 230 feet lower than the level of the plateau on which Coles- 
burg is built. One-fourth of a mile below the spring there is a clay pit. from 
which a large amount of clay to supply the pottery at Colesburg has been taken. 
The altitude is sixty feet lower than the spring, and between the spring and 
clay pit there is almost a continuous section of the shales exposed. 

The laminated basal edges of Niagara limestone in Elk Creek Valley nave 
an aggregate thickness of about twenty-five feet and are followed by some 
definitely bedded dolomite, which in some places consists of thin layers with 
considerable chert. Along Elk Creek this second member is ten feet in thick- 
ness. This is followed by a bed of quarry stone in very definite layers, which 
range from three to thirty inches in thickness. The stone is fine-grained, and 
light yellow to light drab in color. The individual layers are homogeneous, 
without laminae, and sharply separated one from the other by clayey partings. 
Exposures of the quarry stone horizon occur at a number of points in section 
16 of Elk Township, and quarries have been worked on the land of B. A. Baker, 
George Boehm and Job Odell. A quarry operated by 0. Wilcox on land of 
Mr. Odell showed a section thirty feet in thickness. 

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Near Hopkinton, in the southern part of the county, there are many pic- 
turesque cliffs of Niagara limestone affording opportunity for study of other 
portions of the complete Niagara section. Along the Maquoketa River in 
sections 24, 25 and 36 of township 87 north, range 4 west of the fifth principal 
meridian, the cliffs rise vertically almost from the margin of the stream, to a 
height of 165 feet above the water. The cliffs consist at the base of massive 
dolomitic ledges, ranging from six to fifteen feet in thickness, with no lamina- 
tion, breaking when quarried for any purpose into shapeless blocks containing 
many vesicular cavities, and very coarse and granular in texture. These coarse 
massive ledges rise in places to the summit of the cliffs, 165 feet above the 
water, but at the Loop quarry in the southwest quarter of the northwest quarter 
of section 25, township 87 north, range 4 west^ they are capped with evenly 
bedded quarry stone varying from 12 to 20 feet in thickness. 

The ledges below Hopkinton may be regarded as their typical phase. The 
same massive phase of the Pentamerus limestone is seen near the opposite corner 
of the county at the Backbone in Richland Township. It occurs also at the 
mill in Forestville. It is this phase that is exhibited in section 20 of Elk Town- 
ship near Greeley. It is seen again along the headwaters of Lindsey Creek 
northeast of York. It is this same phase that occurs in the bed of Honey Creek 
near Millheim as well as in the low cliffs along Sand Creek where it traverses 
the northeast quarter of the southeast quarter of section 8, Milo Township. 

The beds represented at the Loop quarry were first worked in this neighbor- 
hood along the ravine known as Whittaker Hollow, in the southeast quarter 
of section 23, township 87 north, range 4 west. The Merriam quarry, located 
a short distance southeast of the center of the section, had been operated in- 
termittently for. a great many years. The quality of the stone is the same as 
at the Loop quarry. A second quarry on the Merriam property was opened a 
few rods east of the original one. It showed nothing different from those already 
described. In the bottom of these quarries were ledges two feet in thickness 
suitable for bridge stone. 

The regularly stratified beds belonging to the horizon of the Loop and Mer- 
riam quarries were found in the Davis quarry, east of the center of section 17, 
in South Fork Township, and at the McGlade quarry and other quarries in the 
same neighborhood, though here the layers were thinner than in the quarries 
west of the river. 

In Delhi Township, within the Town of Delhi, were some small quarries 
worked in these beds, and on the south side of the river at Fleming's Mill, in 
the southwest quarter of the northwest quarter of section 29, Delhi Township, 
this upper quarry stone horizon is exposed at an elevation of ninety feet above 
the level of the water. One of the best quarries worked at this horizon was 
located near the center of section 24 of Milo Township. It has layers ranging 
from flagging stone to two or three inches in thickness up to heavy dimension 
stone with a thickness of two feet. 

Exposures showing some departures from the typical phase of the quarry 
stone horizon are seen in the east part of section 9, Milo Township. The beds 
have been quarried at a few points. 

At the point called Wildcat Den, southeast of Hopkinton, the vertical faces 
of the cliffs rise fully 100 feet, the summit being 130 feet above the stream, 

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which here flows near the base. The weather beaten, massive, castle-like salient, 
between the floor of the Loop quarry at the summit and the roadway at the 
foot of the bluff, rises sheer for seventy feet on its outer wall, and a number 
of towers and chimneys in the same neighborhood are fully its equal in vertical 
dimensions. Table Rock, further down stream, in the southwest quarter of the 
same section, is a flat-topped mass of equal height, belonging to the same horizon, 
and almost completely isolated by circumdenudation. In the southeast quarter 
of section 9, Union Township, the deep valley of Buck Creek is walled in, in 
places, by vertical cliffs, that are more than eighty feet high from the top of 
the talus to the summit, and the top of the cliff has an elevation of 120 feet 
above the level of the stream. In sections 32 and 33, North Fork Township, 
similar cliffs rise sheer from the water in Plum Creek, and overlook the low 
lying Iowan drift plain in sections 34 and 35 of the same township. It is this 
same limestone that forms the impressive cliffs and towers at the Backbone in 
section 16, Richland Township. All along the canyon of the Maquoketa, from 
section 9, Milo Township, to the south line of the county, the same rugged, 
weathered cliffs appear at short intervals, preserving fragmentary bits of pre- 
glacial scenery. Even over the prairies remote from streams, particularly in 
the southeastern part of the county, ledges of this same horizon project through 
the thin drift in numberless places. 


Extensive beds of gravel were laid down during the melting and retreat of 
the Kansan ice. The floods that carried and deposited the gravels seem to have 
swept over valleys and highlands alike, for stratified deposits of the Buchanan 
stage occur indifferently at all elevations. In the region invaded by Iowan 
ice these deposits are invariably overlain by Iowan drift; in the loess-Kansan 
area, beyond the Iowan margin, they are overlain by loess. 

A good illustration of Buchanan gravels is seen at a gravel pit on the land, 
in the northern part of the southeast quarter of section 26, Oneida Township, 
near Earlville. The gravel bed has been worked extensively for road material, 
and has contributed in large degree to the improvement of the streets of Earl- 
ville. A vertical face of fifteen feet is now exposed, but test pits show that the 
deposit continues twenty feet below the level now worked. The deposit is a 
mixture of coarse sand and gravel, with occasional small bowlders ranging up 
to a foot in diameter. The coarse and fine materials are not arranged in definite 
bands, but lenses and irregular masses of coarse gravel are frequently imbedded 
in gravel or sand of comparative fineness. There is a large amount of Niagara 
chert in the coarser beds, but in general the pebbles and bouldertets are of foreign 
origin. Some of the beds are very ferruginous and firmly cemented, and all 
are more or less conspicuously iron-stained. All of the present exposure shows 
the effects of prolonged weathering. Oxidation is complete. A large propor- 
tion of the granite pebbles and bowlders are so perfectly decayed that they 
crumble to fragments on the application of the slightest force. Test pits made 
at various points show the entire hill, which rises gradually to the north of 
workings, to be underlain by gravel at a short distance beneath the surface. 
The rusty, weathered and oxidized deposits of the Buchanan stage are covered 
with a thin layer of Iowan drift containing some unweathered bowlders. 

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An immense bed of Buchanan gravel extends over some hundreds of acres 
in a low plain in sections 25 and 36 of Bremen Township. The plain is covered 
with two or three feet of Iowan drift, and large Iowan bowlders were liberally 
sprinkled over its surface. The gravels lie beneath the Iowan drift. The upper 
zone, three or four feet in thickness, is deeply weather-stained and oxidized. 
The bedding is more regular than is usually seen when the gravel beds occur 
on higher ground, as near Earlville. The materials are also finer, ordinary 
quartz sand making up a larger proportion of the deposit, and the bowlders 
a few inches to a foot in diameter, common in the beds at greater elevations, 
are practically absent. Furthermore, the oxidation and weather staining, prob- 
ably owing to the finer and more compact character of the deposit, do not affect 
the beds to so great a depth as at Earlville. Heavy beds of the same gravels, 
exhibiting the commoner, upland phase, occur under thin beds of loess at a 
number of points in Colony Township, the best exposures being seen forty rods 
north of the center of section 9, near the northwest corner of the southwest 
<juarter of section 4, and near the center of section 6. All of these points are 
from six to eight miles east of the extreme eastern margin of the Iowan drift. 

Near the southeast corner of the county Buchanan gravel makes up a con- 
spicuous ridge that begins in the southwest quarter of section 13, township 87 
north, range 3 west (South Fork Township), and extends into the northwest 
quarter of section 24. The gravels here are very ferruginous, are of the coarse 
upland type, contain the usual decayed granites, together with striated pebbles 
and bowlders of Kansan age, and show a fair degree of cementation. The ridge 
in which they occur rises considerably above low lying drift plains to the south 
and southwest. 

In the northwest corner of the county these gravels cover considerable areas 
in Richland Township, the lowland phase appearing conspicuously beneath the 
Iowan drift along the valley of a branch of the Maquoketa, in section 19, and 
the upland phase occupying a ridge in the southwest quarter of section 32. In 
a sort of terrace at the bottom of the valley on the west side of the Backbone 
in section 16, weather-stained beds of the Buchanan stage occur under beds 
of sand and gravel of more recent origin, the contrast between the older and 
the newer portions of the terrace being very striking. The valley here is older 
than the Buchanan stage — older than the Kansan. 

At'Hartwick, in Delhi Township, as already noted, reddish brown deposits 
of this age are seen at the bottom of the gorge underneath terrace material 
which is probably not older than the Iowan stage, and reference has also been 
made to the occurence of these gravels in the river valley near Hopkinton. 

Honey Creek Township is generously supplied with gravels of the Buchanan 
stage, particularly along the valley of Lindsey Creek and Honey Creek. In 
fact these gravels occur in almost every township of the county, affording at 
numerous points the very best of material for the improvement of miry roads. 


Narrow belts of alluvium occur along the principal drainage courses in all 
the areas that were not invaded by Iowan drift. The Little Turkey River has 

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in places a beautiful, flat-bottomed valley, which is covered with heavy beds 
of rich alluvium. Alluvial plains, but of no great width, border Elk Creek and 
its branches; and Buck Creek, Plum Creek and the Maquoketa River have 
their flood plains covered with alluvium within the limits of the Delhi plateau. 
Alluvium covers the flat bottom of the valley through which the Maquoketa 
flows at the Backbone in Richland Township, and a small amount of the same 
deposit is found along the North Maquoketa, in sections 1 and 12 of South 
Pork Township. Streams, such as Buffalo Creek, that flow through the area of 
Iowan drift, have no flood plains, or alluvial plains, in any true sense ; for the 
gently undulating surface of the region through which they flow, covered with 
drift and sprinkled with bowlders, continues without interruption to the water's 


Well defined terraces, composed of stratified sands and gravels, occur along 
the streams of Delaware County, particularly in the areas inside the Iowan 
margin, but which are free from Iowan drift. The height to which the ter- 
races rise above the water in the adjacent stream varies considerably in dif- 
ferent localities. Near Hopkinton the upper surface of the terrace on the east 
side of the river is fifty feet above the water level. Near Millheim, in Dela- 
ware Township, a terrace composed of fine stratified sand has an elevation of 
thirty feet above the water in Honey Creek. At other points in the county 
the height of the terraces above the water in the nearest stream varies within 
limits ranging from ten to fifty feet. 

At Hopkinton the terrace material is piled against the side of an ancient 
valley, that was bounded by rocky cliffs seventy-five to a hundred feet in height. 
The town is built on a platform that overlooks a rather wide bottom land, or 
flood plain, the platform corresponding in height to the upper surface of the 
terrace. The descent from the top of the terrace to the bottom land is abrupt. 
In the center of the town the Niagara limestone is encountered a few feet below 
the surface, but near the margin of the platform wells seventy-five feet in depth 
are made without striking rock. The same sandy terrace extends for more than 
a mile northwest from Hopkinton on the left side of the river. A gravel ter- 
race begins on the west side of the stream, near the center of section 11, Union 
Township, and continues beyond the north line of section 2. In section 2 it is 
set off by an abrupt descent of fifteen feet from the narrow flood plain. Exca- 
vations show that the main body of this terrace is made up of very old, weath- 
ered ferruginous material of the age of the Buchanan gravels. The deposit 
presents all the characteristics of the valley phase of this formation. The 
materials are finer than on the highlands. The coarser material is at the top 
of the deposit, with sandy beds below. The weathered zone at the top has the 
usual reddish brown color. 

Manchester is built on a sandy and gravelly terrace, the material showing 
perfect stratification when seen in fresh sections. The terrace deposit extends 
up Honey Creek for several miles, and is also well displayed at intervals above 
the mouth of Honey Creek, along the Maquoketa River. At the Backbone, in 
Richland Township, a sand terrace on the left side of the stream rises thirty 
feet above the water. 

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Delaware County affords quite a variety of soils. The typical soil of the 
lowan drift region, covering two-thirds of the surface of the county, is a 
deep black loam, rich in organic matter and containing an abundance of the 
soluble mineral constituents from which the crops of the farmer draw so large 
a supply of plant food. The largest continuous area of lowan drift embraces 
the townships lying southwest of the Maquoketa River, and it is here that the 
rich, black, loamy soils of the type described are best developed. Between 
the Maquoketa River and the lowan margin there are large areas, more or 
less interrupted, however, by the island-like paha and other patches free from 
lowan drift, over which soils of the same superior quality are distributed. 
Every township in the county, except Colony, has some areas covered with 
soils derived from lowan drift. In some parts of Onedia, Bremen, North Fork, 
South Fork and the other townships included between the Maquoketa River and 
the lowan drift margin, the soils are thin. Rock ledges and residual clays 
and cherts come near the surface or even become superficial by projecting 
through the scant materials belonging to the drift. Over an area of several 
miles in extent around Delaware the thin soil, in many places, is insufficient 
to conceal the rocks and residual cherts which form numerous stony knobs 
and flint hills unfit for cultivation. Angular fragments of chert mixed with 
ferriginous residual clay, constitute a natural macadam of excellent, quality 
in many of the roadways. Near the margin of the lowan ice the amount of 
fine clayey material transported and deposited was very small, and hence it 
is that thin soils characterize so much of the surface in a zone, six or eight 
miles in width, immediately adjacent to the margin of the lowan drift plain. 
The townships of Hazel Green, Adams, Prairie and Coffin's Grove, together 
with the southwest half of Milo, are in general covered with a heavy bed of 
drift upon which a soil unexcelled in the Mississippi Valley has been developed 
since the retreat of the lowan ice. 

Around Rockville there are extensive areas covered with aeolian sands and 
presenting a type of soil far from desirable. Sands that bear evidence of hav- 
ing been carried and deposited by winds occur at numerous points in the 
belt of thin soils inside the lowan margin. Such sands occur abundantly 
near Earlville, Delaware and generally throughout North Fork, Bremen and 
Oneida townships. They are lodged usually on the gentle slopes of the low 
hills, the broad swales or low lands being generally free from sand and covered 
with a heavy black loam. In a low ridge near the northwest corner of sec- 
tion 7, Oneida Township, there are four to six feet of aeolian sand resting on 
an old soil bed. Sand derived from terrace material along the stream valley, 
characterizes the soils on both sides of the Maquoketa for some distance above 
and below Manchester. 

In the portion of the county not covered with lowan drift the soils are 
either loess clays, sands or residual products. Northeast of the lowan boun- 
dary line loess is the prevailing material. The surface is hilly and uneven. 
Yellow loess clay, quite free from organic matter, but rich in lime carbonates 
and other forms of mineral plant food, gives color and character to the fields 
and presents a strong contrast to the deep, black, mellow loam which prevails 

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over the region of Iowan drift. On steep hill slopes loess soils are not very 
productive. They wash badly and the surface often presents a series of impass- 
able ditches and gullies. In the central and southern part of Colony Town- 
ship there is an area more than usually level for a region covered with loess 
and Kansan drift. The storm waters are carried off slowly. The surface is 
not gashed or gullied, and the loess type of soil is here seen at its best. Such 
a soil is very fertile, is adapted to a great range of crops, and ranks with the 
best known anywhere in the great fertile Northwest. 

Loess covers the paha in the marginal zone of Iowan drift, and where the 
surface is not too steep the soil possesses many admirable qualities. Loess 
covers the highlands in the central and northern part of Richland Township. 
The surface is rather hilly north and northeast of the Backbone, so that the 
country is better adapted to orchard culture or timber culture than to ordinary 
farming. The Delhi plateau is largerly covered with loess, but the broken 
and hilly character of the surface in general indicates that the production of 
ordinary farm crops is not the purpose to which the region is best adapted. 
It should be reserved as forest land, but where this is not practicable it should 
be devoted to orchards, vineyards or the cultivation of small fruits. Some 
portions of this plateau are covered with sand, the region about Delhi being- 
typical in this respect. The sand beds are at least ten to fourteen feet in 
thickness, and, near the northern margin of the plateau, seem to take the place 
of the loess. The sandy soils about Hopkinton seem to be derived from sand ter- 
races that are probably as old as the close of the Kansan glacial stage. Taking* 
the county as a whole the average grade of its soils is high. 


With an abundance of stone of first-class grade for lime burning it is a 
little surprising to find that only a small amount of lime is produced in Dela- 
ware County. There are no kilns that are operated continuously or that attempt 
to do more than supply some temporary local demand. There are scores of 
localities where the Pentamerus and coral bearing beds, lying between the two 
quarry stone horizons, are massive, crystalline and free from chert. In such 
case, if properly managed, they will produce a superior quality of lime. Remains 
of abandoned limekilns are found in almost every neighborhood where the 
Niagara limestone outcrops, but no kilns were seen in operation. There are 
half a dozen or more of these old kilns in the neighborhood of Hopkinton. 
No better lime was ever made anywhere than that which these kilns produced 
when they were operated. The raw material is abundant and easily obtained. 
What is lacking is capital, organization and efficient management. Dubuque 
lime and other limes not one whit better than the home product, but made 
on a large scale by improved methods, are able to supplant the home product 
when made by the primitive appliances adopted by the pioneer settlers of the 


Throughout the whole northeastern half of Delaware County material for 
the improvement of roads is abundant. Loess clay answers an excellent pur- 

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pose on sandy roads, and such clay is usually plentiful within easy hauling 
distance of almost every point along the Maquoketa River or in the area lying 
northeast of that stream. Better and more permanent improvement is made 
by the use of chert and broken limestone. The streets of Hopkinton, which 
are naturally sandy at times have been covered with residual clay, chert and 
fragmentary limestone from a pit in the western edge of the town, and the 
results were very satisfactory. A stretch of road in sections 11 and 12, town- 
ship 87 north, range 4 west, formerly almost impassable by reason of deep 
sand, was put in excellent condition by the use of the same kind of material 
taken from the river bluff in the northeast quarter of section 11. A quarry in 
the northwest quarter of section 2, Milo Township, furnished a large amount 
of very desirable road material in the form of chert and limestone. Material 
of the same kind is generally distributed except in the prairie townships south- 
west of the Maquoketa. 

Residual chert alone is used to a large extent in Delaware, Oneida and 
Delhi townships. Some stretches of road in the central part of the county 
are provided by nature with a macadam of residual chert in place, and beds 
of fragmentary chert, grading down into beds of partially decayed chert and 
limestone, are coextensive almost with the outcrops of indurated rocks. 

In the Pleistocene formation the, most important road materials are the 
Buchanan gravels. These have been already described. The pit near Earl- 
ville, on the land of M. V. Newcomb, furnished a great amount of material 
for use on wagon roads but there are other deposits equally good that will 
have been developed and the material used on the loamy and clayey roads that 
at certain seasons of the year were impassable for loaded teams. The great 
pit in section 25, Bremen Township, was one of the largest in the county. 
The product has been used for ballast on the line of the Chicago Great West- 
ern Railway. The gravel deposits here occupy an area of several hundred 
acres in sections 25 and 26, and could supply material enough to improve the 
larger part of all the roads needing improvement in the entire county. A bed 
almost as extensive as that in Bremen occurs in sections 18 and 19, Richland 
Township. The townships of Honey Creek, Colony, Delaware, Oneida, Milo, 
Delhi and South Fork are also well supplied with gravels. Beds are also noted 
in Coffin's Grove and Prairie townships. There is no county better supplied 
with easily worked materials for the improvement of the ordinary prairie roads. 


Delaware County is well watered by streams which are in the main per- 
manent even in seasons of drouth. Springs are numerous and bountiful, the 
permanence of the streams being due largely to the volume of water which the 
springs supply. Along Elk Creek and its numerous tributaries there are many 
copious springs along the outcrop of the transition beds between the Maquoketa 
shales and the Niagara limestone. Springs also abound at the same horizon along 
Little Turkey River and its branches in Colony Township. At the Backbone 
in Richland Township there are a score or more of springs issuing from crevices 
in the shattered limestone below the horizon of Pentamerus oblongus. The 
same horizon is marked by springs, some of large volume, in Honey Creek and 

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Delaware townships, near Millheim, and in South Fork Township, near Hop- 
kinton. The splendid springs that supply Spring Creek, in section 35 of Dela- 
ware Township and in sections 2, 3 and 10, Milo Township, come from about 
the same geological level. The bountiful supply of pure spring water poured 
out from the rocks along the valley of this creek has afforded the opportunity 
for establishing here one of the largest and best equipped fish hatcheries under 
the control of the United States Fish Commission. Springs, in short, occur 
at intervals along all streams that cut their channels through the superficial 
deposits down into the indurated rocks. 

Well water is obtained in streaks of sand and gravel in the Pleistocene 
deposits. Formerly wells twenty to forty feet in depth afforded an unfailing 
supply of water throughout all the prairie portion of the county; but lately 
it has been necessary in most cases to bore through the drift and for some 
distance into the underlying rock, in order to get the volume of water needed 
on the ordinary farm. In the southern part of Prairie Township, for example, 
the drift series is from 80 to 120 feet in thickness, and the farm wells are bored 
from 70 to 100 feet, or even more, in the Magara limestone underlying the 
drift. The well on the old Barry place is 285 feet deep, and on land of S. M. 
Shofner, near the northeast corner of section 27, a well was bored to a depth of 
300 feet. On other farms in the same neighborhood the wells ranged in depth 
from 150 to 200 feet. 

While supplies of water for farm and isolated household purposes may be 
obtained in the drift, in the Niagara limestone or in the Maquoketa shales, 
are depths ranging from 20 to 300 feet, supplies for cities must be drawn 
either from permanent streams or from the great waters bearing sandstones 
that, throughout the county, lie at depths of 1,500 or 2,000 feet beneath the 
surface. Manchester obtained its water supply from a deep well reaching to 
the basal portion of the Saint Croix sandstone, or 1,870 feet. 


Water powers with head varying from eight to fourteen feet have been 
developed along the Maquoketa River at the following points: Forestville, 
Richland Township; Quaker Mills, Delaware Township; Manchester, Delaware 
Township; Hartwick, Delhi Township; Fleming's Mills, Delhi Township; Hop- 
kinton, South Fork Township. 

Mill sites on Honey Creek were found at Millheim, in section 3, and at 
two points in section 20, near Manchester, Delaware Township. The Foun- 
tain Spring Mills were built on Odell's branch of Elk Creek, in section 16, Elk 
Township. There is an abandoned site on Elk Creek about a mile south of the 
Clayton County line. A sawmill was once operated near the mouth of Plum 
Creek, and there was another on Buck Creek, in section 10, Union Township. 

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In the month of August, 1832, soon after the close of the Black Hawk war, 
a treaty was consummated between the Sac and Fox Indians and the United 
States, by which the Government acquired title to a strip of country extending 
westward from the banks of the Mississippi River fifty miles. The western 
boundary of the ceded territory ran parallel with the Father of Waters and 
included the present County of Delaware. The treaty went into effect in the 
month of June, 1833, and in the same month of the following year, the Black 
Hawk Purchase became a part of Michigan Territory. The Territorial Legis- 
lature, in September, then erected two counties west of the Mississippi — Dubuque 
and Des Moines — the dividing line being drawn westward from the foot of Rock 
Island, and the above named counties were, in a measure, organized. 

Michigan attained statehood and on July 4, 1836, Wisconsin Territory was 
organized, in which were included the counties of Dubuque and Des Moines. 
The first named county was divided, in 1837, into Dubuque, Delaware, Clayton, 
Fayette, Buchanan, Jackson, Jones, Linn, Benton, Clinton and Cedar, with 
definite boundaries. • To Dubuque the County of Delaware was attached for 
practically all purposes of a political unit. It contained sixteen congressional 
townships and had the following boundaries: Commencing at the northwest 
corner of township 90 north, range 2 west of the fifth principal meridian, thence 
west to the northwest corner of township 90 north, range 6 west, thence south 
on the west line of the sixth range of townships west to the southwest corner 
of township 87 north, range 6 west, thence east to the southwest corner of town- 
ship 87 north, range 6 west, thence north to place of beginning. On the north 
lay Clayton County; on the east, Dubuque County; on the south, Linn and 
Jones counties, and on the west, Buchanan County. 

By order of the county commissioners of Dubuque County, an election 
precinct for Delaware County was created, July 29, 1837, and known as 
Schwartz precinct. An election was ordered to be held that year, but no 
record of such an event at the time and place is now extant, to guide the his- 
torian. It appears of record, however, as shown by the minute-book kept by the 
clerk of the Dubuque County Commissioners * Court, for August of the year 
1837, that provision was made for the payment of election officials of Schwartz 
precinct : John W. Penn, Lucius Kibbee and Jacob Schwartz, judges, $1 each : 
6. D. Dillon, clerk, $1 ; William H. Morning, clerk and messenger, $4.50. The 
record also remains silent as to the number of votes cast at this first election 
in Delaware county, but the officers chosen were for Dubuque County and mem- 
bers of the Territorial Legislature. 

Yol. 1—4 


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The winter of 1839-40 found scarcely enough settlers in Delaware County 
to make a full school district and the locality was not represented in the Leg- 
islature, then sitting for the Territory of Iowa. Dubuque and Delaware coun- 
ties were not in harmony on internal affairs, owing to difficulties arising relat- 
ing to improvements, such as the laying out of territorial roads and the like. 
Dubuque County knew that ill time Delaware would have a separate existence 
and for that reason the parent organization was loathe to expend its means, 
or any part thereof, to the advantage of the other county. Therefore, it is said, 
the Dubuque people, taking time by the forelock and without consulting their 
neighbor, caused to be passed by the Territorial Legislature the following 
measure : 

"An act to provide for the organization of the County of Delaware, and to 
locate the seat of justice thereof. 

"Section 1. Be it enacted by the Council and House of Representatives of 
the Territory of Iowa: That the County of Delaware shall be organized for 
county purposes as other counties of this territory have heretofore been or- 

"Sec. 2. The seat of justice of said county shall be located by three com-' 
missioners, non-residents of said county, which said commissioners shall meet 
together on or before the first day of May next, 1840, and forthwith proceed to 
examine into and determine upon the most eligible point for the county seat of 
said county, having reference as far as practicable to a central situation, and 
also to the convenience of the present and prospective population. 

"Sec. 3. The said commissioners shall, before they enter upon the perform- 
ance of their said duties, take and subscribe before some district judge or jus- 
tice of the peace, the "following oath, to-wit: 'I, , one of the 

commissioners appointed to locate the seat of justice in and for the County of 
Delaware, do hereby swear by Almighty God, the searcher of all hearts, that I 
will perform the duty imposed by said appointment honestly and faithfully, 
according to the best of my understanding and abilities, and according to the 
law relative to locating said county seat ; and I do further swear, as aforesaid, 
that I am not interested in said location in any manner whatever, present or 
in expectancy, but that in locating said county seat, I will be actuated only by 
a desire for the best interests of said county, without the slightest partiality 
toward any person or persons, and without any bias from fear, favor or recom- 
pense, or the hope of gain or advantage to myself in any respect whatever. ' 

"Sec. 4. So soon as convenient, not exceeding fifteen days after the loca- 
tion shall have been made, the said commissioners, or a majority of them, shall 
make out and return to the governor a full statement or report of the place 
selected, describing the same as fully as practicable, which report, together with 
the foregoing affidavits, shall be filed in the office of the secretary of the ter- 
ritory, to remain of public record. 

"Sec. 5. The county shall, so soon as said report shall be filed, be con- 
sidered as a separate county, and shall have all the privileges and be subject 
to all laws and provisions now in force, or that may be hereafter in force, in 
regard to the counties of this territory, and shall proceed hereafter to elect their 

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county officers at the same time and in the same manner as in other organized 

"Sec. 6. The first general election shall be held, for the whole county, at 
the houses of William Eads, J. Schwartz and David Moreland; and thereafter, 
the county shall be divided, by the county commissioners-elect, into precincts, 
at the first regular meeting of their board after said first general election, so 
as to suit the convenience of the inhabitants generally. And the judges of said 
election shall seal up and direct the returns to the clerk of the Commissioners * 
Court of Dubuque County; and the said commissioners shall proceed to open 
and canvass the said returns, and enter the same upon their records ; and shall 
issue certificates, notifying the persons having a majority of votes for the differ- 
ent offices. 

"Sec. 7. The commissioners appointed to locate the seat of justice as afore- 
said, shall receive $3 per diem for the time they shall be actually engaged in 
locating the same, not exceeding ten days, together with $3 for every twenty 
miles' travel in going and returning to and from said county. 

"Sec. 8. S. B. Olmstead, of Clayton County, Shadrach Burliston, of Jack- 
son County, and Paul Cain, of Dubuque County shall (be) and they are hereby 
appointed commissioners to locate said county seat, under the provisions of 
this act. 

"Approved December 20, 1839.' ' 

The first intimation that the inhabitants of the sparsely settled County of 
Delaware had that the Legislature acted for them in giving the county a sepa- 
rate government from Dubuque County, was after the bill for its organization 
was passed and approved. However, the commissioners selected by the Legis- 
lature to locate the seat of justice did not meet on Mayl, 1840, the day appointed 
for the purpose, and it is probable that their failure so to do was actuated by 
the strenuous opposition to the contemplated organization on the part of the 
settlers. The way was now open for those most interested to take a hand in the 
proceedings and, at the extra session of the Legislature in July, an act was 
passed through their efforts, a copy of which is given below : 

"An act to amend an act entitled 'An act to provide for the organiza- 
tion of the County of Delaware, and to locate the county seat thereof.' 

"Whereas, The commissioners appointed by 'An act to provide for the 
organization of the County of Delaware, and to locate the seat of justice there- 
of/ approved December 20, 1839, did wholly fail to meet on the first day of 
May, 1840, be it enacted, etc., that William Smith, Sr., of Dubuque County; 
William Jones, of Jackson County, and Thomas Denson, of Jones County, are 
hereby appointed commissioners, to meet at the house of William Eads, in said 
county, on the first Monday of October, in the year of our Lord, 1840, or within 
ten days thereafter, and proceed to permanently locate the county seat in and 
for said county, according to the provisions and requirements of the act to which 
this is amendatory. 

"Sec. 2. That the eighth section of the act to which this is amendatory is 
hereby repealed. 

"Approved July 24, 1840." 

Following the directions laid down by the amended act of the Legislature, 
two of the three commissioners appointed to locate the county seat, William 

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Smith, Sr., of Dubuque County, and Thomas Denson, of Jones County, met at 
the house of William Eads, at Eads' Grove, now in Honey Creek township, 
to attend to the duties for which they were selected. After some deliberation 
the commissioners, as a matter of form, visited certain localities, among which 
was Bailey's Ford, where Joel Bailey had settled, and determined it to be a 
very desirable point for the county seat. Here three essential prerequisites 
were in evidence: Wood, water and healthful surroundings. The site for a 
town was excellent and the Maquoketa afforded splendid water privileges. None 
of these blessings was to be had nearer the geographical center of the county. 
But the chances for Bailey's Ford were not very encouraging. William Eads, 
a close friend, had the ear of Commissioner Smith, in favor of his choice and 
Judge Bailey was so informed by Commissioner Denson. The latter suggested 
to Judge Bailey that if he would give to the county forty acres on section 9, 
at a mill site on the Maquoketa River, he would not be averse to Bailey's Ford 
becoming the seat of justice. The reply to this plan was that Eads' Grove 
would not be satisfactory to the people and that section 9 (in Milo) was not 
a good location. Judge Bailey thereupon suggested that the commissioners 
would do well to take into consideration Penn's Grove and the Lake section of 
country. , 

Bailey's Ford being out of the running, so to speak, "The Lake" was visited 
and carefully examined. The locality strongly appealed to Denson as being 
a likely place for the county seat and he so expressed himself. Not so Commis- 
sioner Smith. The latter, still under the influence of Eads, favored Eads' 
Grove. This brought on an issue between the two commissioners, in which 
Jones, of Jackson County, took no part, as he was not present at the time, 
nor does it appear that he was consulted in the matter. A trivial circumstance 
decided the contention. History has it that the commissioners, after return- 
ing to their homes, became alive to the fact that if they failed in consummat- 
ing their purpose they would not be entitled to any pay for the two weeks' 
time spent. Thereupon, so says Charles W. Hobbs, Smith suggested to Denson 
that they had taken up considerable time in their arduous efforts to fix the 
locktion. It therefore was incumbent upon them, in order to draw their pay, 
to finish the work set before them. "Now," continued Smith, "I think Eads' 
Grove the best place; you think 'The Lake' the most eligible. We can't agree, 
and Jones isn't here. Suppose we flip a dollar!" "Agreed," said Denson, 
and Smith won. At once Smith chose the south part of Eads' Grove, on section 
3, in Delaware Township, later the site of Millheim, or "Dutch Town." Thus, 
the first county seat of Delaware was selected, and named by Commissioner 
Smith, Elizabeth, after Mrs. Elizabeth Bennett, the first white female settler 
in the county. 

The action of the county seat commissioners and its results were far from 
meeting the views and wishes of the greatest portion of the settlers, and they 
were determined that the work should be undone, if there was any possibility 
to do so. At a mass meeting held in the southern part of the county, resolutions 
were unanimously adopted, protesting against; the Smith selection for a county 
seat and denouncing the commissioners for the part they played in the trans- 
action. It was also settled at this meeting that a petition should be sent to the 
Legislature, praying for permission to re-locate the county seat by a vote 

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of the people, as they had every faith in their ability to make a suitable selec- 
tion — one that would far better meet the wishes and conveniences of the actual 
settlers than that arbitrarily and "flippantly won for a bosom friend, by a 
commissioner prejudiced in favor of one against the many. The result of this 
agitation appeared in petitions signed by almost every settler in the county 
except those living at Eads' Grove and vicinity. 

Upon presentation of the petition to the Legislature a bill was drafted and 
reported from the committee, to which the matter was referred, providing that 
the county seat should be located by the electorate of Delaware County, at the 
general election in August following. There was no opposition to the measure 
except from Dr. Timothy Mason, of Dubuque, who took the position that from 
the importance of locating a county seat the question could not safely be en- 
trusted to the people most interested. As the organization of the County of 
Delaware had been partially accomplished by outside influences (chiefly on the 
part of Dubuque County), the sapient doctor contended that outsiders should 
have full charge in selecting the seat of justice. The bill passed, notwithstanding 
Mason's interested efforts, and became a law January 13, 1841. On the same 
day that the above named measure was approved, the Legislature also passed 
and approved an act to establish a territorial road from the Town of Dubuque 
to Camp Atkinson, and Calvert Roberts, Samuel L. Clifton and Joseph Hewitt 
were appointed locating commissioners thereof. That part of the act relating 
to Dubuque County was subsequently repealed, but on July 11, 1845, the repeal 
was reconsidered and Peter S. Sharp, David Moreland and William A. Ander- 
son were appointed by the Legislature to re-locate the road through Dubuque 
County and, by way of the "Colony" and Eads' Grove, to Camp Atkinson. 


The settlers, by virtue of the law, were now enabled to choose for themselves 
the place most desirable and convenient for the county seat. In order that all 
might take part in its selection, a mass meeting was held, under call, at Penn's 
Grove, where pertinent matters were discussed in a harmonious manner, after 
which a committee was appointed to select a location for the county seat. This 
committee was composed of Joel Bailey, Leroy Jackson, William H. Whiteside, 
Roland Aubrey, S. P. Whitaker, John W. Penn and Cyrus Keeler. Shortly 
thereafter, four members of this committee, Bailey, Aubrey, Whiteside and 
Jackson, met at Penn's Grove, and from thence proceeded to the geographical 
center of the county, near the present Town of Delaware. Upon actual view of 
the locality the sub-committee reached the conclusion that the spot was not 
available for the purpose and the same decision was reached upon view of the 
region in the timber southwest on Spring Branch. Following the stream from 
here to its confluence with the Maquoketa River, two miles west and two miles 
south of the geographical center, one or two members of the committee were 
favorably impressed with the surroundings, but all were not satisfied and the 
determination was reached to examine "The Lake," or Silver Lake, bordering 
on the future Town of Delhi. Here the viewers found a beautiful body of water, 
surrounded by burr-oak groves, in which was a large spring of pure and limpid 
water. Having an abundance of the essentials, wood, water, altitude and a pure 

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atmosphere, the site was selected and the first great struggle for popular rights 
in Delaware County ended in a victory for the people. 


As the records of the county commissioners of Duhuque County show, the 
election for county officers. and the location of a seat of justice in Delaware 
County took place August 2, 1841, and thirty-six ballots were cast. The returns 
were made to the clerk of the board of county commissioners for Dubuque 
County and were carried to Dubuque, a distance of forty-five miles, by Charles 
W. Hobbs, who walked all the way to his destination and back, arriving in 
Dubuque about nine o'clock of the last day on which the returns legally could be 
filed. The county commissioners of Dubuque County met on the 4th day of 
October, 1841, and canvassed the Delaware County ballots, upon which they 
declared the following named persons elected to the several offices provided for : 
Commissioners, William H. Whiteside, William Eads, Daniel Brown; sheriff, 
Leroy Jackson; treasurer, Robert B. Hutson; recorder, John Padelford; sur- 
veyor, Joel Bailey ; probate judge, Roland Aubrey ; assessor, Fayette Phillips ; 
coroner, William L. Woods; public administrator, Theodore Marks; constable 
for Schwartz precinct, Hawley Lowe; Eads ? precinct, William Evans. 

There were thirty-one votes cast at this election for the location of the county 
seat, of which township (Delhi) 88 north, range 4 west, southeast quarter of 
section 17, received twenty-five votes, and the abortive capital of the county, 
Elizabeth, six votes. 


Chapter 87 of the Territorial Laws of 1844, approved February 8, 1844, 
provided that "the County of Delaware be and the same is hereby organized; 
and the inhabitants of said county, are entitled to all the rights and privileges to 
which, by law, the inhabitants of other organized counties in the territory are 
entitled; and said county shall be a part of the Third .Judicial District, and the 
District Court shall be held at Delhi, the county seat of said county, on the first 
Monday after the fourth Monday in September, in each year." By this act, 
Buchanan and Black Hawk counties were attached to Delaware. 

Soon after the passage of this act, Charles W. Hobbs was appointed clerk, 
pro tern, of the United States District Court for the County of Delaware, by- 
Judge T. S. Wilson. 


In the act to divide the Territory of Wisconsin and to establish the Terri- 
torial Government of Iowa, Congress (June 12, 1838), extended over to the new 
territory the existing laws of Wisconsin, "so far as the same are not incompatible 
with the provisions of the act of separation." This measure was but a provi- 
sional one, however, subject to be altered, modified or repealed by the governor 
and legislative assembly of Iowa. A law of Wisconsin Territory, approved 
December 20, 1837, had established a board of county commissioners in each 

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county and this was the law of Iowa Territory until December 14, 1838, when 
our Territorial Legislature passed a similar law. This was a statute of twenty- 
two sections, in which the powers and duties of county commissioners were 
clearly defined. This law, amended in some particulars, was reenacted in 1843. 

As a county board the commissioners were " considered a body corporate and 
politic,' ' and could "sue and be sued, plead and be impleaded, defend and be 
defended, answer and be answered unto, in any court, either in law or equity." 
They were required to hold four sessions, — on the first Mondays in April, July, 
October and January respectively, — in every year. Any two of the commis- 
sioners were competent to do business. Their compensation was limited to $2 
per day; and the total number of days occupied at the regular sessions of the 
board in any one year could not legally exceed eighteen. All records and pro- 
ceedings were kept by a clerk, who was for a time appointed by the board, but 
afterwards elected by the people. 

The authority of the commissioners was remarkably wide and comprehensive 
— perhaps greater than that of any subsequent local administrative body. They 
were entrusted with the supervision of finance and taxation. At their April 
session they received, inspected and, if necessary, revised the assessor's books, 
and levied a county tax ; and as directed from time to time by law, they levied a 
territorial tax. They were empowered to organize the county into townships; 
to divide the county into road districts, and to form school districts. They were 
authorized to lay off towns, establish, change, open and vacate roads, and occa- 
sionally divide the county into commissioner districts. They created election 
precincts, appointed judges of election and fixed the place of holding local 
elections. They were required to prepare lists cff persons for grand and petit 
juries ; to furnish suitable rooms for the District Court ; to procure for the county 
a set of weights and measures. They were entrusted with the entire and exclu- 
sive supervision of the poor in the county, and were authorized to build poor 
houses and work houses for paupers. They could borrow money for the erection 
of courthouses ; could appoint agents to dispose of the county real estate ; could 
select a county seal; could grant grocery licenses, and license ferries. They 
ordered special elections; appointed road supervisors, and filled vacancies in 
various county offices. 

Besides the county commissioners the other officers of the county were: a 
treasurer, a sheriff, a recorder, a surveyor, a coroner, a public administrator, 
'justices of the peace and constables. It was under the law providing for 
commissioners that Delaware County began its career. 

The boards of county commissioners administered the government of their 
respective counties until the adoption of the Code of 1851, when the county 
judge was invested with the usual powers and jurisdiction of a commissioner 
and of a judge of probate, and with such other powers and jurisdiction as are 
conferred by this statute. The county judge was a functionary with multifarious 
duties and he wielded an immense power within his proper county. The major- 
ity of counties chose good men and the system had many friends but the tempta- 
tions which were presented in many counties — especially in some of the newer 
ones in the Northwest — were too strong to be resisted by the greedy adventurers 
who went thither among the pioneer settlers. 

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However, the old county judge system continued to be the law of the state 
until the Eighth General Assembly, after a protracted and bitter contest, passed 
what was popularly known as the county supervisor law, which was included in 
the revision df 1860. This provided for a board of supervisors consisting of one 
from each civil township, to which was committed the administration of county 
affairs. This law remained on the statute book until the adoption of the Code 
of 1873, when the number was reduced to three persons in each county, except 
in certain specified cases, when it could be increased to five or seven. With this 
amendment, the county supervisors law has remained with no material change 
until the present time. 

The intent in the passage of the county supervisors law was evidently to 
found a representative system similar to that of the State of New York, where 
the organization of each town or township is independent and complete in itself, 
in which "home rule" prevails and in which most of the functions of civil gov- 
ernment legally affecting the interests of the people are exercised. In New York 
a bridge may be built by the people of a town, but in Iowa the authority of the 
county had to be invoked. This condition of things led to burdening the board 
with duties and obligations which should have been acted upon and discharged 
by the township authorities. That defect in the law resulted in a system of 
"log rolling," which detracted from its popularity at the beginning. In order 
to secure needed improvements in their own localities, members of the boards 
were too often compelled to vote for schemes which they otherwise would have 
opposed. This state of things led to the reduction of the membership of the 
boards to where it still remains. 

The county judges, deprived of their functions as administrators of the 
business affairs of the counties, still retained the probate business until the 
establishment of the Circuit and General Term courts. Their duties were 
assigned to the first named court. By a law of the Twelfth General Assembly 
creating the office of county auditor, it was further enacted — "That the county 
judge in each county shall be, ex officio auditor after the 1st day of January, 
1869, and shall discharge the duties of county auditor until the auditor shall be 
elected and qualified; and after the said auditor shall be elected and qualified, 
the office of county judge shall cease. ' ' 

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On the 19th day of November, 1841, at the house of William Eads, at Eads' 
Grove, the commissioners of Delaware County met for the first time and per- 
fected the new entity's organization. From the fact that William H. White- 
side's name was first on the list of commissioners and in the absence of any 
record as a further guide, it is presumed he was placed in the chair. Charles W. 
Hobbs was appointed clerk to the board and performed his duties efficiently and 
satisfactorily. It is presumed the officials all took the oath of office prescribed 
by the statutes and entered into bond for the faithful performances of their 
several duties. 

It goes without saying that the county at this time had no money in its treas- 
ury. There were but a few families within its borders and they were busily 
engaged in securing a foothold in the new county, chosen for homes for them- 
selves and their children. They had little money. But it was essential that the 
new government should keep moving on its way to completion and in order to 
accomplish its aims one of the first essential moves was the acquisition of the 
land chosen for the county seat. With no money in the treasury and credit nil, 
the county did not start out on its career under very propitious conditions. 
Be that as it may, a move forward was absolutely necessary. The exigency must 
be met and to further this end, on the 20th day of November it was ' ' Ordered, 
that William H. Whiteside be and he is hereby authorized to borrow money to 
enter the county seat, and he is not to exceed 40 per cent interest for the 
loan thereof; and that he enter the quarter section on which the county seat 
is located, for the benefit of the county board.' ' 

The second meeting of the board of commissioners convened at the house 
of John W. Penn, January 17, 1842, at which time it was ordered that Fayette 
Phillips be appointed county assessor; Charles W. Hobbs, county recorder; 
Robert B. Hutson, county treasurer; and Joel Bailey, county surveyor. Why 
these appointments were made does not appear by the record, as all of the 
appointees except Hobbs had been elected in the previous August. On the 18th, 
John W. Penn was appointed county collector, and Daniel Beck, constable, in 
Eads' precinct. 

Commissioner Whiteside, who had been appointed a committee of one to 
borrow money for the purchase of land entered for the county seat, reported 
his failure to secure the requisite funds and at the January meeting the order 
appointing him for the purpose was rescinded. Thereupon, on the 18th of Jan- 
uary, 1842, the board passed the following: 

44 Ordered that Daniel Brown be and he is hereby authorized and empowered 
to borrow money on the best terms he can, not to exceed 25 per cent, 



to enter the county seat, and if he can get the money, he is authorized to 
enter the county seat as soon as the money is procured, without any delay, 
for the use and benefit of the county." 

As up to that time no name had been given the county seat, and the 
county commissioners not being willing to take the responsibility of giving the 
county capital, a title, they left the matter to a number of their constituents, who 
were at Penn's Grove attending this session of the commissioners ' court. Among 
them several names were suggested. J. W. Penn mentioned Chester. Marys- 
ville, in honor of Mrs. Mary E. A. Hobbs, was also suggested. Joel Bailey and 
John Keller proposed Delhi as a suitable name, giving as a plausible reason 
that Delhi was the county seat of Delaware County, New York. Upon a vote 
being taken on all the names that came before the assembly, Delhi received 
the greatest number. The result of the informal vote being reported to the 
commissioners, the following action was taken: 

"Ordered, That the county seat of Delaware County be and it is hereby 
called and named Delhi. 

' ' Ordered, That the county surveyor proceed to survey and lay off the county 
seat into lots, on the 15th day of March, or as soon thereafter as the weather 
will permit. 

"Ordered, That the county commissioners shall meet the county surveyor 
at the county seat on the 15th day of March, or as soon thereafter as the weather 
\yill permit.' ' 

At the same session of this court the commissioners * ' Ordered, that the pres- 
ent seal of this board be ' (C C),' and that it shall be affixed to any instrument 
of writing appertaining to this board, which may require a seal thereto/ 9 

Another matter of some importance to the newly organized county took 
place on January 18, 1842, wherein the Territorial Legislature approved an 
act to locate and establish a territorial road ' ' from the county seat of Delaware 
to Dillon's mill; thence, across the river and running the east side of the 
Maquoketa to the falls on said river, at the Town of West Cascade." For this 
purpose, Joel Bailey, of Delaware County, Edward Steel, of Dubuque County, 
and Mahon Lupton, of Jones County, were appointed the commissioners. By 
an act approved February 16, 1842, the Maquoketa River was declared to be a 
public highway for navigable purposes whatsoever and owners of mill dams 
and other dams were required "forthwith to construct such chutes or locks, 
at least 20 feet wide and 120 feet long, for the passage of flatboats or other 
boats, crafts, etc." 

The county commissioners met at the house of John W. Penn on April 4, 

1842. Eugene Hubbard, David Moreland and Montgomery, were 

appointed judges of election in Moreland precinct; Clement Calkin, Morris 
Reed and Henry W. Lyons, judges of Eads* precinct; and Abram Whiteside, 
John Corbin and John Keeler, judges of election in Schwartz ' precinct, for 
the year 1842. 

At this session the board provided for the payment of Surveyor Bailey and 
his assistants for laying out the Town of Delhi. 

But on the following day, April 5th, Daniel Brown, who had been authorized 
by the board to borrow money to enter the county seat, reported his failure so 
to do, whereupon, the board took action as follows : 

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" Ordered, That William H. Whiteside be, and he is hereby, appointed to 
attend to the entry of the county seat, and if it is entered to obtain a bond from 
H. W. Sanford, for the execution of a deed to the county upon the payment of 
the entry money with 25 per cent interest. 

'•'Ordered, That William H. Whiteside be and he is hereby authorized to 
sign a note in the name of the county commissioners for the payment of the 
money borrowed to enter the county seat." 

The board on April 6th, ordered the place of election in Schwartz' precinct 
•changed to the house of John Corbin, and as the courthouse, which had volun- 
tarily been built by the settlers needed a roof, windows, door, etc., the com- 
missioners "Ordered, That William Eads be and he is hereby authorized to 
contract with a carpenter for work to be done on the courthouse at Delhi, accord- 
ing to a bill of particulars, and he is limited not to exceed $65 for the same, to 
be paid in county orders.' ' 

The board again met July 5, 1842, and ordered the payment of $12 each 
to Samuel Clifton, Joseph Hewitt, Calvert Roberts and Alfred Brown, for 
services rendered in laying out the road from Dubuque to Camp Atkinson. 
An order was also passed for paying Alfred Wilson and Moses Hewitt, as chain- 
men, and George Culver, as stake driver. 

Under an act passed by the Territorial Assembly, February 10, 1842, the 
county commissioners were required to pay William Smith, Sr., William Jones 
and Thomas Denson, $3 per day for their services as commissioners in locating 
the county seat in 1840, "out of any money in the county treasury of said 
county not otherwise appropriated. ' ' 

Smith at once presented his bill but there was no money in the treasury and 
it did not appear that there would be any for some time to come. However, 
the following order was /passed by the commissioners: 

"Ordered, That William Smith, surveyor of Dubuque County, be paid $42 
out of the treasury in any money not otherwise appropriated, for his services 
in locating the county seat of Delaware County, as per account filed in this 

The first action of the commissioners in relation to county roads appears 
of record at the July session, when it was 

"Ordered, That the road running from the Dubuque road, near Mr. Floids, 
to the white oak grove, from thence to pass the schoolhouse and intersect the 
road running from Prairie du Chien to the county line of Delaware, be and the 
same is hereby established as a public county road, and that David Moreland, 
Missouri Dickson and W. Wiltse are hereby appointed commissioners to locate 
the same, and that Ezra Hubbard is hereby appointed supervisor of the same." 

The first action taken by the board in relation to the fixing of rates of taxes 
for the year 1842, took place at the July session, and is as follows : Levy on 
taxable property for county purposes, 4% mills on the dollar ; poll tax on every 
white male inhabitant between twenty-one and fifty years of age, $1 ; territorial 
tax on all taxable property in the county, one-fourth mill on the dollar. 

The first tax assessed in Delaware was in 1842 and the first assessment roll 
has been carefully preserved and is now a part of the public archives of the 

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county. The document was written on two sheets of letter paper by Charles W. 
Hobbs, clerk of the commissioners ' court and is hereto attached in its entirety: 



John Corbin $3.14% 

Lucius Kibbee, Jr 2.17^ 

William Eads 3.47y 2 

Henry W. Lyons 1.95 

Robert B. Hutson 3.47y 2 

Thomas Eads 2.08y 2 

John Clark 2.25 

Adin Paddleford 1.75 

William R. Paddleford 2.04y 2 

Clement Coffin 2.12y 2 

Charles Osborn 25 

Emily Tubbs 25 

James Cole 1.45*4 

James Montgomery 2.10 

Leonard Wiltse 2.42% 

Wellington Wiltse 2.27y 2 

David Moreland 5.13 

Jacob Landis 1.70 

John Melugin 2.20 

Missouri Dickson 4.40 

James Rutherford 2.05 

Ezra Hubbard 2.35 

Gilbert D. Dillon 3.00 

Duncan McCullom 2.05 

Job Benson 1.65 

William Burnham 2.00 

Samuel Whitaker 4.65 

Joseph Rutherford 2.63% 

Orlean Blanchard 1.00 

William Hoag 50 

Joseph Ogleby 1.00 

Payette Phillips 2.40y 2 

Simeon Phillips 1.72 

Richard P. Barrett 4.00 

Eleazor Venters (Prentress) 9.50 

James Crawford 4.00 

John Keeler 2.77% 

John W. Penn 1.20 

William McMullin 1.50 

Joel Pike 75 

William Davis 75 


Is to pay $3.30; paid. 

Hobbs pays; paid. 


Holt pays. 






Hobbs pays; paid. 





Paid $1.27%; $1.00. 

Paid; over age; $l.O0. 

Paid $2.70. 



Cr. 60 paid ; paid. 

Paid; Cr. Blacker, 65. 

Paid L. J. 

Paid $1.05. 


Over age ; $1.00. 


Hobbs pays. 


Burnham to pay 25. 


S. Philip is to pay 2; paid. 


Paid $2 (illegible), 2.00. 




Paid over; 30 due J. H. P. 

Eads paid. 



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James Eads 1.53% 

Abraham Whitesides 2.87% 

John Cutler 1.50 

D. R. Dance 2.25 

Josiah Fugate 1.06% 

John B. Bennoist 1.62% 

W. L. Woods 1.25 

Edmund Seoggins 1.40 

Daniel Brown 1.65 

Morris Reed • 1.41% 

Alexander Browne 2.17% 

John Hinkle 1.37% 

Hiram Minkley (Minkler) 1.38 

Horace Tubbs 1.30 

Henry Baker 2.22% 

Jacob Clark 1.14 " 

Joseph Lull 1.50% 

Charles W. Hobbs 1.92% 

Thomas Coal (Cole) 2.27% 

William Montgomery 1.12% 

Albert Baker 1.30 

Cylus (Silas) Gilmore 1.75 

R. Torents (Torrence) 1.25 

Morris Dean 1.40 

John Bradley 1.96 

William Hite 25 

Hawley Lowe 1.45 

O. A. Olmsted ! . . . 1.47% 

John Delong 1.82% 

Hugh Livingston 1.30 

Angus Madison . . . .• 1.42% 

Hugh Rose 1.57% 

John Livingston . ., 1.60 

James Livingston 1.60 

Rheinard Kameron 1.13 

Arthur Laughlin 1.13% 

Roland Aubrey 1.55 

Leroy Jackson 2.22% 

Henry A. Carter 1.40 

Hannah Carter 85 

Jefferson Lowe 1.12% 

William Nicholson 1.25 

Henry W. Hoskins 1.00 

John Paddleford 1.00 

Allen Fargo 1.00 

Phipps Wiltse 3.00 

Liberty Coale (Cole) 1.00 

Jacob Moreland 1.00 




Hobbs pays; paid. 



Hobbs pays ; paid. 







Eads is to pay. 

Over age; $1.00 paid. 

Hobbs pays; paid. 

Eads pays. 

Over age; $1.00 paid. 

Paid 30 cents. 











Paid 60; L. J. 60 paid. 

Over age; $1.00 paid; 60. 




Paid; L. J. 

Hobbs pays; paid. 

Hobbs pays ; paid. 

Paid; L. J. 

Paid; L. J. 





Digitized by 



Joel Bailey 1.00 Paid. 

Cyrus Keeler 1.00 Paid. 

Amesy (Amasa) Wiltse 1.00 

Theodore Marks , 1.00 Paid. 

George Cutler 1.00 Paid. 

John Stansberry, paid 1.00 Paid. 

Charles Bennoist 1.00 Paid. 

W. H. Whiteside, pole 1.00 

William Hite, pole 1.00 Paid. 

Credit $177,613,4 

By error in Barrett's tax 25 


(The following are in a different handwriting, but the payments noted are 
by the same hand as the foregoing:) 

A. J. Blackman 1.00 Paid. 

James Cabinow 50 Paid. 

Frank Mefet (Moffatt) 50 Hobbs pays. 

Daniel Thornsburg 1.00 

Franklin Culver 1.50 Paid $1.00. 

Samuel Kelly 1.20 Paid. 

Iria A. Blanchard 25 Paid ; L. J. 

Laurense Mulican 1.00 

Theophilus Crof ord 50 Paid. 

Jacob Landis 1.00 Paid. 

Abner Eads 1.00 Paid. 




Delaware County, Iowa Territory, ss. : In the name of the United States of 
America, Iowa Territory, to-wit : 

Leroy Jackson, Collector of Taxes for Delaware County: You are hereby 
commanded to collect the taxes charged in the foregoing abstract of assessment 
roll, by demanding payment of the persons charged therein, and sale of their 
goods and chattels, severally, or by sale of the tracts of land or lots mentioned 
in said abstract, according to exigency, and that you pay over all moneys 
collected by you by virtue of this precept, as directed thereby, monthly, and 
that you return this precept, together with the abstract of the aforegoing roll, 
and an account of your acts thereon, to me on or before the first day of January 
next ensuing date hereof. Charles W. Hobbs, 

Clerk to County Commissioners of Delaware County, Iowa Territory. 

September 5, 1842. 

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The reader will have noted with some pleasure, if not considerable surprise, 
the closeness with which the tax of 1842 was collected. 

William H. Whiteside, Simeon Phillips and Missouri Dickson were elected 
county commissioners at the regular election held in August, 1842, and held 
their first session of the Commissioners ' Court on the 4th of October following, 
at the house of Mr. Penn. At this time the court appointed Simeon Phillips 
as contractor for " finishing the courthouse according to a bill of particulars, 
the whole not to exceed in cost $65, to be paid in county orders.' ' John Hinkle 
was appointed supervisor for that part of the territorial road from Dubuque 
to Camp Atkinson, running through Eads' precinct. 

At the meeting of the Board of County Commissioners in January, 1843, 
Theodore Marks, county treasurer, was ordered to obtain an account book. 
The treasurer's book of 1843 contained the following entries of money received: 
January 4, Q. D. Dillon, justice of the peace, fined Joseph Gallahan for breach 
of the peace on Lucius Kibbee, $5. 

January 12, James Rotherford, constable, fine of Horace Mallory for breach 
of the peace, by William Montgomery, justice of the peace, $5. 

January 25, William Montgomery, justice of the peace, fined Missouri 
Dickson for breach of the peace on Ezra Hubbard, $5. 

July 20, licenses to David Brier to trade one year (warrants), $25. 

April 4, 1843, the Commissioners ' Court met at the house of Simeon Phillips, 
at which time Rufus B. Clark, Doctor Brewer and Stephen Sanford were ap- 
pointed judges of election for Buchanan precinct for 1843. The house of James 
Sanford was designated as the voting place. This would indicate that Buchanan 
County was attached to Delaware at this period. At the same meeting John 
Hinkle, supervisor of the territorial road at Eads Point precinct, was removed 
and Daniel Brown appointed in his place. 

On April 4, the commissioners ordered that Lewis Walls, a pauper in Eads' 
precinct, be notified to leave the county. 

The board met at the house of Simeon Phillips on July 3d and received a 
petition for a county road from Delhi to the " Colony.' ' The proposed road 
had been "staked out" by the settlers in 1842 and a bridge built by them 
across Plum Creek but a county road was now desired. It was thereupon 
"Ordered, That the petition for a road from Delhi to the Colony be and the 
same is hereby granted and that Missouri Dickson, John Keeler and Charles 
W. Hobbs be, and they are hereby appointed viewers to locate the same. ,, 

At a meeting of the board convened January 6, 1844, the viewers who had 
employed Joel Bailey as surveyor, made a report of their work, which was 
accepted by the board and the road was ordered as surveyed, to be regarded 
as a county road. 

The commissioners at this July meeting ordered that William Eads be paid 
$18 for keeping Lewis Walls, a pauper, three months, and Walls was notified 
to leave the county as ordered. Eads was also employed to board said pauper 
twelve weeks longer and to purchase for him two cotton shirts and two pairs 
of cotton drilling pantaloons. 

In August, 1843, at the regular election the old board of commissioners 
was reelected and held its first session of the court October 2d. One of the first 
acts of that body was to notify James Miller, a pauper, to leave the county at 

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once. At the January term of the Commissioners' Court, held at the house 
of Simeon Phillips, it was ordered that "the returns made of the survey of the 
Colony road from Delhi be, and the same is hereby accepted, and ordered to 
be recorded as a public county road." 

The courthouse was still in an unfinished state. The county had been unable 
to borrow funds, but notwithstanding, the board passed an order on January 
2d, Authorizing William H. Whiteside to "contract for the finishing of the 
courthouse.' ' 

At the April session the commissioners met at the house of Simeon Phillips 
and provided for election precincts as follows: 

"Ordered, That the election precinct formerly known as the 'Corbin Pre- 
cinct' (formerly Schwartz), be and the same is hereby divided into two election 
precincts, one of which shall be called the Delhi Precinct, and the other the 
North Fork Precinct. 

"Ordered, That the North Fork Precinct shall be bounded on the north 
by the road leading from Dubuque to Camp Atkinson, commencing at the 
county line between Dubuque and Delaware, running west until it intersects 
the Colony road, from Delhi ; thence south, to Plum Creek ; thence down Plum 
Creek until its junction with the South Fork ; thence down South Fork, to Jones 
County line; thence east, along the corner of Delaware County; thence north, 
along the county line between Delaware and Dubuque, to the place of be- 

"Ordered, That the Colony Precinct be bounded as follows: Commencing 
where the Colony road from Delhi crosses the Camp Atkinson road, running 
east, along the Camp Atkinson road, to th^ Dubuque county line ; north, on the 
Dubuque line, to the northeast corner of Delaware; thence west, along the 
county line, to Elk Creek ; thence south, up Elk Creek, to the place of beginning. 

"Ordered, That the Eads Precinct be bounded as follows: Commencing 
where the Colony road, leading from Delhi, crosses the Camp Atkinson road; 
thence north, down Elk Creek, to Delaware County line; thence west, to the 
northwest corner of the county; thence south, along the county line, to the 
township line between 88 and 89 ; thence east, to Plum Creek ; thence up Plum 
Creek, to the Colony road ; thence north, along the Colony road, to the place of 

"Ordered, That the Delhi Precinct shall be bounded as follows: Com- 
mencing on the township line between 88 and 89 on Plum Creek, thence south 
down Plum Creek to its junction with the South Fork ; thence down the South 
Fork to the southern boundary of Delaware County; thence west along said 
line to the southwest corner of Delaware County; thence north along said line 
between Delaware and Buchanan to the township line dividing 88 and 89 
north; thence east to the place of beginning." 


On the 2d day of July, 1844, the county commissioners for the first time met 
in the courthouse. The floors were laid but the building was devoid of any 
covering, as the roof had not yet been put on. As the Legislature had appointed 
the United States District Court to be held at Delhi, in September following, 

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the completion of the building could not much longer be delayed, and William 
H. Whiteside was this time authorized and directed to "have the courthouse 
finished on the best terms he could get." It was also ordered that "the bounty 
on wolves for 1844 be equal with and the same as other counties and as shall 
be by law." 

Henry A. Carter, Lawrence McNamee and Simeon Phillips were elected 
county commissioners. They held their first session on the 31st day of August, 
1844. It was "Ordered, That the road as returned by 0. A. Olmstead and Leroy 
Jackson, as a territorial road, commencing at the Linn County line and running 
to 0. A. Olmstead 's mill, according to a plat and return of said road as filed, 
be and the same is hereby recorded as a public road. ' ' 

At the October session the commissioners passed an order to pay Thomas 
Denson $36 out of the money in the treasury not otherwise appropriated for 
service in locating the old county seat in 1840. 

Three years had now passed since the commissioners first made strenuous 
efforts to obtain money with which to enter the quarter section on which the 
county seat was located. The Town of Delhi had been platted but no lots could 
be sold, or rather no title could be given, until the county had received its 
patent from the Government. The town was only one in name. The only 
building was the courthouse, partially constructed by the settlers. It was now 
high time that persistent efforts to raise the money should be inaugurated, and 
on the 8th of October, 1844, the commissioners acted as follows: "Ordered, 
That Henry A. Carter be and he is hereby authorized and empowered to borrow 
money to enter the county seat, or one eighty if he cannot get more, and he is 
authorized to pay 25 per cent for the loan of the same." 

At the same session an order was passed directing the payment of $16 
to John W. Penn, for summoning grand and petit juries for the District Court 
for the September term, 1844. Buchanan County being attached to Delaware, 
figures in the following mandate: "Ordered, That the returns of the survey 
of the territorial road running from the Cedar Rapids, in Linn County, to the 
Wapsipinicon Rapids, in Buchanan County, as it runs through Buchanan 
County, be and the same is hereby accepted and recorded as a public road as 
per report. " • 

The commissioners met at the house of C. W. Hobbs, on January 5, 1855, 
as there was no fireplace in the courthouse, and the weather was very cold. 
Mr. Hobbs' cabin was on the edge of the new county seat. At this meeting 
it was 

"Ordered, That Joel Bailey shall proceed, with David Moreland, Missouri 
Dickson and Wellington Wiltse, to survey a public road, as viewed by them 
according to an order passed July 5, 1842, running from the Dubuque road, 
near Mr. Floid's to the White Oak Grove, from thence to pass the schoolhouse 
and intersect the road running from Prairie du Chien to the county line of 
Delaware, and that said commissioners make due return of the same. ' ' 

The board held a session on March 8, 1855, meeting at the house of Charles 
W. Hobbs, at which time Joel Bailey was appointed county treasurer to fill 
the vacancy caused by the death of Drury R. Dance, who had been murdered. 
The same day John W. Penn, county sheriff, was ' ' authorized and empowered to 

Vol. I— ft 

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borrow money for the use of the county to ,def ray the expense of boarding Jef- 
ferson Lowe, now confined in tjie Dubuque County jail." 

At the April term, 1846, of the Commissioners' Court, held at the court- 
house, the report of the commissioners appointed January 5th to locate the 
road from the Dubuque road to Mr. Floid's, to White Oak Grove, was accepted 
and the road was ordered to be recorded as a public highway. Joel Bailey de- 
clined to accept the office of county treasurer and in his stead, Oliver A. Olm- 
stead was appointed to the office. At the April session the following acts of 
the court were passed: 

" Ordered, That the west line of the North Pork Precinct shall cross the 
South Fork of the Maquoketa at the mouth of Plum Creek, to intersect the 
mouth of Buck Creek, and run from thence a west course up Buck Creek to the 
Delaware County line. 

"Ordered, That the election for the North Fork Precinct shall hereafter 
be held at the house of Lucius Kibbee, instead of at G. D. Dillon's. 

"Ordered, That the north line of the Delhi Precinct shall commence at 
stake corner to sections 18 and 19, in township 89 north and range 6 west, 
thence east through the center of said township to Plum Creek." 

May 23d, the treasurer was instructed to proceed by law to collect fines of 
$5 each from D. G. Dillon, of North Fork, Amos Williams, Colony, and Daniel 
Thornburg, Eads' Grove, for neglecting to qualify as precinct commissioners. 

It seems thaj; at last the courthouse was finished, as an order was passed 
directing the payment of $80 to Simeon Phillips for work done on that build- 
ing. . 

July 7th, Aaron Sullivan, Clement Coffin and Henry Baker were appointed 
to view and mark a road "from Joel Bailey's to Baker and Coffin's Grove, 
thence westerly to intersect the territorial road from Buchanan to Delhi,* 9 
and Joel Bailey was appointed to "survey the above road. ,, 

The court received a petition for a public road from "Eads* Grove to Hail's 
Mill, to be run on the nearest and best road to the house of James Montgomery, 
thence on the open line between James Montgomery's farm and McMullen's, 
east on the Bailey line, north of the new burying ground, thence on the nearest 
and best route to the county line near Hail's Mills." Archibald Montgomery, 
Samuel Dickson and Daniel Brown were appointed to view the route at the 
expense of the petitioners. 

The voters at the regular election in August, 1845, returned H. A. Carter, 
Lawrence McNamee and Simeon Phillips as members of the board of county 
commissioners. The assessment rolls as made up and submitted to the board at 
its September meeting, indicate a greater increase of taxes than of taxpayers. 
The county tax was $743.70 ; territorial tax, $33.79. At that time there were 
forty-six taxpayers in North Fork Precinct; twenty-six in Delhi, fifty-one in 
Colony and twenty-six in Eads, making 179 in the county. 

Pour years had now elapsed since the county seat was located, but not- 
withstanding, repeated efforts to raise money required for the purchase of land, 
which amounted to $200, had been made, failure was the result. Money could 
not be borrowed, nor county warrants sold. Not a lot could be alienated by 
the county until it had acquired title to the land and the only building on the 
town plat was the log courthouse. The situation was becoming embarrassing, 

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if not humiliating, when Lawrence McNamee, member of the board generously 
offered to advance $100 to the county if another person could be found who 
would be equally willing to help in the emergency. This led the court on the 
1st day of January, 1846, to pass the following: " Ordered, That Lawrence 
McNamee be authorized to enter the county seat of Delhi at 20 per cent." 

There now came forward Leroy Jackson with the other necessary $100, 
which was placed in Mr. McNamee 's hands. That gentleman thereupon went 
to Dubuque and on the 5th day of March, 1846, entered the east half of the 
quarter section in his own name, and the west half in the name of Leroy Jack- 
son, all being in section 17, now Delhi Township. McNamee conveyed his half 
of the tract to the county, April 8, 1846, and Leroy Jackson, by warranty 
deed, conveyed the west half to the county, October 2, 1849. The town plat 
was recorded March 11, 1846, and the lots were placed on sale. But for sev- 
eral years thereafter county orders were sold at fifty cents on the dollar to 
raise money with which to reimburse the loyal and generous Lawrence McNamee 
and Leroy Jackson for the money they had advanced the commissioners. 

The commissioners met at the house of C. W. Hobbs on the 17th of March, 
1846, and one of the clerk's minutes shows the following: 

"Ordered, That the clerk of this board be and he is hereby directed to 
advertise in the Miners' Express for a sale of lots in the Town of Delhi, to take 
place at the courthouse door on the first Monday of May next 

"Ordered, That Charles W. Hobbs be and he is hereby authorized as an 
agent to sell lots at private sale in the Town of Delhi, and he is limited not 
to sell any lot for a less price than five dollars." 

Joel Bailey was appointed surveyor April 13th, "to lay off the out lots in the 
Town of Delhi into two-acre lots." Gilbert D. Dillon was appointed auctioneer 
for the sale of town lots. A bounty was offered for wolf scalps at 50 cents and 
$1. On the same day the commissioners adopted measures for keeping high- 
ways in order and appointed Samuel P. Whitaker, William Nicholson, Roland 
Aubrey, Joel Bailey, Missouri Dickson, Silas Gilmore and William Eads, road 
supervisors for their several neighborhoods. 

By an act of the Territorial Legislature, approved February 17, 1842, entitled 
"An act for the organization of townships,", a former act approved January 
10, 1840, was repealed and county commissioners were authorized to divide 
their respective counties into townships of "such shape and size as the con- 
venience and interest of the citizens may require." Acting under these instruc- 
tions set forth in the law just quoted, at a special session of the board of 
county commissioners, March 24, 1847, the first division of the county into 
townships was made and elections ordered as follows: 

"Ordered, That the counties of Delaware and Buchanan be divided into 
townships as follows, to wit: That the boundaries of the several precincts, as 
at present, laid off in said counties, be and they are hereby organized into town- 
ships. That the territory of Delhi Precinct be named Delhi Township; that 
the territory of Eads' Grove be named Eads' Grove Township; that the ter- 
ritory of North Fork be named North Pork Township; that the territory of 
Colony Precinct be named Colony Township; that the territory of Buchanan 
Coufity be named Buchanan Township. Also, that the usual places of hold- 

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ing elections in the said several precincts be hereby appointed the respective 
places of holding the first meetings of the electors for their several townships. 

" Ordered, That the clerks and commissioners be required to issue election 
notices for elections to be held on the first Monday in April, and that the neces- 
sary township officers required by law now in force be elected.' ' 

The board was again convened April 14th and passed the following: 
"Ordered, That G. D % Dillon be allowed the sum of $4 for his service as auc- 
tioneer in selling township lots in the Town of Delhi, being in full for all services 
as such up to this date." 

But very few lots had been sold up to this time and as the county needed 
the money, it was ordered by the Commissioners ' Court that "there shall be 
a sale of lots in Delhi on the first day of the first session of the District Court 
and A. K. Eaton be appointed auctioneer.' ' 

The first General Assembly of the State of Iowa passed an act for the divi- 
sion of counties into commissioners ' districts, and under this direction the 
Delaware commissioners acted as follows: 

"Ordered, That Delaware County be divided into county commissioners ' 
districts, which districts shall be numbered first, second and third, as follows, 
to wit: Towns 87 and 88, in ranges 3 and 4, shall constitute the first district; 
towns 89 and 90, in ranges 3 and 4, shall constitute the second district, and 
towns 87, 88, 89 and 90, in ranges 5 and 6, shall constitute the third district, 
agreeably to an act of the General Assembly of the State of Iowa, approved 
February 22, 1847." 

At the session of the board held in, July, that body levied a tax of one- 
half mill on the dollar for school purposes. In the following month of August, 
Henry A. Carter, Henry Baker and Samuel Mulliken were elected commis- 

On October 4, 1847, the commissioners ''Ordered, That Lawrence McNamee 
be paid $22.36 for one year's interest on money loaned to enter eighty acres of 
the county seat." 

The amount of taxes collected in 1847 was $628.10. In 1848, this amount 
was increased to $1,027.45. 

Henry A. Carter, Samuel Mulliken and Henry Baker composed the board 
of county commissioners for 1848. At a term of court held April 18th, Charles 
W. Hobbs was authorized and empowered to borrow $100 for the use of the 
county to pay Leroy Jackson for entering eighty acres of the county seat at 
a rate of interest not to exceed 20 per cent. 

The demand for county lots failed to come up to the anticipations of those 
in authority at the county seat. To stimulate their sale Charles W. Hobbs had 
been disposing of them at less than the regular price. But the commissioners 
determined to stop this practice and concluded that unless they could be sold 
at a fair price, they should be held by the county. It was therefore ordered 
"that Charles W. Hobbs is hereby directed not to sell any lot on the town plat 
for less than five dollars in cash, or ten dollars in county orders/ ' 

The board for 1849 was made up of Henry A. Carter, Samuel Mulliken 
and Daniel H. Thornburg. 

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treasurer's report for the year 1848 

The following report was submitted to the board of county commissioners 
in December, 1848: 

For outstanding balance against the county $261.32 

For amount of orders passed '. 598.99 

Total $860.31 

Contra Cr. 

By county tax placed in the hands of collector $577.27 

By orders received for sale of town lots in Delhi 60.82 $638.09 

Balance against county $222.22 

The aforegoing is a correct statement of the liabilities of the county, for the 

year ending the 31st of December, 1848, showing an outstanding balance against 

the county of $222.22. There was also placed in the hands of the collector, for 

1848, for state tax, $275.87; school tax, $111.35. 

H. A. Carter, 1 „ 

t^ • i tt mi! u £ Commissioners. 

Daniel H. Thornburg,: j 


Charles W. Hobbs, 

Clerk of Commissioners. 

Delhi, January 1, 1849. 

Among the orders drawn at this December session was one for a "bear sold 
for use of county, $7.50," rind the amount paid out for wolf scalps, $17.30. 

January 2, 1849, North Fork Township was divided and South Fork Town- 
ship created. 

July 2d by order of the commissioners Eads' Grove Township was changed 
to Coldwater, and it was 

"Ordered, That the Coldwater Township be divided as follows: Commenc- 
ing at the northeast boundary of Coldwater Township, running three miles south ; 
bounded by Elk on the east; thence west, so as to include part of range 5 west 
of Fifth Principal Meridian; thence north, to the county line; thence east, to 
the place of beginning; and that said township shall be named 'Avon/ 

"Ordered, That on the 15th day of July, inst., the electors of the newly laid 
off Township of Avon shall hold an election at the house of Daniel B. Noble, in 
said township, for the purpose of electing township officers for said township, 
and to organize the same." 

The tax levy made by the board for the year 1849 was: State, 10% mills; 
county, 4 mills; school, 1 mill. 

At the January term, 1851, of the County Commissioners ' Court, several new 
townships were created. Coldwater Township was ordered to be divided and a 
new township set off, which was to be known by the name of Richland ; voting 
place, the house of Stephen R. Reynolds. Delaware Township was created, with 
place of holding elections at Delaware Center. The Township of South Fork 
was ordered divided and a new township set off, to be known by the name of 
Buck Creek Township, the first election in said township to be held at the school- 
house near Aaron Blanehard's. 

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Under a chapter of the Code of Iowa, approved February 5, 1851, County 
Commissioners' courts were abolished and the office of county judge created. 
The jurisdiction of this official was almost unlimited, as he had "the usual power 
and ju,risdiction of county commissioners and of the judge of probate. The 
office was filled by election in August, 1851. John Benson was first judge of 
the County Court and William Price, clerk. 

At the March term of the County Court the prayer of a petition for a road 
from Richland, by way of Delaware Center, to Delhi, was granted. Coldwater 
Township was divided and the north part made a new township named York. 

County Judge Benson, Recorder Phillips and William Price held a meeting 
in April to ascertain whether the fees received by them were sufficient to pay 
their official salaries. It developed that the sum total received for seven months 
was $223.95. The salaries amounted to $125 each. They thereupon divided the 
money equally and the court issued orders on the empty treasury for the balance, 
probably at the rate of $2 for one, as that was the standard price of county 
orders at the time. 

On January 3, 1853, the County Court, Judge Benson sitting, provided for 
the payment in full of money borrowed of Lawrence McNamee, in 1846, which 
was used in paying for the entry of the county seat. 

On February 26th the County Court established the boundaries of the civil 
townships, namely : Colony, York, Coldwater, Richland, Delaware, North Fork, 
South Fork, Union and Delhi. 

September 4, 1855, Edward Adams, a native of England, was naturalized by 
the County Court. 

February 7th, Delaware Township was divided by order of the County Court 
and township 89 north, range 6 west, was then "set off into a separate township 
for political purposes, under the name and title of Coffin's Grove." The school- 
house in the grove was designated as the place for holding elections. 

On February 19th, Judge Benson resigned his office of county judge, and 
A. K. Eaton acted in that capacity until April, when Frederick B. Doolittle was 
elected to fill the vacancy. 

In July, 1855, Dr. Albert Boomer, of Delaware, was appointed county agent 
by the county for the sale of spirituous liquors. He entered upon the discharge 
of his duties. August 29th, William Cattron was appointed liquor agent and 
$300 was placed in his hands for the purchase of stock. He resigned the posi- 
tion in disgust after three months' experience. 

The County Court on September 29th ordered that township 87, range 6, 
be set off into a separate township for political purposes, to be called Adams, 


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to take effect on the 1st of April, 1856. Townships 89 north, range 3, and 89 
nortn, range 4, were erected into a new township, to be called Oneida, the 
organization to take effect on the 1st day of April, 1856. 

Judge Doolittle at the September term ordered an election to be held on the 
22d day of October, to ascertain if the county desired to subscribe for $200,000 
Delaware County & Pacific Railroad stock, and issue a like amount of county 
bonds bearing interest not to exceed 8 per cent per annum, to be met by a 
six mill tax annually. This tax at the end of fifteen years was to be increased 
to 1 per cent to provide for the payment of the principal. It might be well 
to state here by way of parenthesis that the people emphatically rejected the 
proposition by a vote of 708 to 260. 

On the 2d of March, 1857, the County Court set apart congressional town- 
ship 87 north, range 5, as a township for political purposes and called it Hazel 

County Julge Doolittle, on June 30, 1857, ordered an election to be held 
on the first Monday in August at the general election, upon the following 

"Will the County of Delaware loan the credit of said county to the Great 
Northwestern Railroad Company, to the amount of $250,000, by issuing and 
delivering county bonds of said county to this amount, to said railroad company, 
for the purpose of aiding in the construction and operation of said road, which 
shall be located through the county aforesaid V 7 

This measure was defeated in the county, the total vote being 791 against 
to 657 for. 

July 6, 1857, congressional township 81 north, range 3 west, was established 
as a political township and called Bremen. George W. Harper, constable, 
posted and served the notices of the court. 

March 3, 1858, on petition of John S. Barry and others, the County Court 
set off congressional township 88, range 6, as a political township and named it 
Prairie. September 13th, on petition of T. Crosby and others, the six southern 
sections of Coldwater, being the northern tier of sections in township 89, range 
5, were annexed to Delaware. September 16th, on petition of George W. 
Stewart and O. S. Boggs, the townships of Coldwater and York were united 
and the new township was named Honey Creek. The election was ordered 
to be held at the house of Casper Dunham. 

At the term of the County Court held in 1859, Prairie Township was 
organized and at the October election twenty votes were polled in that 

On January 1, 1860, Joel Bailey became county judge and he was the last 
person elected to the office. At that time the credit of the county had become 
sound and county warrants were worth their face in cash. 


By an act of the General Assembly, approved March 26, 1860, the county 
judge system, which had been tried for ten years, was abolished and a board of 
supervisors created, consisting of one from each civil township, to be elected 
in October and assume the duties of their office in January following. By this 

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act the duties of county judge were restricted to probate powers. The act 
went into effect July 4, 1860. 

Pursuant to law, elections were held in the various townships in October, 
1860, and a member of the newly created board of supervisors was returned 
from each. Upon assembling at Delhi for organization on January 6, 1861, 
Z. D. Scobey, member from* North Fork, was elected chairman of the board, 
and James Wright, clerk of the District Court, became its clerk. 

At the first meeting and for many others following, large numbers of peti- 
tions were submitted to the board for roads, bridges and other improvements. 
On January 8th the committee on public buildings reported that the jail was 
insecure and recommended that the sheriff be furnished with a better office. 

It was reported at the June session that a considerable amount of swamp 
lands belonging to the county had been discovered and on the 6th of June, 
George Watson was appointed agent and attorney to look after the county's 
interests in relation thereto. 

On the 7th of June, Mr. Coffin, from the committee on paupers, reported 
and recommended that a proposition be submitted to the voters of, the county 
for the purchase of a poor farm. Upon recommittal it was reported that a 
proposition be submitted to the voters of Delaware County to purchase a poor 
farm at a price not exceeding $3,000. At the election in October, the question 
being submitted to the people, was rejected. 

C. L. Flint, from the committee on school funds, reported at the January 
meeting in 1862 that several borrowers from that fund were not financially 
sound. Thereupon it was ordered that these persons be required to improve 
their securities and that prudent rules should be adopted in relation to the 
management of the school fund. 

January 10th the committee on paupers recommended that a farm for the 
poor be leased and that a suitable person be employed for overseer. On the same 
date the board voted to petition the Legislature for a tax on dogs. 

June 14th, S. A. Holt was appointed steward of the poor house, and on the 
16th F. B. Doolittle, William Terwilliger and Andrew Lord were appointed 
poor house directors. 

October 21st, the county treasurer was ordered to sell the gold in the treasury. 
October 22d, the board appropriated $1,000 to aid in the support of the 
families of volunteers of the Civil war. 

On January 8, 1863, the director of the poor house was instructed to purchase 
a farm for the poor. On the 9th the treasurer was again authorized to sell 
all the gold in the county — $300. It should be remembered that at this time 
gold was selling at a premium, there being little of it in circulation. 

January 6, 1864, $1,000 was appropriated for the support of the families 
of volunteers and on the 7th, $50 was appropriated for the soldiers' home in 
Dubuque. The poll taxes of all soldiers in the service were remitted. 

June 8, 1864, the committee on paupers recommended the purchase of the 
Hefner farm for a county poor farm, at a price not to exceed $1,000, and F. B. 
Doolittle was appointed agent to carry the same into effect. The committee 
on military affairs reported 406 persons of families of volunteers in the county 
needing aid. June 10th, the clerk was authorized to draw $1,000 to pay for 
the Hefner farm in case Mr. Doolittle should make the purchase. 

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June 8, 1865, the committee composed of F. B. Doolittle, Joseph Grimes and 
D. P. Baker reported that a contract had been made for the northwest fractional 
quarter of section 18, northeast quarter of the southwest quarter of section 18, 
in township 88 north, range 4 west, and northwest quarter of northeast quarter 
of section 23, range 5, amounting to 222 1 / £ acres, for $2,00Q, to be paid on the 
date on which the contract was entered into. Payment was made and Judge 
Doolittle was requested to prepare plans and specifications for the poor house. 

September 4th, an appropriation was made for the purpose of building an 
addition to the house then on the poor farm. The house was reconstructed 
with additions by Judge Doolittle, costing from $400 to $600. 

January 1, 1866, the board granted permission to the citizens of Delhi to 
erect a monument in memory of its soldiers. 

In 1869, the sum of $1,500 was appropriated by the county board to build 
an addition to the poor house. 

In June, 1869, on petition of citizens asking for an election to relocate the 
county seat, it was ordered that at the next general election the question should 
be submitted whether the county seat should remain at Delhi or be removed to 


In 1870, by an act to amend Article 2 of Chapter 22 of the Revision of 1860, 
approved April 14, 1870, the board of supervisors was reduced to three, which 
number might be increased to five or seven by a vote of the people. In September 
the existing board ordered that the question, i i Shall the number of supervisors be 
increased to seven ?" be submitted to the people at the next general election. 
The proposition was negatived by the people by 874 to 698. 

The new board, consisting of Ferdinand W. Dunham, Joseph Chapman 
and J. Salisbury, assembled at Delhi, in January, 1871, and elected Mr. Dunham 

The new and smaller board of supervisors in July, 1873, entered into a con- 
tract with N. W. Austin for the erection of the present main building on the 
poor farm. The contract price was $4,100, but the actual cost was $5,028.50. 

Again the question of relocating the county seat was submitted to the people 
at the annual election in 1876, through permission obtained of the board of 
supervisors. In this contest Delhi and Earlville were the aspirants, one to 
retain, and the other to attain the plum. Delhi again was victorious by a large 

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County commissioners — William H. Whiteside, William Eads and Daniel 
Brown, 1841-42 ; William H. Whiteside, Simeon Phillips and Missouri Dickson, 
1842-3; William H. Whiteside, Missouri Dickson and Simeon Phillips, 1843-4; 
Henry A. Carter, Simeon Phillips and Missouri Dickson, 1844-5; Henry A. 
Carter, Lawrence McNamee and Simeon Phillips, 1845-6; Henry A. Carter, 
Henry Baker and Samuel Mulliken, 1846-7 ; Henry A. Carter, Samuel Mulliken 
and Henry Baker, 1847-8; Henry A. Carter, Samuel Mulliken and Daniel H. 
Thornburg, 1848-9; Lawrence McNamee, Daniel H. Thornburg and Henry A. 
Carter, 1849-50 ; Lawrence McNamee, Daniel H. Thornburg and John W. Penn, 

Judges of probate— Roland Aubrey, 1841-4 ; Clement Coffin, 1844-7 ; A. K. 
Eaton, 1847-50; Z. A. Wellman, 1850-51. 

County judges— John Benson, 1851-5 ; Frederick B. Doolittle, 1855-7 ; A. E. 
House, 1857-60; Joel Bailey, 1860-1 (confined to probate powers when county 
board of supervisors were created in 1860) ; Z. A. Wellman, 1861-5; Jeremiah 
B. Boggs, 1866-9. 

School fund commissioners — John Benson, 1849-51; Joel Bailey, 1851-3; 
Peter Case, 1854-5 ; John Hefner, 1855-6. 

Recorders— John Paddleford, 1841; Charles W. Hobbs, 1842-7; William 
Phillips, 1847-53; Zina A. Wellman, 1854-5; George Wattson, 1856-7; Joel 
Bailey, 1858-9; Ray B. Griffin, 1861; Z. D. Scobey, 1862-3; O. E. Taylor, 1864-5; 
W. H. H. Blanchard, 1866-7; Henry Harger, 1868-74; Henry C. Jackson, 
1875-8; George H. Morisey, 1879-82; Jacob H. Morisey, 1883-4; G. H. Morisey, 
1885-94; Abner Dunham, 1895-1902; John Latimer, 1903-12; A. E. Dunlap, 

Clerks of the court — The offices of clerk of the courts and clerk of county 
commissioners and supervisors were held by the same person, although distinct 
under the law, until the creation of the office of county auditor. Charles W. 
Hobbs, 1841-6; J. W. Clark, 1846-7; C. W. Hobbs, 1847-50; James E. Anderson, 
1850-1; William Price, 1851-4; James Wright, 1854-62; Eli O. Clemens, 1863-8; 
A. J. Brown, 1869-72; G. B. Beveridge, 1873-4; Jerome B. Satterlee, 1875-82; 
H. J. Jackson, 1883-4; H. C. Jackson, 1885-8; F. H. Paul, 1889-1900; John 
Georgen, 1901-04; James Bishop, 1905-10; R. D. Graham, 1911-. 

Auditors— 1869-91 ; S. M. Chase, 1892; R. R. Robinson to fill vacancy, 1892; 
R. R. Robinson, 1892-6 ; H. E. Stetson, 1897-1902 ; Roy B. Davis, 1903-06 ; W. J. 
Davis, 1907-08; Will J. Crosby, 1909-10; W. J. Davis, 1911-12; C. H. Bunker, 

Sheriffs— Leroy Jackson, 1841-4; John W. Penn, 1844-50; Isaac Smith, 
1850-3; John W. Penn, 1853-5; Cornelius T. Peet, 1855-7 ;' Samuel F. Parker, 

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1857-9; Rensselaer Eddy, 1859-61; Jeremiah B. Boggs, 1862-3; Ancil E. 
Martin, 1864-5; William M. Williams, 1868-9; C. H. Smith, 1870-1; Abner 
Dunham, 1872-5; John W. Corbin, 1876-7; E. S. Cowles, 1878-81; John Cruise, 
Jr., 1882-89; G. H. Odell, 1890-97; R. W. Fishel, 1898-1903; T. J. Hennessey, 
1904-06; M. P. Hennessey, 1907-. 

County treasurers — Robert B. Hutson, 1841-2; Theodore Marks, 1842-3; 
Joel Bailey, 1843-4; Drury R. Dance, 1844 (murdered in February, 1845); 
Oliver A. Olmstead, appointed to fill vacancy, 1845; Joel Bailey, 1845-6; Ira 
A. Green, 1846-7 ; William Phillips, 1847-53 ; Zina A. Wellman, 1853-5 ; George 
Wattson, 1855-7; Joel Bailey, 1858-9; Ray B. Griffin, 1860-1; Z. D. Scobey, 
1862-5; Joseph M. Holbrook, 1866-1881; John M. Holbrook, 1882-3; H. C. 
Haeberle, 1884-93 ; C. E. Smith, 1894-97 ; L. Matthews, 1898-1901 ; F. E. Dut- 
ton, 1902-08; George A. Newman, 1909-. 

County surveyors — Joel Bailey, 1841-47 ; John W. Clark, 1847-53 ; Joel Bailey, 
1853-55 ; W. P. Cunningham, 1855-57 ; Hiram D. Wood, 1857-59 ; Henry L. Ryan, 
1860-61 ; Charles Harger, 1862-63 ; James G. Verplank, 1864-65 ; Henry G. Doo- 
little, 1866-71 ; Silas Sawyer, 1872-75 ; Orin E. Noble, 1876-78 ; Charles Crawford, 
1879-81; Henry Harger, 1882-84; P. H. Warner, 1885; D. O. Potter, 1886-87; 
P. H. Warner, 1888-89; A. G. Wilson, 1890-91; E. B. Porter, 1892; D. O. Potter, 
1893-97 ; Thomas Wilson, 1898-1900 ; D. 0. Potter, 1901 ; Thomas Wilson, 1902-08 ; 
L. Matthews, Jr., 1909-. 

County superintendents of schools — Horatio N. Gates, 1858-59; Ezra P. 
Chase, 1860-61 ; John L. McCreery, 1862-63 ; Rodney W. Tirrill, 1864-67 ; Ferdi- 
nand W. Dunham, 1867; Samuel Calvin, 1868; Jerome B. Satterlee, 1869; John 
Kennedy, 1870-71 ; William H. Merton, 1872-75 ; Robert M. Ewart, 1876-79 ; 
Q. M. Ewart, 1880-81; Horace G. Miller, 1882-87; A. O. Stanger, 1888-95; L. T. 
Eaton, 1896-99; H. J. Schwietert, 1900-03; Frank D. Joseph, 1904-10; Guy D. 
Ribble, 1911-. 


In 1860 the county judge system of county government was abolished, and a 
board consisting of one supervisor from each township was constituted. One-half 
of the lirst board served one year and the other half two years, after which eight 
members were elected annually for two years. 

1861 — Z. D. Scobey, chairman; John H. Burrington, Joseph Lichtenberg, 
Charles H. Carpenter, Clement Coffin, William Price, William Crozier, Peter 
Richardson, Silas Gilmore, Ephraim Frost, Francis McFall, Aaron Richardson, 
Samuel P. Whittaker, Christopher L. Flint, Daniel Fuller, Daniel Sheldon. 

1862— Silas Gilmore, chairman ; E. K. Frost, C. T. Peet, D. Sheldon, Francis 
Rubly, F. McFall, Noble Ruggles, Abram Parliman, Philip Stoner, John M. Bray- 
ton, William Crozier, P. Richardson, S. P. Whittaker, C. L. Flint, Daniel Flint. 

1863 — N. Ruggles, chairman; Joseph Grimes, Job Gildersleeve, C. T. Peet, 
S. A. Thompson, F. Rubly, William Cattron, P. Stoner, W. Crozier, James Harper, 
S. P. Whittaker, B. P. Miller, W. G. Campbell, Francis Schultz, William M. 

1864 — J. Gildersleeve, chairman ; J. Grimes, O. S. Boggess, S. A. Thompson, 
T. Rubly, Cummings Sanborn, Ferdinand Dunham, A. Parliman, P. Stoner, 

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W. M. Hartshorn, W. Crozier, D. K. Fox, J. Harper, S. P. Whittaker, B. P. 
Miller, W. G. Campbell. 

1865 — 0. S. Boggess, chairman ; J. Grimes, H. C. Drybread, F. Rubly, C. San- 
born, F. Dunham, D. P. Baker, P. Stoner, W. M. Hartshorn, W. Crozier, George 
Cowell, Leroy Jackson, S. P. Whittaker, J. M. Ames, D. Fuller, H. G. Doolittle. 

1866 — Joseph Grimes, chairman; H. C. Drybread, Alexander Loban, S. A. 
Thompson, James Le Gassick, C. Sanborn, F. Dunham, D. P. Baker, John Galyean, 
Samuel F. Parker, W. Crozier, Thomas J. Annis, L. Jackson, S. P. Whittaker, 
J. M. Annis, D. Fuller. 

1867 — J. Grimes, chairman; Charles Malven, A. Loban, Daniel Sheldon, J. 
Le Gassick, Richard Boon, F. Dunham, D. P. Baker, John Galyean, S. F. Parker, 
W. Crozier, T. J. Annis, William Spence, J. M. Annis, Christopher L. Flint, 
Patrick Donnelly. 

1868 — C. L. Flint, chairman; Joseph Chapman, C. Malven, C. T. Peet, D. 
Sheldon, J. Le Gassick, R. Boon, William Cattron, R. Norton, Jesse B. Bailey, R. 
Holdridge, John Brownell, H. Gardner, W. Spence, J. M. Annis, P. Donnelly, 
D. P. Baker. 

1869 — R. Norton, chairman; A. G. Smith, J. Chapman, W. Cattron, J. Le 
Gassick, Thomas Conner, C. Sanborn, R. Holdridge, J. H. Campbell, Henry 
Ehlers, H. Gardner, J. Brownell, C. Malven, C. T. Peet, Philip Dale, J. B. Bailey. 

1870 — R. Norton, chairman; H. M. Congar, 0. E. Taylor, Charles Malven, 
J. H. Campbell, H. Ehlers, J. F. Jackson, J. Chapman, Philip Dale, A. G. Smith, 
C. Sanborn, Albert Boomer, M. P. Spencer, Thomas Conner, J. Le Gassick, 
William Ford. (Township system abolished April 14, 1870, and succeeded by a 
board of three, elected by the county.) 

1870 — Ferdinand Dunham, chairman; Joseph Chapman, J. Salisbury. 

1871 — F. Dunham, chairman; J. Chapman, Jesse B. Bailey. 

1872 — F. Dunham, chairman ; J. Chapman, Jesse B. Bailey. 

1873 — F. Dunham, chairman ; J. Chapman, Jesse B. Bailey. 

1874 — F. Dunham, chairman ; J. Chapman, Jesse B. Bailey. 

1875 — J. B. Bailey, chairman; F. Dunham, H. C. Merriam. 

1876 — F. Dunham, chairman ; H. C. Merriam, George Staehle. 

1877 — Henry C. Merriam, chairman ; G. Staehle, F. Dunham. 

1878 — G. Staehle, chairman ; F. Dunham, James Le Gassick. 

1879 — James Le Gassick, chairman ; F. Dunham, B. P. Miller. 

1880 — James Le Gassick, chairman ; F. Dunham, B. P. Miller. 

1881 — B. P. Miller, chairman ; James Le Gassick, H. P. Chapman. 

1882— H. P. Chapman, chairman ; B. P. Miller, W. M. Sawyer. 

1883 — W. M. Sawyer, chairman; H. P. Chapman, Charles Crocker. 

1884 — W. M. Sawyer, chairman ; Charles Crocker, Ryal Hickox. 

1885 — W. M. Sawyer, chairman ; Ryal Hickox, Charles Crocker. 

1886 — W. M. Sawyer, chairman ; Charles Crocker, Ryal Hickox. 

1887 — W. M. Sawyer, chairman ; Henry Ehlers, Charles Crocker. 

1888 — Charles Crocker, chairman; Henry Ehlers, John F. Graham. 

1889 — Charles Crocker, chairman ; Henry Ehlers, John F. Graham. 

1890 — Charles Crocker, chairman; John F. Graham, Henry Ehlers. 

1891 — Charles Crocker, chairman ; John F. Graham, Henry Ehlers. 

1892 — John F. Graham, chairman; G. Merriam, Henry Ehlers. 

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1893 — John F. Graham, chairman; Thomas Rose, G. Merriam. 

1894 — G. Merriam, chairman; Thomas Rose, F. A. Grimes. 

1895 — Thomas Rose, chairman; F. A. Grimes, G. Merriam. 

1896 — F. A. Grimes, chairman; Thomas Rose, G. Merriam. 

1897 — G. Merriam, chairman; Thomas Rose, F. A. Grimes. 

1898 — F. A. Grimes, chairman ; Thomas Rose, S. P. Carter. 

1899— S. P. Carter, chairman ; F. L. Durey, F. A. Grimes. 

1900 — S. P. Carter, chairman ; Thomas Lindsay, F. L. Durey. 

1901 — S. P. Carter, chairman; F. L. Durey, Thomas Lindsay. 

1902 — S. P. Carter, chairman ; F. L. Durey, Thomas Lindsay. 

1903 — Thomas Lindsay, chairman ; S. P. Carter, F. L. Durey. 

1904 — Thomas Lindsay, chairman ; James Le Gassick, F. L. Durey. 

1905 — Thomas Lindsay, chairman ; W. B. Robinson, J. J. Kirkwood. 

1907 — J. J. Kirkwood, chairman ; A. M. Burbridge, W. B. Robinson. 

1909 — J. J. Kirkwood, chairman ; W. B. Robinson, F. M. Burbridge. 

1911 — F. M. Robinson, chairman; J. J. Kirkwood, W. B. Robinson. 

1913 — W. B. Robinson, chairman ; F. A. Mead, James Kehoe. 

Under the law passed a short time before, the first biennial election was held 
in Iowa for all state and county officers, in November, 1906. This made it 
necessary for all officers to hold over one year that would otherwise have finished 
their terms in 1905. 

Representatives — Arial K. Eaton, 1850-53 ; James M. Noble, 1856-57 ; Joseph 
Grimes, 1858-59; John W. Le Lacheur, 1860-61; Salue G. Van Anda, 1862-63; 
Joseph W. Simpson, 1864-65; Albert Boomer, 1866-67; Cummings Sanborn, 
1868-71; Cornelius T. Peet, 1872-75; Joseph Chapman, 1876-78; William H. 
Merten, Eighteenth and Nineteenth general assemblies; L. E. Hersey, Twen- 
tieth, succeeding Joseph Holbrook, who died January 31, 1884; L. S. Gates, 
Twenty-first; William C. Oakman, Twenty-second and Twenty-third; W. H. 
Norris, Twenty-fourth ; D. H. Young, Twenty-fifth, Twenty-sixth, extra session 
of Twenty-sixth and Twenty-seventh ; George W. Dunham, Twenty-eighth and 
Twenty-ninth; R. J. Bixby, Thirtieth, Thirty-first, Thirty-second and Thirty- 
second extra; Eli C. Perkins, Thirty-third and Thirty-fourth; Millard P. LeRoy, 

Senators— John M. Brayton, 1864-67; Joseph Grimes, 1868-71; Albert 
Boomer, 1872-75 ; Lewis G. Hersey, 1876-77 ; Charles E. Bronson, 1878-79 ; Ed P. 
Seeds, Twenty-second and Twenty-third ; George W. Dunham, Thirtieth, Thirty- 
first, Thirty-second and Thirty-second extra session ; Eli C. Perkins, Thirty-fifth. 

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Some years ago the following appeared in a local paper, and is considered 
such good material for this work that it is reproduced. Since its publication 
Judge Doolittle, so prominent a character in Delaware County, has passed away, 
but his widow is still a resident of the old home at Delhi : 

No man living has been for a longer time identified with the business interests 
of the county than Judge F. B. Doolittle, of Delhi. For over a half century he 
has taken an active part in all movements of a public nature and has extensive 
private interests in various parts of the county. 

Judge Doolittle y s location at Delhi was in the nature of an accident, as he 
had no intention of coming to that part of the country when he started West. 
At the age of nineteen he was compelled to go out and make his own way in the 
world. In the fall of 1849, in company with William Price, he started for Iowa. 
They spent three or four weeks traveling through Wisconsin and Illinois and 
then crossed the Mississippi at Savannah. Their search for land continued up 
to Yankee Settlement, and they then started back down the river for Davenport, 
a land office at that time. There were no roads across the prairie — only an occa- 
sional wagon track, and Mr. Doolittle and Mr. Price soon lost their bearings 
and aimlessly wandered about for some time. "At that time," says Judge 
Doolittle, "there were only four or five log cabins in the Town of Delhi. There 
was a log house near the 'Big Spring,' which was the tavern kept by John W. 
Clark. In a frame leanto, on one side of the tavern, Clark kept a little store." 

Being almost penniless, the young adventurer worked as a laborer for a few 
months, saving a little money, which he invested in nursery stock. The new 
enterprise was a success, and for fifteen years the Doolittle nursery was consid- 
ered the largest in Iowa. Mr. Doolittle did effectual work in organizing the 
Davenport and St. Paul Railroad Company, and was a director and assistant 
treasurer of that company for four years. He was also treasurer of the Delaware 
County Construction Company, organized for the purpose of inducing the 
Davenport and St. Paul Company to build its line through Delaware County. 
He founded and laid out the Town of Delaware. He was elected judge of Dela- 
ware County in April, 1855, to fill a vacancy and afterward was reelected for 
a full term. He was the first United States revenue collector, under the United 
States revenue law, in Delaware County, and held that office five years. Such 
is a mere outline of the larger activities — or rather those of a public nature — in 
the life of Judge Doolittle. His greatest service perhaps was a well-borne part 
in the struggle for mastery between the law-abiding and the hoodlum elements 
during the uncertain, chaotic years of early settlement. 


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To one interested in the history of Delaware County, a few hours ' chat with 
Joseph Chapman of Colesburg is of profit and pleasure. Mr. Chapman has been 
for years postmaster at Colesburg, rendering faithful and efficient service. It 
is a privilege not often given us to talk with a man who, though eighty-two years 
of age, has never worn glasses and whose hand is as steady as in the days of his 
youth. Mr. Chapman is a remarkably well preserved man, and with such an 
example before one, it is easy to understand how those early pioneers endured 
the hardships incident to their eventful fives. 

Delaware County has been honored by the public service of Mr. Chapman. 
As a member of the board of supervisors for many years his council was of the 
greatest value in determining the important questions which came before the 
board in the initial years of its service. Mr. Chapman served in other minor 
positions, but his most important service in an official capacity was as member 
of the Legislature from 1876 to 1878. His loyalty to his constituency was exem- 
plified by an action regarding the Dubuque & Southwestern Railroad, for which 
the people of Sand Spring have just cause to be grateful. The railroad company 
desired to vacate, the road from Farley to Monticello and rebuild from Dubuque 
by way of Cascade. This would have killed Sand Spring. But Mr. Chapman 
resolutely stood out against the bill permitting this change of route, defeating 
it by an amendment requiring the railbed to be put in its original condition- 
In this and like services, Mr. Chapman honored himself and the county electing 
him to office. 

Mr. Chapman came to Dubuque from New York State in the fall of 1850. 
While in Dubuque he met a young man named Bowman, and the two soon became 
quite intimate friends. Stories of deer hunting in the vicinity of Colesburg 
attracted them to that place. The two young men immediately bought rifles and 
started for the new country, arriving Christmas day. They at first boarded with 
a Mr. Atchison, who lived in a little log house where Bolsinger's store now stands. 
John find George Wattson soon came to the same place, and Mr. Chapman recalls 
many exciting experiences while hunting with these young men. In fact, Mr. 
Chapman's recollections of those years are in large measure confined to hunting 
trips, etc., and the interview with him here recorded is necessarily brief, as it 
is purposed to relate all hunting stories in collective form. 

/ To Nicholas Wilson of Delhi belongs the credit of being one of the first, if not 
the first, settler in the " Wilson settlement/ ' in Delhi and Union townships. Mr. 
Wilson came to this locality in 1854, buying 160 acres of land in these two town- 
ships. The price paid was $1,500, a rather high price at that time. Mr. Wilson 
brought his family to the new home in 1855, and they resided continuously on 
this farm until 1900. t The first home was a log cabin, purchased of Deacon 
Crosier. One of Mr. Wilson's first efforts was to start an orchard and a grove 
of trees. Some of these latter are yet standing, and on a recent visit to the farm 
Mr. Wilson found several of them which measured nearly 2y 2 feet in diameter. 

The Wilson place became a temporary home for newly arrived settlers, who 
would board there until they could build homes of their own. Some six or eight 
families thus shared the hospitality of Nicholas Wilson and his family, albeit 
they possessed not an abundance of the comforts of life for themselves. But 
these additional burdens were accepted cheerfully by these early settlers, and 

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looked upon as a welcome part of their responsibility in building up the new 
country. ' 

pne of the difficulties met by Mr. Wilson was in securing ready cash for 
necessary purchases. This was not uncommon at that time, when the bulk of 
business was carried on in trade. He remembered of raising 600 bushels 
of wheat one year but was unable to get enough money to pay the threshing bill 
of $50. Wheat sold at Hartwick for about thirty-five cents a bushel in trade. / 
/'in point of continued residence in that locality, we believe Herbert Moulton, 
of Hopkinton, is the oldest of the early settlers yet living there. Mr. Moulton is 
a native of Vermont and when he first came West located at Galena, where he 
worked in the lead mines some years. At this place he married, and with his 
wife would occasionally come over into Iowa to visit relatives. While on one of 
these visits in the fall of 1849, Mr. Moulton was asked to come out and take up 
some land. After a brief consideration of the idea, he entered eighty acres in 
North Fork Township, and with the assistance of two uncles and Allan Wilson, 
put up a log house. It was a primitive dwelling indeed, one week's time being 
required for its construction. The logs were not even hewn, the holes and crev- 
ices being chinked up with clay. Leaving his wife, Mr. Moulton returned to 
"Galena for their household goods. His wife's brother returned with him and 
together they bought a 160-acre soldier warrant for $135. 

While the owner of considerable land, all paid for, Mr. Moulton was by no 
means well off, and he went to work for his uncle, receiving 50 cents a day in 
trade. Across the road to his uncle's farm lay a slough, which he had to wade 
twice a day on his three mile walk to and from work. Tiling of this, he laid a 
rough bridge across the slough, working all day in the water. This brought on 
an attack of ague, the first and last Mr. Moulton ever experienced in Iowa, which 
laid him up for several weeks. Through such experiences the early settlers 
wrought out that sturdiness of character which at last won them a competence 
and which permitted in their later years a respite from hard labor and the 
enjoyment of what we have come to term the pleasures of life. 

For a number of years Mr. Moulton did not own any horses, doing his work 
and traveling entirely with oxen, and it was two years before he owned a wagon 
of any kind. The great freshet of 1851 carried away a sawmill some miles above 
his farm, depositing a huge pile of lumber, etc., near his house. While looking 
this over one day, he noticed a large plank, which was pulled out and hauled 
home. Wagon wheels were sawed from this plank, a rough box built and there- 
after Mr. and Mrs. Moulton rode in state. 

No history of Delaware County, however brief, would be complete without 
a mention of James P. Ball, of Delaware.. Mr. Ball came to this county in 1853, 
locating on the prairie near where the Town of Delaware now stands. Although 
land in that section of the county could at that time be entered for $1.25 an acre, 
Mr. Ball's first purchase was but eighty acres, as that was all he could afford. 
When he reached this county, his worldly possessions consisted of a team and 
about four hundred dollars in money. This amount barely sufficed for the 
purchase of the farm and to build a small frame house. 

But Mr. and Mrs. Ball had the true pioneer spirit — willing to endure some 
privations and hardships that they might more surely reap a future reward. 
Their first few years on the farm were prosperous, as prosperity was counted in 

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those years. The new soil yielded abundant crops and Mr. Ball was soon enabled 
to buy more land, until at one time he was the owner of 600 acres of the best 
land in the vicinity of Delaware. During recent years, he has from time to time 
disposed of much of his land and at present confines his attention largely to 
growing berries on a few acres adjoining his home in Delaware. 

Shortly after the war, Mr. Ball began buying stock, and was for many years 
one of the best known buyers in this county. Of the hardships of a stockman's 
life at that time, the modern stock buyer knows but little. Mr. Ball traveled 
most of the time on horseback, and during cold weather suffered greatly from 
exposure. The rigorous winters of thirty or forty years ago robbed horseback 
riding of much of its fascination. But with the stock all loaded into cars at the 
shipping station, the buyers' troubles were only beginning. The railroad com- 
panies would not furnish a sufficient number of cars* thus compelling trying 
delays and overloading of cars. The trip to Chicago occupied two nights and a 
day and Mr. Ball was often compelled to ride with the stock for long distances, 
to keep weaker animals from getting down and being smothered, so crowded 
were the cars. But Mr. Ball was a careful buyer, a good judge of stock, and 
despite these drawbacks, prospered in the business. 

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As Manchester grew, her citizens became more and more alive to fye isolated 
position held by her and certain sections of the county in relation to Delhi, the 
seat of government. Manchester had become the chief trading point of the 
county find furnished a large share of the business to the offices of the county 
located at Delhi. The approaches to the county seat were in a measure long 
and difficult; it had poor railroad facilities; Manchester had the Dubuque & 
Pacific (Illinois Central) and was nearer the center of the county. Her people 
felt they could accommodate more people than Delhi, and for that matter, any 
other town in the county, so that, in the spring of 1869, the citizens of Man- 
chester, by concerted action and according to the rules of law, laid down in such 
matters, gave notice to the public generally that they would make application 
to the board of supervisors for an order submitting to the electorate, at the 
general election of that year, the question of removing the seat of government 
from Delhi to Manchester. This necessary preliminary having been observed, 
petitions were industriously circulated in all the townships, which every man 
of voting age was asked to sign, praying for the order mentioned in the notices, 
and when the board of supervisors met in June, that body canvassed the peti- 
tions and determined that a majority of names had been secured by the petitioners 
for the desired object. Being thus encouraged, citizens of Manchester raised a 
fund of $12,000, and pledged that sum for the erection of a courthouse, in the 
event that the county seat should be removed to their chosen locality. This 
gave rise to the question as to where the building site should be chosen. This 
man at Manchester had a tract of land he thought peculiarly adapted to the 
purpose; tfcat man had many arguments to advance that the best site for a 
courthouse was on land owned by him. Petty jealoiisies were thus engendered 
and so complicated plans for the campaign mapped out by men having no ax 
to grind, but a real desire to attain the end sought, that many who were in favor 
of Manchester became disgusted, and others indifferent, all of which did not 
escape the enemy, but added zest and determination to their efforts to retain 
what they already possessed. Delhi and her cohorts went into the fight with 
great energy, being strongly fortified by the Davenport & St. Paul Railroad 
Company, whose officials generously contributed the main sinew of war — funds 
— to the Strawberry Point and Monticello papers, which published telling articles 
in favor of the town in possession and against the one seeking to grasp the 
coveted plum from her mouth. These newspapers were liberally distributed, 
week after week, among the electors of Elk, Union, Honey Creek, Oneida and 
Hazel Green townships, and were potent factors in inducing many to vote for 
the retention of the county seat at Delhi. No better evidence was needed than 
the result at the polls in October, when the election showed that Manchester 
had been defeated in her ambition by a majority of 367. 


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But Manchester bided her time. One defeat only whetted the appetites of 
her people for another and similar battle. Again resolved to enter the lists, she 
opened her batteries upon the defenses of Delhi and in 1874 petitioned the 
board of supervisors for an election to determine where, as between Manchester 
and Delhi, the county seat should be located. This time it did not appear that 
the petitions contained a sufficient number of names of the qualified voters of 
the county and the prayer of the petitioners was denied ; consequently, that body 
declined to order an election. 

A third attempt was made to wrest from Delhi that which she prized most 
highly. In 1875, Manchester, Delaware and Earlville, not as allies, but each 
having aspirations, petitioned the board of supervisors for an election, to deter- 
mine the county seat question. Remonstrances, generously signed by those in 
favor of Manchester, cleared the field of action of Earlville and Delaware, at 
the April term, and then the Manchester contingent put forth its best licks in 
securing signatures to petitions circulated in the various towns and townships. 
The board met in June and canvassed the papers. But the entire bar at Delhi 
was engaged to represent that place and made it clear to the board that the 
Manchester petitions were imperfect, in that many of the names thereon were 
also to be found on the remonstrances. A legal battle then ensued, in which 
Delhi came off victor. The matter finally reached the Supreme Court, in the 
month of August following, and the relief accorded by that tribunal was of no 

In the year 1869, when Manchester first clashed arms with Delhi, both Dela- 
ware and Earlville petitioned for a hearing before the board but soon found 
they had no status worthy of notice by that body. Each town again was among 
the combatants, in 1875, and got short shrift on that occasion. But pnce again 
Earlville tried her chances, this time in the winter of 1876, when her adherents 
were more successful and on petition an election was ordered, to decide the issue. 
Earlville offered $10,000, to be expended in building a courthouse, and had 
high hopes of the election's results. Manchester stood back, calmly and hope- 
fully awaiting the decision of the Supreme Court in her case. The campaign 
went on with good feeling manifested by everyone, but Earlville simply was 
not in it and was " snowed under" by an overwhelming majority. 


It probably occurred to many of the thoughtful and far-seeing men of 
Delaware County that it was only a question of time when Delhi should be 
compelled to part with her hold upon the county seat. Delhi's railroad facili- 
ties were not of the best; the town was difficult and inconvenient for large 
numbers of the taxpayers to reach ; hotel accommodations were inadequate, and 
many reasons, seemingly plausible and potent, were advanced against her reten- 
tion of the seat of government. Manchester had grown vastly as compared 
with Delhi. As a matter of fact, the county seat had not increased its popula- 
tion to any appreciable extent in years. 

In the spring of 1880 the people of Manchester and vicinity, including many 
citizens of the west half of the county, came to the conclusion that Manchester 
would accommodate more people than either the present county seat of Delhi 

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or any other town in the county ; therefore, they took necessary steps to have 
a change of county seat from Delhi to Manchester and a meeting was called and 
a committee appointed for the purpose of taking charge of the matter; and 
competent men were selected to circulate a petition for that purpose. The 
petition was industriously circulated by these agents appointed therefor, and 
they made a very thorough canvass, particularly of the west hajf of the county 
and a portion of the east half. No sooner did they commence to circulate the 
petition than the people of Delhi and vicinity, and those in favor of keeping 
the county seat where it was, circulated a remonstrance against the removal 
and they were as industrious in the circulation of their remonstrance as the 
petitioners were in circulating their petition. The petitioners had served a 
notice that the petition should be presented at the June term of the board of 
supervisors in 1880, and in accordance with that notice, the petitions were filed 
at that term and the remonstrances were also filed at that term ; and the matter 
came before the board of supervisors. 

After several days' examination of the names upon the petition and upon 
the remonstrances, and ascertaining how many of the petitioners had signed the 
remonstrance, the board of supervisors made the following finding: That the 
petition contained 133 names more than the remonstrance and that the number 
on the petition was larger than the majority of voters of Delaware County, as 
found by the last preceding census. Whereupon, the board found that the 
petitioners were entitled to the order they asked for, that a notice of an election 
be had to determine the question of removal of the county seat from Delhi to 
Manchester; and, on the 28th day of June, the board of supervisors ordered 
that a vote be taken on the question of removal at the next general election, 
to vote on the proposition of relocation of the county seat from Delhi to 

Immediately after its finding, the remonstrators removed said cause from 
the board of supervisors to the Circuit Court of Delaware County, Iowa, upon 
a writ of certiorari, to review the action of the board in respect to this removal. 

At the general election of this state on November 2, 1880, the electors of 
Delaware County voted upon the question of this removal and the result of 
that vote was canvassed at the November term of the board of supervisors, when 
it was found by said board that the majority of the electorate was in favor 
of the removal of the county seat from Delhi to Manchester, this majority 
being 487. Two thousand one hundred and fifteen votes were cast in favor of 
removal and 1,628 against. Whereupon, said board declared that the majority 
of the votes being cast for Manchester "Manchester is therefore declared to be 
the county seat of Delaware County, Iowa." 

Immediately thereafter the remonstrators filed a notice of appeal of the 
decision and order of the board to the Circuit Court of Delaware County, Iowa, 
and asked for a writ of injunction, which writ was served upon the board of 
supervisors and, the remonstrators filed their proper bond and asked for and 
obtained a writ of injunction to enjoin the supervisors from removing the 
books and papers from Delhi and to reverse the order of removal. 

This cause was afterward heard before the Circuit Court at the November, 
1880, term thereof. The finding and order of the board of supervisors were 
decreed to be right and the action of the board was affirmed, whereupon, the 

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remonstrators immediately upon the rendering of the decision of said District 
Court, filed notice of appeal to the Supreme Court of the State of Iowa and 
perfected their appeal. The petitioners, believing that the Supreme Court 
would affirm the decision and judgment of the District Court, disregarded such 
appeal and, the injunction having been dissolved and being therefore dead 
and having no effect in restraining the petitioners from removing the records, 
papers, etc., from Delhi to Manchester, they proceeded at once to remove all the 
records and papers to Manchester. The Supreme Court affirmed the decision 
of the court below after the records find papers were removed to Manchester. 



The first tem!ple (t) of justice erected in Delaware County was far from 
being an imposing affair, but it took as long to finish its construction as a modern 
state house. If the Commissioners ' Court made provision for the building prior 
to its erection, the clerk's minutes show negligence or oversight in not mention- 
ing this important detail. However, the courthouse was put up by the settlers 
all joining hands during the winter of 1842. These hardy pioneers gathered at 
Delhi and, with axes and teams cut logs and hauled them on the frozen lake, 
from the timber on the south side, and raised a log cabin 18 by 24 feet, and two 
stories high. "The gable ends were 'cobbed up,' and the ribs and ridgepole 
placed in position ready to receive the 'shake' roof." The lower floor was 
designed for the court room and the upper for the juries. The floors were laid 
with lumber hauled from Olmstead's Mill, but years elapsed before the building 
was given a roof and for an equally long time it was the only building in the 
county seat. 

Although continuous efforts were made by the commissioners to secure money 
to finish the courthouse, nothing in that direction was accomplished for years. 
The insignificant (at this time) sum of $65.00 could not be raised to put on 
a roof, windows, doors and other necessaries. As late a day as July 2, 1844, 
more than two years after the building was erected, the commissioners occupied 
the primitive courthouse for the first time, but it still was devoid of a roof. 

The first term of the District Court was held in the log building, but the 
jury room on the upper story, only having a frail board floor with an approach 
by ladder on the outside, the grand jury held its deliberations in a grove a few 
rods. southwest. This spot, it is said, remained the "jury room" until another 
courthouse was built. 


History fails to record whether or not the log courthouse, built in the early- 
spring of 1842, ever succeeded in getting a roof. One thing is certain, the build- 
ing was a failure, for when the weather became inclement the Commissioners' 
Court was held at the house of a settler, even up to the time it was abandoned 
by the county. Another and better building was needed for county purposes, 

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but how to secure it was a serious and weighty problem with the men at the head 
of affairs. The county treasury was in its normal condition— empty ; county 
orders were a drug on the market and rarely brought over fifty cents on the 
dollar ; the credit of Delaware County was a negligible quantity. The only real 
estate owned by the county that could be negotiated was in Delhi town lots, but 
these were only valued at $5 apiece. With all these difficulties in the way, the 
commissioners, nevertheless, ordered the building of another courthouse and in 
April, 1850, resolved to advertise for bids "to build a courthouse. ,, No con- 
tractor seemed to fancy the job, whereupon, Judge Doolittle and William Price, 
neither of whom was an experienced mechanic, secured the contract for furnishing 
the timber for the structure, at 5 cents per running foot. With axes and a bor- 
rowed broad-axe, these patriotic pioneers cut and hewed timber for the court- 
house, and jail to be built in the basement, and received pay in warrants or 
Delhi lots, the latter at the rate of $5 the lot. But the building was not completed 
until the year 1853 and many were the claims presented for work and material, 
of which a few samples are here appended: Samuel Bird, labor, $7.87; Z. A. 
Wellman, cash paid, $12.80 ; Joseph Mitchell, boarding hands, $7 ; Simeon Ellis, 
timber, $28 ; Jasper Seward, labor, $6.87 ; Henry Crawford, labor, $4.87 ; H. A. 
Carter, $45.25; Charles Cousins, labor, $5.73; John Benson, lumber, $58.77; 
G. W. Gregg, labor, $2.37 ; Simeon Ellis, timber, $7 ; John W. Clark, lumber, $25; 
H. A. Carter, commissioner and services on courthouse, $23.50. 

Payments for material and work were made in warrants at 50 cents on the 
• dollar, and town lots at $5 each. The building was commenced under the super- 
vision of the commissioners and in August, Judge Benson, succeeding the com- 
missioners in authority, superintended the laying of the foundation, building 
of the basement, or jail walls, and raising the frames. When the building had 
advanced to this stage, nothing further was done for a year thereafter. But by 
1853 Delaware County had a new courthouse and jail and, it is said, all was paid 
for in county warrants and town lots. . The structure was a plain frame, and in 
design and size resembles the traditional district schoolhouse. Underneath is 
a high basement used for a county bastile. On the main floor was one apartment, 
designed for the court room, the entrance to which was reached from the ground 
by a flight of steps. The old log cabin, which was dignified by the name of 
courthouse, was sold and removed. Its successor still stands upon its founda- 
tion stones in the plot of ground set apart for the purpose, and was vacated 
when Delhi lost its proud position of capital of Delaware County. This beautiful 
tract of land, occupying a square and in the heart of Delhi, was given by the 
county to J. M. Holbrook Post, No. 342, G. A. R., in the '90s and since then the 
old courthouse has served 'the old veterans as headquarters. After Delhi was 
incorporated in 1909, the Post quit-claimed its title to the old courthouse square, 
now known as G. A. E. Park, to the municipality. But previous to this the Post 
had turned over to Delhi Township for a town hall, a two-story brick building, 
standing in the park, which had been built by the county for the accommodation 
of its officials and archives. This building was erected under the administration 
of Judge F. B. Doolittle, in 1857, and cost about five thousand dollars. On the 
lower floor were the offices of clerk of the court and treasurer; upper floor, 
auditor and recorder. 

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The advocates of the removal of the courthouse from Delhi to Manchester 
had promised the taxpayers of the county that in the event the county seat should 
be removed, a courthouse would be erected by the people of Manchester and 
vicinity free of expense to the county. The petitioners for the removal of the 
county seat had agreed to furnish a lot and erect buildings sufficient for the 
officials of the county, having sufficient and proper vaults for the safe and secure 
storage of all records, papers arid archives of the county. It was also agreed that 
the city hall in Manchester should be furnished free in the interim for use as a 
court room for a period of ninety-nine years. And agreeably to these promises 
the Manchester people at once erected a two-story frame building with vaults, 
as promised, on a lot costing about three thousand dollars purchased of the Ray 
B. Griffin estate, situate on the southeast corner of Main and Tama streets. Here 
the officials were installed, also the archives and records brought from the old 
courthouse at Delhi, and this was the courthouse of Delaware County until the 
present one took its place. Court was held at the city hall. 

For several years after Manchester had secured the county seat, the tempo- 
rary frame building was used as official headquarters for the various officers, 
but it did not meet the desires nor the needs of the people. Along in the '90s 
they manifested a spirit of dissatisfaction and soon they came out in the open 
and declared it was high time that a courthouse should be built, commensurate 
with the needs and in harmony with the ability of the taxpayers to pay for it. 
Thereupon, certain of the citizens filed a petition with the board of supervisors, 
asking that body to build a courthouse not to exceed forty thousand dollars. The 
law, however, prohibited the board from expending more than five thousand 
dollars for any public purpose, unless the same should be done upon the vote of 
the people, or had been submitted to the voters of the county. This put a differ- 
ent phase upon the matter, so that the petitioners became remonstrators in that 
they feared to have the question submitted to a vote, as the proposition might 
carry. In that event they conceived the idea that not much of a courthouse could 
be built for $40,000, and that after the amount voted had been expended an 
appropriation would be asked for and granted for more money than they cared 
to pay. These petitioner-remonstrdtors were thereupon promised by those having 
the matter in hand that the courthouse would be built for a sum not to exceed 
forty thousand dollars and that the county would not be taxed for it. 

In 1852, Congress passed an act giving to every state all the swamp lands 
within its borders. It was found soon after this act was passed that a good deal 
of the swamp land had been entered by the people, some paying in cash and 
others in warrants, so that another act was passed in 1855, providing that for all 
land that had been entered prior to 1852, the United States would reimburse the 
state. Under that act, Judge A. S. Blair was appointed by the board of super- 
visors to prove up the swamp lands and accepting the office, he performed his 
duties faithfully and well. For the land that had been entered for cash, he 
secured to the county $22,000. He also placed to the county's credit 20,000 
acres of land. 

About 1893, when arrangements were making for the building of the court- 
house, the question was brought up before the board of supervisors as to whether 

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this swamp land should be sold and the proceeds applied on the cost of the build- 
ing. The board agreed that the question should be submitted to the voters at 
the next general election and that the voters should also pass on the question of 
applying the dog tax to the sum proposed, transferring it first to the general 
county fund. The election returns showed that the taxpayers and electors were 
in favor of using these funds for the purposes stated, and with the bridge fund, 
which had also been transferred, the courthouse was built in 1894, at a cost in 
round numbers of $38,000. 

On the 29th of March, 1894, a contract was let to Barnett & Record Company, 
of Minneapolis, Minnesota, for $36,860, that being the lowest, among others, in 
its bid. Work at once was commenced in excavating for a foundation and soon 
material was on hand for a brick and stone structure that is the admiration of 
all who see it. By an arrangement with their workmen, whereby they should 
give their services for less than the regular rates in order to secure the contract, 
this firm put up a building that is first class in every particular and could not 
be replaced today for $75,000. The design is tasteful and attractive. It fronts 
on Main Street and has a tower at its northwest corner. The material is red 
pressed brick, tastefully trimmed with rough hewn stone. The main entrance 
and to the second story, is faced and arched with this rough stone. The building 
is two stories in height, with an ample basement, and has for its interior arrange- 
ment the main offices on the first floor. In the second story is a well appointed 
court room with a good seating capacity. Here also are the judge's rooms, jury 
rooms and offices for the county attorney. The basement is devoted to furnaces 
and other uses. 

The building was dedicated January 7, 1895. The dedicatory exercises were 
held in Central Opera House, with Judge Blair presiding. Among others who 
delivered addresses on this occasion were Judge John P. Utt, of Dubuque, Judge 
A. S. Blair, of M&nchester, and H. P. Arnold, of Manchester. Judge Blair 
opened the first term of court held in the new building. In 1895 a clock was 
bought and paid for by about seven hundred citizens of the county, and placed 
in the tower, which now gives the time to the public by night and day. 


As we have seen, the first jail was built in the basement of the second court- 
house. This in course of time became obsolete and useless, so that a new and 
more commodious place of confinement for malefactors became necessary. By 
the year 1877, the question of providing a new building was forced upon the 
county authorities and on June 28th, a contract was let for the erection of a jail, 
the price to be $4,898. A site for the improvement was selected a: short distance 
west of the brick office building on the public square, and in the fall of 1878 the 
structure was completed, at a cost of a little over five thousand dollars. This jail 
was built of stone, quarried in the vicinity. It was two stories in height, con- 
tained six cells, three on each floor, an office room on the ground floor and sleeping 
rooms for jailers in the second story. 


The citizens of Manchester obligated themselves to build a county jail at 
Manchester if that place became the county seat, and it was the intention to use 

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material in the stone jail at Delhi in its construction. But an offer of $2,300 in 
cash was made to the county by those having the matter in hand, which was 
accepted and the county then assumed the duty and cost of putting up the build- 
ing. For this purpose the board of supervisors at the April term, 1885, Charles 
Crocker, Ryal Hickox and W. M. Sawyer, were appointed by the board, as a 
commission, to select and purchase a site for a jail and sheriff's residence, to 
accept a plan for such building, and make all contracts for the furtherance and 
completion of the undertaking. Consequently, a site was selected on the south- 
east corner of Delaware and Tama streets and the jail now in use was built in 
the fall of 1885 and occupied in January, 1886. The building is a two-story 
brick. The main part, which is on the corner, has the appearance of a residence 
and is occupied by the sheriff. The jail proper, with modern steel cells, or cages, 
is to the rear, on Delaware Street. The contract price was $4,328 for the con- 
struction of the institution. To this should be added a considerable sum for the 
purchase of and work on the steel cells in the prison. 


Prior to the year 1862, Delaware County " farmed" its indigent and helpless 
-citizens to any one capable and willing to ca*e for them, at a stated stipend. But 
the community was growing in population and wealth, also in the number of 
people needing public assistance, so that it became imperative that systematic 
provision should be made in behalf of the county's unfortunates. 

On the 7th day of June, 1861, Clement Coffin, member of the committee on 
paupers, reported to the board of supervisors, recommending that a proposition 
be submitted to the electorate of the county for the purchase of land, to be used 
as a home and retreat for that class of the county's citizens unable to care and 
provide for itself, the same to be known as the poor farm. After recommitment 
with instructions, the question was again submitted to the board, this time taking 
the form of placing before the voters the proposition of purchasing a farm for 
the poor, and raising not to exceed three thousand dollars for the purpose. The 
report was accepted. The question was voted upon at the ensuing October 
election and was rejected by a majority of 199. 

In the meantime the county had leased a house and tract of land belonging 
to Samuel Gookin to shelter its poor. William Terwiliger, P. B. Doolittle and 
Andrew Lord were appointed directors of the poorhouse. In January, 1863, 
the directors of the poorhouse were authorized to purchase a farm, and on June 
5th, P. B. Doolittle was appointed commissioner, for the purpose, and authorized 
"to negotiate with the owners of the premises now occupied by the county as a 
poorhouse, provided he shall not pay more than one thousand dollars for the 
same," and in the event of closing the transaction, the county clerk was instructed 
to issue county orders for the purchase money. The place in view at this time 
was not bought and Commissioner Doolittle was authorized to negotiate for the 
"Hefner farm" at a price not to exceed one thousand dollars. This arrange- 
ment also came to naught and nothing further seems to have been done in the 
matter until the year 1865, when, on January 4, P. B. Doolittle, Joseph Grimes 
and D. P. Baker were appointed a commission "to view the Horton or any other 
farm, and purchase the same for a county farm, at a reasonable price." 

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On the 8th of June, 1865, the commission reported to the board of supervisors 
that a contract had been made for a tract of land containing 222^4 acres, on 
section 18, Delhi Township, consideration $2,000. This contract was indorsed 
by the board and Judge Doolittle was requested to prepare plans for a suitable 

No new buildings were erected on the farm, however, until 1873. An old 
house on the place was made to answer the county's purpose until a better one 
took its place. A move in this direction was made in July, 1873, when the board 
of supervisors entered into a contract with N. W. Austin for the erection of a 
brick building. This is a large two-story structure, with basement, which later 
was enlarged by the addition of wings. The old building was moved to the rear 
and converted into a barn. 

Since the plans of the county authorities attained their fruition, the helpless 
and unfortunate of her people applying for aid at this institution have found 
the shelter and care necessary to their well being. This infirmary has main- 
tained high repute among kindred establishments in the state and is a credit 
to the community maintaining it. The present steward is John A. Pierce, who 
reported the average number of inmates for the year 1913, at 16%. 

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John Brown, who declared and honestly believed himself chosen of the Lord 
to strike the shackles from the southern slave, was hanged on the gallows at 
Charlestown, near Harper's Perry, Virginia, on th« 2d day of December, 1859, 
as a penalty for his misguided attempt to cause an uprising of the blacks in the 
vicinity of Harper's Perry, where he and his small band of followers had for- 
cibly taken possession of the United States arsenal. This event caused a furor 
of excitement in the South, and events that made for internecine strife and the 
bloodiest civil war on record were hastened at a furious speed toward Port 
Sumter, where the shot was fired that echoed its baleful significance throughout 
the hills and vales of Christendom. The walls of Port Sumter were battered 
by the rebel guns at Charleston, South Carolina, by the would-be assassins of 
the Union on the morning of April 12, 1861, and in twenty-four hours there- 
after news of the world momentous action had reached every accessible corner 
of the United States. In the South the portentous message was generally 
received with boisterous demonstrations of joy and the belief on the part of 
the masses that the day would soon come for their deliverance from the " northern 
yoke and that their " peculiar institution' ' was to be perpetuated under the 
constitution and laws of a new confederacy of states. In the North a different 
feeling possessed the people. The firing on Port Sumter was looked upon with 
anger and sadness, and the determination was at once formed to uphold the 
integrity of the Union and the perpetuity of its institutions. It was then that 
Abraham Lincoln began his great work of preserving the Union. 


On the 16th of April, four days following the assault on Port Sumter, 
Gov. Samuel J. Kirkwood, of Iowa, received the following telegram from 
Simon Cameron, secretary of war: 

"Call made on you by tonight's mail for one regiment of militia for im- 
mediate service." 

That very day the governor proclaimed to the people of Iowa that the nation 
was imperiled and invoked the aid of every loyal citizen in the state. The 
telegram above alluded to was received at Davenport. The governor was then 
residing at Iowa City but there was no telegraphic communication in those days 
between the two cities. 

It was important that the dispatch should reach the eyes of the governor at 
once, and General Vandever, then a civilian, volunteered to take the message 
to Iowa City. The governor was found on his farm outside the city by the self- 
appointed messenger, dressed in homespun and working in the field. Reading 


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the dispatch, Governor Kirkwood expressed extreme surprise and exclaimed: 
"Why, the President wants a whole regiment of men! Do you suppose I can 
raise so many as that, Mr. Vandever?" When ten Iowa regiments were offered 
a few days later the question was answered. 


President Lincoln announced, April 15, 1861, that the execution of the laws 
of the Union had been obstructed in South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Florida, 
Mississippi, Louisiana and Texas by ' * combinations too powerful to be sup- 
pressed by the ordinary course of judicial proceedings, or by the powers vested 
in the marshals by law." He called out the militia to the number of 75,000. 
Seeing that the insurgents had not dispersed in the states named and that the 
inhabitants of Virginia, Arkansas, North Carolina and Tennessee had joined them, 
he issued this proclamation, August 16, 1861: 

" Whereas, on the 15th day of April, 1861, the President of the United 
States, in view of an insurrection against Laws, Constitution and Government 
of the United States, which has broken out within the states of South Carolina, 
Georgia, Alabama, Florida, Mississippi, Louisiana and Texas, and in pursuance 
of the provisions of the act entitled, 'An act to provide for calling forth the 
militia to execute the laws of the Union, suppress insurrections and repel inva- 
sions, and to repeal the act now in force for that purpose/ approved February 
28, 1795, did call forth the miljtia to suppress said insurrection and cause the 
laws of the Union to be duly executed and the insurgents having failed to disperse 
by the time directed by the President ; and whereas, such insurrection has since 
broken out and yet exists within the states of Virginia, North Carolina, Ten- 
nessee and Arkansas; and whereas, the insurgents in all the said states claim 
to act under the authority thereof, and such claim is not disclaimed or repudiated 
by the persons exercising the functions of government in such state or states, 
or in the part or parts thereof in which combinations exist, nor has any such 
insurrection been suppressed by said states : 

' 'Now, therefore, I, Abraham Lincoln, President of the United States, in 
pursuance of an act of Congress approved July 13, 1861, do hereby declare that 
the inhabitants of the said states of Georgia, South Carolina, Virginia, North 
Carolina, Tennessee, Alabama, Louisiana, Texas, Arkansas, Mississippi and 
Florida (except the inhabitants of that part of Virginia lying west of the 
Alleghany Mountains, and of such other parts of that state and the other states 
hereinbefore named as may maintain a loyal adhesion to the Union and the 
Constitution or may be from time to time occupied and controlled by the forces 
of the United States engaged in the dispersion of said insurgents), are in a 
state of insurrection against the United States; and that all commercial inter- 
course between the same and the inhabitants thereof, with the exception afore- 
said, and the citizens of other states and other parts of the United States, is 
unlawful, and will remain unlawful until such insurrection shall cease or has 
been suppressed; that all goods and chattels, wares and merchandise, coming 
from any of said states with the exception aforesaid, into other parts of the 
United States, without the special license and permission of the President, 
through the secretary of the treasury, or proceeding to any said states, with 

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the exceptions aforesaid, by land and water, together with the vessel or vehicle 
conveying the same or conveying persons to or from said states, with said 
exceptions, will be forfeited to the United States; and that from and after 
fifteen days from the issuing of this proclamation, all ships and vessels belonging 
in whole or in part to any citizen or inhabitant of any of said states with said 
exceptions found at sea or in any port of the United States will be forfeited 
to the United States, and I hereby enjoin upon all district attorneys, marshals 
and officers of the revenue and of the military and naval forces of the United 
States to be vigilant in the execution of said act, and in the enforcement of 
the penalties and forfeitures imposed or declared by it ; leaving any party who 
may think himself aggrieved thereby to his application to the secretary of the 
treasury for the remission of any penalty or forfeiture, which the said secretary 
is authorized by law to grant if, in his judgment, the special circumstances in 
any case shall require such remission. 

"In witness whereof, I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of 
the United States to be affixed. 

"Done at the City of Washington, this 16th day of August, in the year of 
our Lord, one thousand eight hundred and sixty-one, and of the independence 
of the United States of America the eighty-sixth year. 

1 ' Abraham Lincoln. ' ' 

iowa rallies to the colors 

" Whether in the promptitude of her responses to the calls made on her 
by the general government, in the courage and constancy of her soldiery in 
the field," said Col. A. P. Wood, of Dubuque, upon one occasion, "or in the 
wisdom and efficiency with which her civil administration was conducted during 
the trying period covered by the war of the rebellion, Iowa proved herself the 
peer of any loyal state. The proclamation of her governor, Samuel J. Kirk- 
wood, responsive to that of the President calling for volunteers to compose her 
first regiment, was issued on the fourth day after the fall of Sumter. At the 
end of only a single week men enough were reported to be in quarters (mostly 
in the vicinity of their own homes) to fill the regiment. These, however, were 
hardly more than a tithe of the number who had been offered by company 
commanders for acceptance under the President's call. So urgent were these 
offers that the governor requested on the 24th of April permission to organize 
an additional regiment. While awaiting the answer to this request he condi-' 
tionally accepted a sufficient number of companies to compose two additional 
regiments. In a short time he was notified that both of these would be accepted. 
Soon after the completion of the second and third regiments, which was near 
the close of May, the adjutant general of the state reported that upward of one 
hundred and seventy companies had been tendered to the governor to serve 
against the enemies of the Union. 


' ' In the veteran reenlistments that distinguished the closing months of 1863 
above all other periods of reenlistments for the national armies, the Iowa three 

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years' men who were relatively more numerous than those of any other state, 
were prompt to set the example of volunteering for another of equal length, 
thereby adding many thousands to the great army of those who gave this renewed 
and practical assurance that the cause of the Union should not be left without 
defenders. In all the important movements of 1864 and 1865 by which the 
Confederacy was penetrated in every quarter and its military power finally 
overthrown, the Iowa troops took part. Their drumbeat was heard on the 
banks of every great river of the South, from the Potomac to the Rio Grande, 
and everywhere they rendered the same faithful and devoted service, maintain- 
ing on all occasions their wonted reputation for valor in the field and endurance 
on the march. 


"Iowa paid no bounty on account of the men she placed in the field. In 
some instances toward the close of the war, bounty to a comparatively small 
amount was paid by cities and towns. On only one occasion, that of the call 
of July 18, 1864, was a draft made in Iowa. This did not occur on account of 
her proper liability, as established by previous ruling of the war department to 
supply men under that call, but grew out of the great necessity that there existed 
for raising men. The Government insisted on temporarily setting aside in part 
the former rule of settlements and enforcing a draft in all cases where subdistricts 
in any of the states should be found deficient in their supply of men. In no 
instance was Iowa, as a whole, found to be indebted to the general government 
for men on a settlement of her quota account. ' ' 


When they fully realized that war was on, the people of Delaware were not 
slow to manifest their loyalty to the Union. A calm, but determined people they 
were! In groups on the streets, at their homes and business places, in mass 
meetings assembled and even in the churches the topic of universal discussion 
was the insult to the flag and proposed secession of the states south of Mason 
and Dixon 's line. Men were ready and eager to enlist for the war, which many 
thought would be a short one. Money was offered by men of large heart and 
patriotism to assist in recruiting troops. The plow, the scoop and the pen were 
dropped to take up the accoutrements of war, and such patriots as Cols. John 
C. Peters, Salue G. Van Anda, Capt. John F. Merry, and others, gave their 
time, energies and influence toward the enlistment o£ men, all of whom went 
to the front and gave, by their services, an honorable place to Delaware County 
in the military history of this country. All fought bravely. Some were killed 
in battle and their bodies lie in unknown graves where they fell. Others lost 
their health and strength in camp, or in the field, or southern prisons, some of 
whom died there, while others found their way back home, either maimed or 
broken in health. The returning veterans, however, were greeted with open 
arms by friend and neighbor and the community in which they lived tendered 
them public demonstrations of appreciation of the patriotic duties performed in 
fighting for their country's welfare. A list of the men who went to the front 
from Delaware County follows, as furnished by the adjutant general's reports 
of the State of Iowa: 

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The First Regiment Iowa Volunteers was composed of independent military 
companies organized before the war began, and enlisted for three months. It is 
said that Captain Herron and his company tendered their services to the secretary 
of war three months before the commencement of hostilities. This regiment was 
engaged at Wilson's Creek under General Lyon and lost ten killed and nearly 
fifty wounded. 

Collins, James, enlisted April 23, 1861. 

Collins. Joseph, enlisted April 23, 1861; reenlisted Twelfth Infantry, Sep- 
tember 10, 1861, now sergeant. 

Wall, F. M., enlisted April 23, 1861, as private in Company H, Sixteenth 


The Third Regiment was raised, drilled and sent to the front about August 
1. 1861. Its first engagement was at Blue Mills, Missouri, September 18, 1861. 
It fought gallantly at Shiloh two days, the second day under command of 
Lieutenant Cusley, the regimental officers being off duty or wounded. At 
Matamora, October 5, 1862, the regiment suffered heavily. On its way to join 
General Grant before Vicksburg, the Third was attacked by guerrillas and had 
fourteen men wounded; participated in the operations at Vicksburg; July 12, 
1863, went into battle at Johnson, Mississippi, with 241 men and lost 114 killed, 
wounded and missing; participated in the Meridian expedition, arriving there 
February 3, 1864, and the next day tore up fifteen miles of railroad; near 
Atlanta did good service July 28. Greatly reduced in numbers, the survivors 
reenlisted, forming three companies, and consolidated with the Second Infantry. 

The non- veterans of this regiment were mustered out in Januarv and Jul v. 


First lieutenant, Abel A. Franklin, enlisted as musician May 18, 1861 ; 
promoted first sergeant, then second lieutenant, July 18, 1862. 
Sergeant, John II. Earl, enlisted May 18, 1861. 
Sergeant, Stephen Cousins, enlisted May 18, 1861 ; wounded April 6, 1861. 


Baldwin, C, enlisted May 18, 1861; discharged June 16, 1862. 

Babeock, Charles, enlisted May 18, 1861 ; taken prisoner at Shiloh, April 6, 

Blue, Ennis, enlisted February 5, 1864; discharged August 27, 1864. 

Gibbs, William, enlisted May 18, 1861. 

Gostling. George G., enlisted May 18, 1861. 

Griffith, Robert P., enlisted May 18. 1861 ; promoted second corporal ; wounded 
at Shiloh. April 6, 1862. 

Vol. 1-7 

Dig+tized by 



Holmes, D. W., enlisted May 18, 1861 ; discharged for disability November 
26, 1861. 

Hopson, A. E., enlisted May 18, 1861; discharged for disability November 
26, 1861. 

Libby, E., Jr., enlisted May 18, 1861 ; died August 24, 1863, at Natchez. 

Michael, George, enlisted May 18, 1861 ; transferred to Invalid Corps, Febru- 
ary 15, 1864. 

Noble, James L., enlisted May 18, 1861 ; discharged for disability. 

Richmond, Walter, enlisted May 18, 1861. 

Sanford, George, enlisted May 18, 1864. 

Sanford, George, enlisted May 18, 1861. 



Captain, Robert P. Griffith, commissioned July 8, 1864; killed in battle (while 
corporal) at siege of Atlanta, July 22, 1864. 


The Fifth Regiment Infantry saw its first active service in front of New 
Madrid, when Companies A and B occupied the skirmish line; did brilliant 
service in the operations against Island No. 10, and after its surrender was 
directed to inscribe "New Madrid and Island No. 10 M upon its flag. At Iuka, 
September 19, 1862, the regiment lost heavily. During April and May, 1863, 
heavy skirmishing in Louisiana and Mississippi and participated in the operations 
before Vicksburg. At Chattanooga one-third of the regiment was captured. At 
Mission Ridge it was again on the skirmish line; mustered out at Kingston, 
Alabama. This regiment was disbanded in August, 1864. 


Captain, Daniel S. Malvin, commissioned second lieutenant; promoted first 
lieutenant, February 1, 1862; promoted captain, March 1, 1862; reduced to first 

Second lieutenant, Jerome Darling, enlisted as corporal, July 1, 1861 ; pro- 
moted first sergeant, then second lieutenant, September 20, 1862; died May 17, 
1863. of wounds received at battle of Champion Hills. 

Sergeant, 0. H. Smith, captured November 25, 1862, at Chattanooga. 

Corporal, "William T. Crozier, enlisted July 1, 1861. 

Corporal, William Setchfield, enlisted July 1, 1861: wounded at Iuka, 
September 19, 1862. 


Burrington, C. L., enlisted July 1, 1861; missing after battle of Iuka. 
Borrett, William, enlisted July 1, 1861 ; committed suicide on Steamer War 
Eagle, September 19, 1861. 

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Carlton, George, enlisted July 1, 1861. 

Doolittle, A. K., enlisted December 22, 1863. 

Doolittle, William A., enlisted July 1, 1861. 

Field, Job M., enlisted July 1, 1861; captured at Chattanooga, November 
25, 1863. 

Field, S. W. F. f enlisted July 1, 1861; killed in battle of Iuka, September 
19, 1862. 

Griffin, Asel, enlisted July 1, 1861. 

Gilbert, N., enlisted July 1, 1861 ; discharged for disability February 13, 1862. 

flallenbeck, J., enlisted July 1, 1861; captured at Chattanooga, November 

Healey, John, enlisted July 1, 1861; died September 27, 1862, of wounds 
received at Iuka. 

Luckinbill, E., enlisted July 1, 1861. 

Moshier, Tunis, enlisted July 1, 1861. 

Noble, A. F., enlisted July 1, 1861. 

Shryock, S., enlisted July 1, 1861 ; wounded in battle of Iuka, September 

19. 1862. 

Trilby, R. B., enlisted July 1, 1861 ; died March 27, 1862, at St. Louis. 

Wattson, George F., enlisted July 1, 1861. 

Webb, James, enlisted July 1, 1861; captured at Chattanooga, November 

25. 1863. 


The Ninth Infantry was sent to the front in 1861. Hon. William Vandever 
resigned his seat in Congress to take command of the Fifth. The regiment was 
first under fire at Pea Ridge, where it behaved gallantly; was in the Yazoo 
expedition in 1863. The Third Iowa Battery was recruited as a component part 
of the Ninth. The regiment participated in the movements against Atlanta and 
in the famous march through the Carolines under an Iowa officer and with three 
other Iowa regiments captured Columbia. This regiment was mustered out 
July 18, 1865, at Louisville. Officers not otherwise accounted for were mustered 
out with regiment. 


Sergeant, James E. Kirkwood, enlisted September 5, 1861; reenlisted as 
veteran January 1, 1864 ; wounded at Pea Ridge, Arkansas, March 7, 1862. 

Corporal, John B. Miller, enlisted September 5, 1861 ; promoted from private 
February 1, 1862; wounded at Atlanta, July 22, 1864. 


Boyer, I. C, enlisted August 29, 1861; died March 14, 1862. of wounds 
received at Pea Ridge, Arkansas. 

Edgington, Thomas J., enlisted August 16, 1861 ; discharged for disability 
January 18, 1861. 

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Gilbert, P. D., enlisted August 29, 1861; promoted to fourth corporal, 
March 17, 1862. 

Gale, William L., enlisted August 29, 1861 ; discharged for disability, January 
18, 1862. 

King, William H., enlisted August 26, 1861 ; reenlisted as veteran January 
1, 1864. 

Matkew, Lewis, enlisted August 23, 1861 ; discharged July 16, 1862 ; reenlisted 
as veteran January 1, 1864. 

Mersellus, John, enlisted September 12, 1861 ; reenlisted as veteran January 
1, 1864. 

Phillips, Alexander, enlisted August 23, 1861; discharged for disability 
January 11, 1862. 

Smith, John Isaac, enlisted August 16, 1861. 

Smith, E. A., enlisted September 17, 1861; killed March 7, 1862, in action 
at Pea Ridge. 

McCullough, William, enlisted August 30, 1861 ; reenlisted as veteran Janu- 
ary 23, 1864. 

Blasdell, B. A., enlisted February 25, 1864. 

Colyer, Charles C, enlisted February 27, 1864. 

Dickey, Charles II., enlisted February 26, 1864. 

Dickey, F. N., enlisted February 20, 1864. 

Hfevens, Romango, enlisted February 26, 1864. 

Owens, James, Jr., enlisted February 26, 1864. 


Corporal, Alberd D. Strunk, enlisted September 23, 1861, as private; promoted 
corporal, March 10, 1862. 


Private, Seaton, Asa M„ enlisted September 13, 1861; died at Young's Point, 
Louisiana, March 20, 1863. 


Second lieutenant, Jacob Piatt, enlisted as sergeant July 28, 1861 ; promoted 
first sergeant, then second lieutenant, August 4, 1863; reenlisted as veteran, 
January 1, 1864; discharged as first Sergeant, for disability, July 25, 1864. 

Sergeant, Milton F. Fowler, enlisted July 28, 1 861 ; reenlisted as veteran 
January 1, 1864; wounded July 22, 1864, at Atlanta. 


Costello, Thomas, enlisted September 3, 1861 ; reenlisted as veteran January 
1, 1864. 

Cuppet, David L., enlisted September 10, 1861 ; wounded at Pea Ridge, 
reenlisted as veteran January 1, 1864. 

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McGuigan, William H., enlisted September 10, 1861; killed in action at 
Vicksburg, May 22, 1863. 

Michaels, Aaron, enlisted September 18, 1861; died March 15, 1862, of 
wounds received at Pea Ridge. 

Shrunk, Joseph, enlisted September 24, 1861. 

Waters, John H., reenlisted as veteran January 1, 1864. 

Wells, T. P., enlisted September 18, 1861; reenlisted as veteran January 1, 
1864; discharged for disability. 


Sergeant, Thomas A. Farrington, reenlisted as veteran January 26, 1864. 


Clark, William, enlisted February 29, 1864, unassigned. 
Gilham, Jordan, enlisted February 20, 1864, unassigned. 
Kirk, William H., enlisted February 2, 1864, unassigned. 
Menes, James, enlisted February 29, 1864, unassigned. 


The Twelfth Regiment was recruited late in the summer of 1861, and organ- 
ized at Camp Union, Dubuque, Iowa, and mustered into the service of the United 
States, November 25, 1861, by Captain Washington, Thirteenth United States 

A large portion of Companies F, II, and K were Delaware County men. 
Company F was recruited at Manchester, H at Colesburg and Dubuque, and K 
at Hopkinton, which almost compelled the college at that place to suspend for 
want, of students. The first active service in w T hich the regiment was engaged 
was at Fort Donelson, where it was assigned to Cook's Brigade of Smith's 
Division, and was engaged in the battles of the 13th, 14th and 15th of February, 
which resulted in the capture of the fort and its garrison on the 16th, the enemy 
surrendering themselves prisoners of war. During most of the time, the boys 
were exposed to a cold rain and sleet and not being permitted to have any fire, 
suffered very much from cold. 

At Shiloh, the Twelfth was brigaded with the Second, Seventh and Four- 
teenth Iowa regiments, called the Iowa Brigade, commanded by General Tuttle, 
Second Iowa Infantry, Gen. W. H. Wallace commanding the division, and were 
in position near a field beyond General Hurlbut's headquarters. Here it 
remained in line of battle from 6 o'clock A. M. until about 4 P. M., during 
which time the enemy made several bold charges and was repulsed with great 
loss in killed and wounded. The Twelfth and Fourteenth being in support of 
a battery and having no orders to fall back, and not having notice that the left 
had given way, were allowed to be surrounded and after several hours' des- 
perate fighting, in which three or four regiments contended against the whole 
rebel force, the Twelfth having its commanding officer, Colonel Woods, -severely 
wounded, with all hopes of retreat or succor cut off, was obliged to surrender 
at 6 o'clock P. M. Number of men captured from regiment, about four hundred. 

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The men of the Eighth, Twelfth and Fourteenth Iowa Regiments, who were 
not captured, were organized into a regiment called the "Union Brigade," of 
which regiment the Twelfth formed Companies E and K. The Union Brigade 
was engaged and took a very prominent part in the battle of Corinth, October 
3d and 4th, the Twelfth losing three killed and twenty-five wounded out of eighty 
men engaged. After pursuing the enemy as far as Ripley, Mississippi, the regi- 
ment returned to Corinth, where it was engaged in building fortifications until 
December 18, 1862, when orders were received from the war department, discon- 
tinuing the organization known as the Union Brigade and ordering men of the 
Eighth, Twelfth and Fourteenth Iowa to proceed to Davenport, Iowa, to re- 
organize their regiments, prisoners having been paroled October 18, 1862, and 
exchanged November 10, 1862. The detachment of the Twelfth Iowa arrived 
at Jackson, Tennessee, where it was found that Forrest had destroyed the rail- 
road from Uniontown and was threatening Jackson. The detachment was at 
once ordered to the defence of the place, and remained four days, when it was 
ordered to open the railroad to Columbus, Kentucky, which delayed the detach- 
ment until the 4th of January. It arrived at Columbus on that day and was 
ordered once more to Davenport, where it arrived on the 7th of January, 1863, 
and from there it was ordered on the 27th of March to proceed to St. Louis, 
Missouri, there "to rejoin the regiment, and soon as organized was ordered to 
report to General Grant in the field near Vicksburg, Mississippi, and served 
during the entire siege, participating in all the principal engagements until the 
22d of June, when it was sent to Black River to guard the rear from an attack 
by Johnson. Vicksburg surrendered July 4th. 

The Twelfth was engaged in the battle near Tupelo, Mississippi, on the 13th, 
14th and 15th of July, 1864, losing nine men killed, fifty-four wounded and one 
missing out of 200 engaged. 

In June, 1864, Companies A and F, numbering fifty-five men, under com- 
mand of Capt. J. R. C. Hunter, Company A, while stationed at the mouth of 
White River, Arkansas, were attacked by 600 rebels of Marmaduke's command, 
about daylight, on the 22d of June, but taking refuge behind a slight stockade 
they repulsed the enemy, he leaving twenty killed and mortally wounded on the 
field. The loss of Companies A and F was one killed and four wounded. 

The regiment fought bravely in the battle of Nashville, and received special 
mention by brigade and division commanders for good service. Corp. Luther P. 
Kaltenbach, of Company F, and Private A. J. Sloan, of Company H, each cap- 
tured a rebel flag, for which they were rewarded with medals by the secretary 
of war. 

The regiment marched in pursuit of Hood with the army to Clinton, on the 
Tennessee River, thence by steamer to Eastport, Mississippi, arriving there on 
the 7th of January, 1865. Here Lieut. Col. John H. Stibbs got a leave of absence 
for thirty days to visit Iowa, for the purpose of recruiting up the regiment. He 
remained in Iowa but a short time, when he went to Washington, and through 
the influence of friends secured a position on a military commission, where he 
remained until after the war closed. Maj. Samuel G. Knee assumed command 
of the regiment and retained it during the remaining period of its service. From 
Eastport the regiment was ordered to New Orleans, then embarked with the 
forces under General Canby on the expedition against Mobile ; was in the front 

Digitized by 



line during the siege of Spanish Fort, which was the last service rendered by 
the regiment. During its service the gallant Twelfth was in twenty-three battles, 
was under fire 112 days and had ninety-five men killed in battle. S. G. Knee, 
who entered service and went to the front as first sergeant of Company H, 
returned as lieutenant colonel, and breveted colonel. 

This regiment was mustered out at Memphis, Tennessee, January 20, 1866. 
Officers not otherwise accounted for were mustered out as with the regiment. 

Lieut. Col. Samuel G. Knee, enlisted as first sergeant of Company H, 
September 19, 1861; taken prisoner at Shiloh; promoted second lieutenant 
November 9, 1862 ; promoted captain September 3, 1863 ; reenlisted as veteran ; 
promoted major December 2, 1864; promoted lieutenant colonel November 22, 

Q. M. S. S. M. French, enlisted as private September 18, 1861 ; reenlisted as 
veteran December 25, 1863. 

Asst. Surgeon W. H. Finley, commissioned October 30, 1861. 

„Sergt. Maj. G. H. Morrisy, enlisted September 26, 1861 ; captured at Shiloh, 
April 6, 1862; captured at Jackson, Mississippi, July 11, 1861; commissioned 
quarter master May 29, 1863 ; mustered out February 12, 1865. 

Drum Maj. Truman McKee, enlisted November 25, 1861, as musician in 
Company F; discharged April 28, 1862. 


Captain, James E. Ainsworth, commissioned November 12, 1861; resigned 
April 19, 1862; commissioned again, declined and revoked. 

Captain, J. Wilson Gift, commissioned first lieutenant November 12, 1861; 
promoted captain November 29, 1862 ; resigned August 8, 1863. 

Captain, William A. Morse, commissioned second lieutenant November 12, 
1861 ; taken prisoner at Shiloh ; promoted first lieutenant November 29, 1862 ; 
promoted captain August 9, 1863; mustered out December 1, 1864. 

Captain, John Brenner, enlisted as private October 15, 1861; promoted 
corporal March 22; 1862, for bravery at Fort Donelson ; promoted captain April 
20, 1865. 

First lieutenant, Abner Dunham, enlisted as corporal September 24, 1861; 
promoted first lieutenant April 20, 1865. 

Sergeant, Hiram Cronk, enlisted October 10, 1861 ; died at St. Louis, March 
2, 1862. 

Corporal, H. M. Preston, enlisted September 16, 1861 ; reenlisted as veteran 
February 29, 1864. 

Corporal, Isaac Johnson, enlisted September 24, 1861, as private; missing in 
battle of Shiloh. 

Corporal, A. D. Campbell, enlisted September 26, 1861, as private; killed 
April 6, 1862, at Shiloh. 


Annis, George W., enlisted September 5, 1861 ; reenlisted as veteran December 
25, 1863. 

Digitized by 



Balch, Samuel,- enlisted November 1, 1861 ; died at St. Louis, January 3, 1862. 

Barney, William H., enlisted September 24, 1861 ; captured at Shiloh April 
6, 1862; died June 26, 1862, at Nashville. 

Clapp, Seamons, enlisted September 10, 1861 ; died of wounds at Memphis, 
June 26, 1864. 

Clark, A. B., enlisted September 21, 1861; died at St. Louis, February 27, 

Church, A., enlisted October 23, 1861. 

Coolidge, Charles L., enlisted March 26, 1864. 

Coolidge, F. W., enlisted October 23, 1861; reenlisted as veteran December 
25, 1863, and promoted corporal. 

Coolidge, 0. E., enlisted November 25, 1861 ; died at St. Louis January 26, 

Corell, Edwin, enlisted November 1, 1861 ; transferred to Invalid Corps. 

Douglass, Edward, enlisted October 14, 1861; captured at Shiloh April 6, 
1862 ; died January 15, 1863. 

Eaton, John J., enlisted October 25, 1861 ; captured at Shiloh April 6, 1862 ; 
died January 15, 1863. 

Eldridge, Joseph E., enlisted October 15, 1861 ; reenlisted as veteran Decem- 
ber 25, 1863 ; promoted corporal ; wounded at Nashville December 15. 1864. 

Heller, M. B., enlisted January 1, 1863 ; died at Memphis, July 14, 1863. 

Hempsted, M., enlisted September 30, 1861; discharged April 4, 1862, 

Herrig, Lewis Q., enlisted November 25, 1861 ; died at Savannah, March 30, 

Judson, 0. W., enlisted October 21, 1861; died at St. Louis February 7, 1862. 

Kaster, Hiram, enlisted September 5, 1861 ; discharged June 25, 1862. 

Kenney, P. C, enlisted September 30, 1861 ; wounded at Corinth October 3, 
1862; died October 30, 1862, at Keokuk. 

Kaltenbach, L., enlisted September 27, 1861 ; reenlisted as veteran December 
25, 1863; promoted corporal. 

Kaltenbach, Samuel, enlisted September 28, 1861; traiksf erred to Invalid 
Corps January 5, 1864. 

Kaltenbach, William, enlisted September 23, 1861; died June 29, 1862, at 

Lilibridge, D. N., enlisted September 21, 1861 ; captured at Shiloh April 6, 
1862 ; died while prisoner at Macon, October 12, 1862. 

Loring, James T., enlisted September 10, 1864; killed in battle at Nashville 
December 16, 1864. 

Lyon, L. D., enlisted October 23, 1861; reenlisted as veteran December 25, 
1863; wounded April 28, 1864; discharged August 21, 1865. 

Manly, L. R., enlisted Januarj r 4, 1864; discharged November 20, 1865, 

Manning, A. L., enlisted October 11, 1861; discharged August 17, 1863, 

Mason, William H., enlisted September 16, 1861 ; captured April 6, 1862. at 
Shiloh; died of starvation while prisoner at Macon, Georgia, July 23, 1862. 

Nelson, O. L., enlisted November 22, 1861; deserted December 7, 1861. 

Digitized by 



Nelson, M. E., enlisted October 15, 1861 ; died at St. Louis February 18, 1862. 

Otis, John, Sr., enlisted November 20, 1861; transferred to Invalid Corps 
December 1, 1863. 

Otis, John, Jr., enlisted October 14, 1861 ; discharged June 9, 1862. 

Otis, Thomas, enlisted October 11, 1861 ; captured at Shiloh April 6, 1862 ; 
died at Montgomery, Alabama, June 6, 1862. 

Overocker, E. M., enlisted September 16, 1861 ; captured at Shiloh, April 6, 
1862 ; died while prisoner at Montgomery, Alabama, May 20, 1863. 

Overocker, James H., enlisted September 19, 1861 ; discharged. 

Pate, Q. W., enlisted December 25, 1862. 

Peasley, Russell H., enlisted September 28, 1861; reenlisted as veteran 
February 15, 1864; wounded at Nashville December 16, 1864. 

Peron, Henry, enlisted September 24, 1861. 

Plattenburg, Samuel, enlisted September 16, 1861 ; wounded at Fort Donel- 
son and Shiloh ; discharged August 24, 1862. 

Robbins, Charles L., enlisted September 10, 1864; died at Vicksburg February 
20, 1865. 

Roberts, I. W., enlisted November 11, 1861 ; captured at Shiloh April 6, 1862 ; 
died at Macon, Georgia, August 25, 1862. 

Roe, A. J., enlisted October 23, 1861 ; reenlisted as veteran December 25, 1863. 

Rosa, George R., enlisted September 24, 1861 ; died at St. Louis January 27, 

Ross, R. H., enlisted September 23, 1861 ; discharged April 28, 1862. 

Schneider, Justus, enlisted November 22, 1861 ; reenlisted as veteran December 
25, 1863. 

Steers, C, enlisted October 23, 1861 ; reenlisted as veteran February 15, 1864. 

Steers, William, enlisted October 23, 1861 ; reenlisted as veteran February 29, 

Taylor, James M., enlisted November 11, 1861; wounded at Fort Donelson, 
February 15, 1862; discharged October 16, 1862. 

Timmons, S., enlisted September 24, 1861 ; discharged April 11, 1862. 

Toney, C. B., enlisted September 24, 1861 ; captured at Shiloh, April 6, 1862 ; 
died of starvation while prisoner at Macon, Georgia, July 24, 1862. 

Wigger, Joshua, enlisted October 11, 1861; reenlisted as veteran December 
25, 1863. 


First lieutenant, Robert Fishel, commissioned November 5, 1861; reenlisted 
as veteran ; mustered out December 9, 1864 ; term expired. 

First lieutenant, David Moreland, enlisted as private September 19, 1861; 
captured at Shiloh, April 6, 1862; reenlisted as veteran January 4, 1864; 
promoted first lieutenant April 20, 1865. 

Sergeant, Ralph M. Grimes, enlisted October 4, 1861; captured at Shiloh 
April 6, 1862; reenlisted as veteran, December 25, 1863; wounded at Tupelo, 
July 14, 1864. 

Corporal, Benjamin A. Clark, enlisted September 23, 1861; captured at 
. Shiloh April 6, 1862. 

Digitized by 




Barrett, Lockhart, enlisted October 8, 1861 ; discharged July 11, 1862. 

Byrns, J. H., enlisted September 24, 1861 ; captured at Shiloh April 6, 1862 ; 
died at Macon, Georgia, October 1, 1862. 

Clendenen, Thomas, enlisted October 23, 1861; captured at Shiloh; died 
October 2, 1862, Annapolis, Maryland. 

Collins, William H., enlisted October 8, 1861; captured at Shiloh April 6, 
1862; died at Macon, Georgia, August 3, 1862. 

Crisman, William, enlisted October 24, 1861 ; captured at Shiloh ; reenlisted 
as veteran December 25, 1863. 

Currie, John G., enlisted October 21, 1861; captured at Shiloh; reenlisted as 
veteran, December 25, 1863 ; wounded July 17, 1864, at Tupelo. 

DeWolf, D. D., enlisted September 19, 1861 ; discharged April 26, 1862. 

Fishel, S. C, enlisted October 5, 1861 ; reenlisted as veteran January 4, 1864. 

Hamblin, F., enlisted October 8, 1861. 

Haught, D. L., enlisted September 26, 1861. 

Henry, Philip, enlisted April 7, 1864 ; wounded and captured July 14, 1864, 
at Tupelo, Mississippi. 

Hitsman, John G., enlisted September 25, 1861; discharged February 27, 

Huffsmith, A., enlisted September 19, 1862; died January 11, 1862, at St. 

Light, R. W., enlisted September 28, 1861 ; captured at Shiloh April 6, 1862. 

Malvin, D., enlisted September 19/1861; discharged June 22, 1862. 

McConnell, A. S., enlisted September 19, 1862 ; reenlisted as veteran, Decem- 
ber 25, 1863. 

McKinnis, George M., enlisted October 8, 1861 ; captured at Shiloh April 
6, 1862. 

Nicholas, James E., enlisted September 23, 1861 ; captured at Shiloh April 
6, 1862 ; died at Macon, July 9, 1862. 

Noggles, Joseph, enlisted October 8, 1861 ; died January 11, 1862, at St. Louis. 

Patrick, Lester, enlisted September 27, 1861. 

Patrick, N. E., enlisted September 28, 1861; died at Millville, January 19, 

Phillips, H., enlisted April 7, 1864. 

Richardson, C. E., enlisted September 27, 1861; captured at Shiloh April 
6, 1862; died at Griffin, Georgia, June 13, 1862. 

Richardson, H. L. ? enlisted September 26, 1861; captured at Shiloh April 
6, 1862 ; died at Macon, Georgia, September 16, 1862. 

Riphoff , Henry, enlisted September 8, 1862 ; died at Vicksburg May 27, 1863. 

Slack, William J., enlisted October 4, 1861; captured at Shiloh April 6, 
1862; died at Macon, Georgia, October 2, 1862. 

Sloan, A. J., enlisted October 5, 1861 ; reenlisted a*s veteran February 29, 1864. 

Sloan, Samuel B., enlisted October 5, 1861. 

Tolbert, Smith, enlisted October 9, 1861 ; discharged April 26, 1862. 

Ward, E. A., enlisted October 7, 1861 ; wounded at Shiloh, died at St. Louis 
May 8, 1862. 

Digitized by 



Ward, Julius, enlisted September 19, 1861; captured at Shiloh, April 6, 
1862; died in Montgomery, Alabama, April 30, 1862. 
Wisegarver, William S., enlisted September 19, 1861. 



Locke, Charles W. R., enlisted March 24, 1864. 

Wilson, Thomas H., enlisted October 14, 1861; wounded at Fort Donelson, 
February 15, 1862; killed at battle of Shiloh April 6, 1862. 


Captain, John G. Fowler, commissioned November 25, 1861 ; honorably dis- 
missed October 11, 1864. 

Captain, Orson T. Fuller, enlisted as corporal September 23, 1861 ; promoted 
to second lieutenant March 18, 1862 ; taken prisoner at Shiloh ; promoted to first 
lieutenant June 13, 1863 ; promoted to captain January 23, 1865. 

First lieutenant, Lawrence Webb, commissioned November 25, 1861 ; resigned 
March 21, 1862. 

First lieutenant, James B. Morgan, enlisted as private of Company I, First 
Infantry, April 23, 1861; enlisted as first lieutenant this company September 
10, 1861 ; promoted to first lieutenant January 23, 1865. 

Sergeant, S. P. Collins, enlisted September 10, 1861; missing in battle of 

Second lieutenant, Henry C. Merriam, enlisted as corporal September 8, 
1861; captured at Shiloh April 6, 1862; promoted to second lieutenant June 
13, 1863 ; mustered out December 1, 1864, term expired. 

Sergeant, Richard Freeman, enlisted September 6, 1861 ; captured at Shiloh 
April 6, 1862. 

Sergeant, Robert Fowler, enlisted September 10, 1861 ; killed in action July 
14, 1864, at Tupelo. 

Corporal, W. H. H. Blanchard, enlisted September 23, 1861; captured at 
Shiloh ; wounded at Tupelo, July 14, 1864 ; discharged January 26, 1865. 

Corporal, Benjamin Nash, enlisted September 12, 1861; captured at Shiloh 
April 6, 1862 ; died at Macon, Georgia, September 24, 1862. 

Musician, John D. Blanchard, discharged May 6, 1862. 

Musician, Ira D. Blanchard, discharged May 6, 1862. . 

Wagoner, Samuel Horn, enlisted November 20, 1861. 


Baldwin, N. H., enlisted September 11, 1861; captured April 6, 1862, at 
Shiloh; discharged December 2, 1862, disability. 

Barden, H. A., enlisted September 20, 1861 ; discharged March 13, 1862. 
Billings, A., enlisted September 8, 1861. 
Billings, Charles D., enlisted January 27, 1864. 

Digitized by 



Blanchard, T. E., enlisted September 23, 1861; captured April 6, 1862, at 

Blood, George W., enlisted September 21, 1861 ; discharged June 25, 1862. 

Bugbee, Stephen, enlisted December 20, 1862; wounded at Tupelo, July 14, 

Coleman, A. D. 

Dolley, G., enlisted September 23, 1861 ; captured at Shiloh, April 6, 1862. 

Downer, Daniel, enlisted September 12, 1861; captured at Shiloh, April 6, 
1862 ; died at Macon, August 15, 1862. 

Ellison, H., enlisted November 20, 1861 ; discharged March 17, 1863, disability. 

Ellison, William H., enlisted January 27, 1864. 

Farmer, Newton, enlisted September 23, 1861. 

Franks, Joseph. 

Gallagher, Patrick, enlisted October 18, 1861 ; captured at Shiloh ; discharged 
February 13, 1863. 

Green, Samuel, enlisted September 20, 1861; captured at Shiloh April 6, 
1862; discharged April 25, 1862. 

Hickethur, August, enlisted October 20, 1861. 

Hickethur, Charles, enlisted October 20, 1861 ; captured at Shiloh April 6, 

Hill, Granville S., enlisted December 20, 1862 ; died at Memphis June 24, 1863. 

Humphrey, Thomas, enlisted September 14, 1861; discharged August 8, 1862. 

Johnson, William T., enlisted September 28, 1861 ; captured at Shiloh April 
6, 1862 ; died at Macon, Georgia, August 29, 1862. 

Keith, George, enlisted September 23, 1861. 

Keith, William B., enlisted September 14, 1861 ; captured at Shiloh April 
6, 1862; wounded at Tupelo July 14, 1864. 

Keller, M. B. 

Loomis, William, enlisted December 20, 1862; discharged for disability at 
St. Louis, March 11, 1863. 

Lyons, Charles, enlisted November 20, 1861; died March 6, 1862, at Fort 

Mann, Edward, enlisted September 10, 1861 ; died at Hopkinton, Iowa. 

Miers, Joseph A.,. enlisted February 11. 1864; discharged for disability Octo- 
ber 8, 1864. 

Maine, Isaac, enlisted September 15, 1861 ; captured at Shiloh, April 6, 1862; 
discharged March 12, 1863, disability. 

Maine, Job, enlisted November 23, 1861 ; died December 31, 1861, at St. Louis. 

Morgan, William B., enlisted September 13, 1861 ; died at home. 

Merriam, Charles E., enlisted September 9, 1861 ; captured at Shiloh ; wounded 
at Vicksburg, May 22, 1863 ; wounded at Tupelo, July 14, 1864. 

Morehouse, P., enlisted September 18, 1861 ; captured at Shiloh ; discharged 
December, 1862, disability. 

Moulton, John, enlisted September 15, 1861; died of wounds received at 
Shiloh April 20, 1862, at St. Louis. 

Myers, J., enlisted September 18, 1861 ; captured at Shiloh. 

Olmstead, George W., enlisted September 18, 1861 ; captured at Shiloh April 
6, 1862. 

Digitized by 



Orr, John B., enlisted September 23, 1861. 

Phillips, Charles E., enlisted September 18, 1861 ; captured at Shiloh April 
6, 1862. 

Reardon, P. A., enlisted February 11, 1864 ; discharged for disability October 
8, 1864. 

Reiphoff, H. 

Robinson, Alonzo, enlisted September 30, 1861 ; captured at Shiloh April 6, 
1862; discharged January 8, 1863. 

Waldorf, Henry E., enlisted September 18, 1861; captured at Shiloh April 
6, 1862; discharged April 12, 1863. 

Walker, Charles, enlisted September 16, 1861; died at St. Louis, February 
13, 1862. 

Willard, Porter, enlisted September 17, 1861 ; discharged November 17, 1863. 

Willis, Willard, enlisted September 17, 1861 ; died at Cairo, March 3, 1862. 

Wilson, P. 0., enlisted September 12, 1861 ; captured at Shiloh, April 6, 1862; 
died at Macon, Georgia, September 12, 1862. 

Winch, Robert C, enlisted September 26, 1861 ; discharged February 21, 1862. 

Winch, William II., enlisted September 26, 1861. 


This regiment was recruited and organized in 1862, 201 men being 
furnished from Delaware County. It w r ent into service under Capt. Samuel 
Merrill (since governor), Lieut. Col. C. Dunlap and Maj. S. G. Van Anda, 
of Delaware. Its first engagement was at Hartsville, Missouri, January 11, 
1863, where it was under a heavy artillery fire and met, without flinching, 
the vigorous charges of both rebel infantry and cavalry. At this battle the 
Union forces were commanded by Colonel Merrill, and the Twenty-first was 
under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel Dunlap. The supporting regiments 
were withdrawn without the knowledge of Colonel Dunlap who, upon learning 
the fact, extended his lines and drove the enemy into and through the town. 
His position was unsafe, however, and after nightfall the troops were withdrawn. 

In this battle Colonel Dunlap was wounded, having one of his fingers shot off, 
and the rebel, Colonel Porter, of St. Louis, was killed. 

Soon after, the regiment was transferred to General Grant's command and 
drew the first fire of the enemy at Port Gibson about 1 o'clock A. M., May 1, 
1863, and had sixteen men wounded in the engagement. In his report of this 
affair, Colonel Merrill made honorable mention of Captain Watson, of Company 
F, as a brave, cool and efficient officer. 

The regiment was again engaged at Black River Bridge, May 17th. Here 
Colonel Merrill was suddenly taken very sick, and Maj. S. G. Van Anda assumed 
command and led the gallant but bloody charge. The regiment suffered severely 
in this terrible charge, losing eighty-three men in three minutes, but captured 
a large number of the enemy. After the charge, Colonel Merrill was slightly 
wounded by a stray shot from the prisoners the boys had taken while coming 
up in the rear. 

Captain Watson and Captain Voorhees were both complimented for their 
coolness and bravery in Major Van Anda's official report of the engagement. 

Digitized by 



On the 22d of May, Van Anda again gallantly led the regiment in its bloody 
charge on Port Beauregard, in the rear of Vicksburg, and captured it but was 
driven out in turn. The regiment was formed to support the Twenty-second but 
the enemy had position on its flank and the Twenty-first was exposed to a galling 
% fire. The enemy was protected by the walls of the fort and the regiment lost 
heavily. About an hour after the charge, Lieutenant-Colonel Dunlap came up 
and exposing himself needlessly over the entrenchments in front of the rebel 
works was shot in the forehead and instantly killed. 

For his skill and bravery in this action, Major Van Anda was promptly 
promoted to be lieutenant colonel, dating from that day. 

After the capture of Vicksburg, the regiment was ordered to New Orleans, 
thence to Texas, where it passed the winter. In the spring of 1864, it was 
ordered to White River, and during the remainder of that year was stationed 
successively at St. Charles, Duvall's Bluff, mouth of White River, Memphis, 
Wolf River and New Orleans. 

March 5, 1865, the regiment left for Dauphin Island, and passing up Mobile 
Bay, landed oh the Peninsula of Alabama and were attached to the Division of 
the Gulf, commanded by General Canby. Twenty-one days were occupied in a 
march of sixty miles up the peninsula. More than thirty miles of corduroy 
road were constructed over the quicksands. The pine trees were felled, cut into 
logs and piled three deep. Not more than four or five miles a day could bo 
made by the entire army. 

On the morning of March 26th, the Twenty-first, having had the advance 
for twenty-four hours, was relieved by the Ninety-ninth Illinois and took its place 
in the line of march, the third from the front. Soon the picket firing of the 
enemy opened upon the advance. Major-General Granger immediately dis- 
patched an adjutant to the commander of the Twenty-first, Colonel Van Anda, 
with orders to advance his regiment to the front at once. This was a great 
compliment to the gallant regiment from a brave general. When the regiments 
in front received the order to open ranks for the passage of the Twenty-first, 
the remark ran along the line, i ' There is to be fighting in front, there goes the old 
Twenty-first.' ' About 8 o'clock A. M. four companies were thrown out as 
skirmishers, who kept up a continuous fire upon the retreating enemy, often 
aided by the other companies of the regiment, for ten miles, when the rebels 
made a bold stand; and at 9 o'clock P. M. the advance of the regiment drew the 
fire of the enemy from their earthworks, having driven a large army since 
8 o'clock that morning. 

On account of the woody nature of the country here, the regiment lost but 
three men killed and five wounded during the entire day. At 2 o'clock A. M. 
of the 27th, after having thrown up triangular earthworks for protection the 
next morning, the regiment was relieved by the Forty-seventh Indiana, and 
Colonel Van Anda received permission to withdraw to a piece of pine timber 
about forty rods distant to make coffee, but the men were too sleepy and 
exhausted to eat or drink, and lay down on their arms. During the night, 
the One Hundredth and Sixty-fifth New York were formed in the line occupied 
by the Twenty-first the day before, and just at daybreak 800 cavalry dashed 
upon them with their rebel yells. The New York regiment was panic stricken, 
threw away their guns and broke for the gunboats. The Twenty-first heard 

Digitized by 



the yell and the first rebel gun and in less time than it takes to tell the story, 
were in line and drove the rebel cavalry back to their fort like a whirlwind. The 
One Hundredth and Sixty-fifth New York was disgraced and put on fatigue 
duty unloading boats. The enemy being driven into their works, preparation for 
a siege commenced. Pits were dug by every man who could get a spade or shovel. 
On the night of the 28th, Capt. J. L. Noble, of Company H, was near the rebel 
forts with a working party, having stacked half their arms, when the entire 
front was attacked by a large body of the enemy. With admirable bravery and 
presence of mind, Captain Noble rallied his men to their guns and drove the 
rebels back in great disorder. 

The regiment took active part in the siege until the 30th, when it was with- 
drawn to escort a supply train to General Steele. April 2d the regiment was 
ordered to Fort Blakely, marched five miles and encamped near the Biminet, 
and at daylight on the 3d took position in the rear of the fort. During the 
operations against Fort Blakely the men entered the rifle pits at dark on the 
evening of the 7th and were under the most terrific fire of shells for two hours. 
After fighting in this position for thirty-six hours without rest or food, they 
were ordered to the support of General Smith in a contemplated assault upon 
Spanish Fort, seven miles away. On the march, three men out of the rank 
of four would go to sleep and be kept moving by the fourth in turns. The fort, 
the strongest on the bay, surrendered, however, before the regiment could reach 
it and when that well known shout of victory went up from around its walls 
these 600 weary men gave one loud and long cheer, sank down in their 
tracks and slept until morning. The proud City of Mobile had fallen and the 
victorious army of the Union were invited by its rebel citizens to come and 
occupy it. The transportation boats had arrived and the regiment embarked 
for the city. The bay was full of torpedoes, but a rebel pilot who knew where 
they were was placed at the wheel. The Twenty-first was landed on the shell 
road seven miles below, and with the Twenty-ninth Wisconsin ordered to occupy 
and guard the city. They led the advance of the victorious army. No grander 
sight was ever witnessed by a soldier. Union men and women who had long and 
patiently waited for the auspicious hour decorated the heads of the soldiers 
with beautiful wreaths, and old Stars and Stripes that had not seen the light 
for years were proudly flung to the breeze. Sergt-Maj. John Dubois received 
special mention in Colonel Van Anda's report of the operations before Fort 
Blakely. Soon after the fall of Mobile, the Twenty-first was sent up the Red 
River for the purpose of paroling rebel prisoners. Having performed this duty, 
it was ordered to Baton Rouge, where it was mustered out July 15, 1865. 

This regiment was mustered out of service at Baton Rouge, July 15, 1865. 
Officers not otherwise accounted for were mustered out as with the regiment. 


Colonel, Samuel Merrill, resigned on account of wounds June 21, 1864. 

Lieutenant colonel, Cornelius W. Dunlap, killed in the assault on Vicksburg. 
May 22, 1863. 

Lieutenant colonel, Salue G. Van Anda, appointed May 23, 1863, from major: 
mustered out July 15, 1865. 

Digitized by 



Major, Salue G. Van Anda, appointed May 2, 1862 ; promoted to lieutenant 

Major, William D. Crooke, appointed May 26, 1863, from captain of Com- 
pany B ; resigned January 27, 1865. 

Adjutant, Horace Poole, appointed September 2, 1862 ; promoted to captain 
and assistant adjutant general May 17, 1864. 

Adjutant, George Crooke, appointed May 4, 1864 ; mustered out July 15, 1865. 

Quartermaster, Charles R. Morse, appointed August 16, 1862; resigned 
September 23, 1863. 

Quartermaster, John S. Piatt, appointed October 19, 1863, from private of 
Company E; mustered out July 15, 1865. 

Surgeon, William A. Hyde, appointed August 20, 1862; resigned November 
20, 1862. 

Surgeon, William L. Orr, appointed December 2, 1862, from assistant surgeon 
Third Iowa Cavalry; resigned October 29, 1864. 

Surgeon, Dwight W. Chase, appointed November 16, 1864; resigned May 
30, 1865. 

First assistant surgeon, Lucius Benham, appointed August 26, 1862 ; resigned 
July 26, 1863. 

First assistant surgeon, Hiram II. Hunt, appointed May 4, 1863, from 
hospital steward Twenty-seventh Iowa Infantry ; mustered out July 15, 1865. 

Second assistant surgeon, Richard A. Barnes, appointed August 27, 1862; 
resigned March 17, 1863. 

Chaplain, Samuel P. Sloan, appointed September 1, 1862; resigned January 
5, 1863. 

Chaplain, Lorenzo Bolles, appointed January 6, 1863, from private of Com- 
pany K; resigned July 16, 1863. 

Chaplain, James Hill, appointed August 4, 1863; served as first lieutenant 
Company I ; mustered out July 15, 1865. 

Sergeant major, William P. Dickinson, appointed September 9, 1862, from 
private of Company H ; discharged on account of wounds November 10, 1863. 

Sergeant major, John Dubois, appointed June 1, 1863, from sergeant Com- 
pany H ; mustered out July 15, 1865. 

Quartermaster sergeant, Judson G. Hamilton, appointed September 9, 1862. 
from private of Company A; reduced to ranks at his own request August 31, 

Quartermaster sergeant, Linus P. McKinney, appointed September 1, 1864, 
from private of Company G ; reduced to ranks at his own request February 4. 

Quartermaster sergeant, Austin E. Cook, appointed February 4, 1865, from 
first sergeant of Company K ; mustered out July 15, 1865. 

Commissary sergeant, E. H. Townsend, appointed September 9, 1862, from 
private of Company F; reduced to ranks November 1, 1862. 

Commissary sergeant, Jeffrey A. Parker, appointed November 1, 1862, from 
private of Company I; mustered out July 15, 1865. 

Hospital steward, Rufus L. Grosvenor, appointed November 6, 1862. from 
private of Company. A ; mustered out June 10, 1865. 

Digitized by 



Musician, William Matson, appointed September 9, 1862, from musician 
Company A; mustered out June 10, 1865. 

Musician, Isaac S. Large, appointed September 9, 1862, from Company A ; 
mustered out June 26, 1865. 

company c 

Sergeant, John Cousins, enlisted August 15. 1862. 


Lambert, William II., enlisted December 12, 1863. 


Captain. Joseph M. Watson, appointed August 23, 1862; resigned January 
18, 1864. 

Captain, James L. Noble, appointed January 19, 1864, from first lieutenant; 
mustered out July 15, 1865. 

First lieutenant, James B. Jordan, appointed August 23, 1862; resigned 
March 11, 1863. 

First lieutenant, James L. Noble, appointed March 11, 1863, from second 
lieutenant; promoted to captain. 

First lieutenant, Willie E. Brown, promoted to first lieutenant. 

Sergeant, John Dubois, promoted to sergeant major. 

Sergeant. Ora II. Melendy, discharged March 19, 1863. 

Sergeant t James Heath, discharged January 24, 1863. 

Sergeant, David D. Griffith, discharged February 22, 1864. 

Corporal, John Van Kuren, promoted to sergeant; died of wounds June 18, 
1863, at Memphis, Tennessee. 

Corporal, Walter Moon, promoted to sergeant ; mustered out July 15, 1865. 

Corporal. William W. Wirtz, promoted to sergeant; died September 5, 1863, 
at Memphis, Tennessee. 

Corporal, Elijah P. Ciillespie, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps. August 

Corporal, Daniel H. Ilinkle, mustered out July 15, 1865. 

Corporal, Jason D. Gilbert, promoted to sergeant; mustered out July 15, 1865. 

Corporal, Newman S. Preston, mustered out July 15, 1865. 

Corporal, Horace B. Duel, mortally wounded as color bearer May 17, 1863 ; 
died of wounds May 20, 1863, at Black River Bridge, Mississippi. 

Musician, Alvin E. Richmond, died June 6, 1864, on Matagorda Island, Texas. 

Teamster, Joseph Allen, discharged January 26, 1863. 


Angell, Alfred, discharged July 20, 1863. 
Ackley, Martin A., mustered out July 15, 1865. 
Abbott, George W., mustered out July 15, 1865. 

Digitized by 



Allen, William G., discharged December 20, 1864. 

Anderson, Charles C, mortally wounded May 22, 1863; died of wounds June 
14, 1863, at Memphis, Tennessee. 

Barnes, Leonard B., mustered out July 15, 1865. 

Blood, Myron D., promoted to first sergeant ; mustered out July 15, 1865. 

Bly, Joseph, mustered out July 15, 1865. 

Bohannon, Samuel, mustered out July 15, 1865. 

Carlton, Charles, killed January 11, 1863. 

Cassell, Henry, killed in the assault on Vicksburg May 22, 1863. 

Cassell, William, mustered out July 15, 1865. 

Collins, William, detailed in Pioneer Corps, October 3, 1863; supposed to 
have died. 

Coolidge, Melville, died September 17, 1864, at Memphis, Tennessee. 

Crosby, Philus S., discharged January 24, 1863. 

Davis, Ira, mustered out July 15, 1865. 

Dickinson, William P., promoted to sergeant major September 1). 1862. 

Dodd, Thomas C, discharged April 19, 1863. 

First, James, discharged August 18, 1863. 

Pox, Sylvanus B., promoted to corporal ; mustered out July 15, 1865. 

Gage, Marion, accidentally wounded; discharged January 24, 1863. 

Gilbert, Ebenezer B., mustered out July 15, 1865. 

Goldsmith, Alfred, mustered out May 22, 1865. 

Gregory, Ezra, mustered out July 15, 1865. 

Haigh, William, mustered out June 15, 1865. 

Hart, William 0., promoted to corporal ; mustered out July 15, 1865. 

Johnson, John B., died February 20, 1865, in general hospital at Dauphin 
Island, Alabama. 

Jordan, Wade H., mustered out July 15, 1865. 

Kephart, Alfred B., promoted to corporal ; mustered out July 15, 1865. 

Kephart, Caleb E., died July 28, 1864, at New Orleans, Louisiana. 

Keller, Albert N., mustered out July 15, 1865. 

Kelley, Daniel, died May 5, 1863, at Memphis, Tennessee. 

Kenyon, William, killed May 17, 1863. 

King, Matthew F., mustered out July 15, 1865. 

Lett, Andrew J., mustered out July 15, 1865. 

Lukenbill, Jeremiah, died October 8, 1864, at Memphis, Tennessee. 

McCormick, Duncan, mustered out July 15, 1865. 

Mabb, Albert, mustered out July 15, 1865. 

Marshall, W. N., wounded at Vicksburg; discharged January 24, 1864. 

Matsell, Robert E., mustered out May 8, 1865. 

Melendy, Charles, promoted to corporal ; mustered out July 15, 1865. 

Miller, Henry T., transferred to Mississippi Marine Brigade February 19. 

Moore, Charles C, mortally wounded May 17, 1863; died of wounds June 
14, 1863, on hospital boat, D. A. January, near Memphis, Tennessee. 

Moore, Elisha B., mustered out July 15, 1865. 

Moore, George, mustered out July 15, 1865. 

Digitized by 



Moore, George W., discharged August 2, 1863 ; died in hospital at Memphis, 

Myers, DeWitt. 

Nichols, Arthur H., wounded at Vicksburg ; mustered out July 15, 1865. 

Nicholson, William, mustered out July 15, 1865. 

Olds, Osmar, transferred to Invalid Corps March 15, 1864. 

O'Rourke, Michael, mustered out July 15, 1865. 

Parker, George, M., mustered out July 15, 1865. 

Paul, Henry R., promoted to corporal and sergeant; mustered out July 15, 
. Pedro, George V., mustered out July 15, 1865. 

Penney, Lewis C, mustered out July 15, 1865. 

Potter, Gideon, died March 31, 1863, at Milliken's Bend, Louisiana. 

Putman, John W., transferred to Mississippi Marine Brigade February 19, 

Quitmeyer, Louis, mustered out July 15, 1865. 

Ragan, William H., mustered out July 15, 1865. 

Ridler, John W., mustered out July 15, 1865. 

Scott, Allen, mustered out July 15, 1865. 

Scott, Aristides R., mustered out July 15, 1865. 

Scott, Cornelius, mustered out July 15, 1865. 

Shilling, John, transferred to signal corps October 7, 1863. 

Simpson, Nelson, mustered out July 15, 1865. 

Snodgrass, William H., mustered out July 15, 1865. 

Shultz, George, mustered out July 15, 1865. 

Vesy, Samuel D., mustered out July 15, 1865. 

Vosburg, Martin J., mustered out July 15, 1865. 

Walters, Iliad, promoted to corporal; discharged January 24, 1864. 

Watts, John, promoted to corporal ; mustered out July 15, 1865. 

Watts, David, mustered out July 15, 1865. 

Weatherby, Theodore G., promoted to sergeant ; mustered out July 15, 1865. 

Williams, Isaac, discharged April 14, 1865. 

Companies H and K were mustered into the service, the first on August 25, 
and the latter on August 23, 1862, at Dubuque. 


Annis, Myron T. ; Cole, Victor T. ; Connor, John D. ; Gilbert, Leroy A. ; Lan- 
ning, Nathan; Osborn, Henry; Scott, Demosthenes; Williams, Harvey A.; all 
transferred to Thirty-fourth Iowa July 12, 1865 ; Gilbert, John A., mustered out 
July 15, 1865. 


Second lieutenant, Hiram Buel, enlisted as private March 15, 1862; promoted 
sergeant, then second lieutenant March 7, 1864 ; resigned October 24, 1864. 

Digitized by 




Fuller, Daniel E., enlisted August 22, 1862 ; wounded at Black River Bridge 
May 17, 1863 ; transferred to Invalid Corps February 15, 1864. 
Fuller, F. D., enlisted August 22, 1862. 


Captain, Alexander Voorhees, appointed August 20, 1862 ; mustered out July 
15, 1865. 

First lieutenant, William A. Roberts, appointed August 20, 1862; died of 
wounds June 15, 1863, at St. Louis, Missouri. 

First lieutenant, Henry Harger, appointed June 15, 1863, from second lieu- 
tenant; resigned January 7, 1864. 

First lieutenant, Loyed E. Spear, appointed January 8, 1864, from second 
lieutenant ; mustered out July 15, 1865. 

Second lieutenant, Henry Harger, appointed August 20, 1862; promoted to 
first lieutenant. 

Second lieutenant, Loyed E. Spear, appointed June 15, 1863, from first ser- 
geant ; promoted to first lieutenant. 

First sergeant, Loyed E. Spear, promoted to second lieutenant. 

Sergeant, Austin E. Cook, promoted to first sergeant, and to quartermaster 
sergeant February 4, 1865. 

Sergeant, Gorham K. Nash, promoted to first sergeant ; mustered out July 15, 

Sergeant, Addison E. Hopson, mortally wounded May 17, 1863; died of 
wounds May 23, 1863, at Black River Bridge, Mississippi. 

Sergeant, Oliver B. Miller, discharged January 21, 1863. 

Corporal, William II. Jackson, promoted to sergeant; died July 4, 1863, at 
Vicksburg, Mississippi. 

Corporal, Benjamin F. Metzler, promoted to sergeant; mustered out July 
15, 1865. 

Corporal, Alexander Phillips, mustered out July 15, 1865. 

Corporal, Leonard W. Archer, transferred to Invalid Corps, September 30, 

Corporal, Jacob B. Miller, wounded in the battle at Hartville and at the 
siege of Vicksburg; mustered out July 15, 1865. 

Corporal, Douglass F. Slawson, mustered out July 15, 1865. 

Oorporal, Duncan G. Livingston, promoted to sergeant; mustered out July 
15, 1865. 

Corporal, Erastus Smith, mustered out July 15, 1865. 

Musician, James Slawson, discharged June 12, 1863. 

Musician, Jerome V. Topliffe, died December 28, 1862, at Houston, Missouri. 

Wagoner, Leverette S. Stone, captured at Beaver Creek, November 24, 1862 ; 
transferred to invalid corps. 


Abbey, Griffin C, promoted to corporal ; mustered out July 15, 1865. 
Bolles, Lorenzo, Jr., promoted to chaplain January 6, 1863. 

Digitized by 



Blue, Ennis, discharged January 21, 1863. 

Bryan, Thomas, mustered out May 9, 1865. 

Blood, George W., discharged January 21, 1863. 

Blood, Wallace W., mustered out July 15, 1865. 

Bacon, Clinton D., died August 8, 1863, at Memphis, Tennessee. 

Beeks, James, injured by a falling tree; discharged January 1, 1863. 

Cameron, Charles, mustered out July 15, 1865. 

Carpenter, Nathan G., mustered out July 15, 1865. 

Dalrymple, John A., promoted to corporal; mustered out July 15, 1865. 

Dennis, Jeremiah T., discharged January 21, 1863. 

Dunlap, Preston H., mustered out July 15, 1865. 

Dunlap, Thomas B., mustered out July 15, 1865. 

Dunton, Clemen's P., mustered out July 15, 1865. 

Enfield, William, discharged July 21, 1863. 

Fear, Freeman, wounded at battle of Hartville; died July 16. 1863, at Mem- 
phis, Tennessee. 

Field, Hiram, mustered out July 15, 1865. 

Gosting, Edward, mustered out July 15, 1865. 

Goldsworthy, Samuel, promoted to corporal; mustered out July 15, 1865. 

Gildersleeve, Francis J., mustered out July 15, 1865. 

Gale, William L., discharged June 12, 1863. 

Grapes, Samuel, mustered out July 15. 1865. 

Green, John A., wounded in Wolf River expedition December 28, 1864; 
mustered out July 15, 1865. 

Guiles, Henry, mustered out July 15, 1865. 

Guthrie, Thomas H., mustered out July 15, 1865. 

Guthrie, T. Lusk, discharged March 12, 1863. 

Harbach, Calvin B., mustered out July 15, 1865. 

Harmon, Merritt W., promoted to sergeant ; mustered out July 15, 1865. 

Haslem, William, killed May 17, 1863. 

Hefner, Francis M., killed May 22, 1863. 

Hefner, Harrison, killed January 11, 1863. 

Himmel, Christopher M., died June 2, 1865, at New Orleans, Louisiana. 

Hiner, David, mustered out July 15, 1865. 

Hiner, Henry, severely wounded May 17, 1863; discharged for wounds 
January 19, 1864. 

Hiner, William, mustered out July 15, 1865. 

Horton, Arnold F., mortally wounded May 22, 18(& ; died of wounds May 31, 
1863, near Vicksburg. 

Jackson, James, mustered out July 15, 1865. 

Kahmar, Rheinard, discharged June 28, 1864. 

Lees, John, mustered out July 15, 1865. 

Lovelace, David, transferred to Invalid Corps February 29, 1864. 

Lovelace, Lucius A., mustered out July 15, 1865. 

Luchinger, Adam, wounded at Hartville January 11, 1863 ; discharged March 
16, 1863. 

McCartney, James, wounded at the siege of Vicksburg ; mustered out July 15, 

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McCutcheon, William A., promoted to corporal ; mustered out July 15, 1865. 

Merrick, Reese, mortally wounded May 17, 1863 ; died of wounds May 22, 
1863, at Black River Bridge, Mississippi. 

Merry, John F., discharged March 23, 1863; reenlisted June 10, 1864, in 
Company F, Forty-sixth Infantry. 

Meyers, Edwin, mortally wounded May 17, 1863; died of wounds May 20, 
1863, at Black River Bridge, Mississippi. 

Nolan, John, mustered out July 15, 1865. 

'Brian, Walter M., missing May 15, 1863. 

Olmstead, William W., mustered out July 15, 1865. 

Paul, Henry, mustered out July 15, 1865. 

Pitcher, Reuben, died July 16, 1863, at Memphis, Tennessee. 

Poor, Joseph, mustered out June 16, 1865. 

Preston, William, transferred to Invalid Corps November 16, 1863. 

Reid, John H., mustered out June 16, 1865. 

Robbins, Amos, mustered out July 15, 1865. 

Robinson, Isaac, died March 25, 1863, at St. Louis, Missouri. 

Ricker, John, mustered out July 15, 1865. 

Risher, Robert, died April 15, 1865, at New Orleans. 

Rutter, Alonzo J., mustered out July 15, 1865. 

Simons, George, wounded at Hartville ; transferred to Invalid Corps February 
29, 1864. 

Simons, Thomas, mustered out July 15, 1865. 

Smith, John, died June 19, 1864, at New Orleans, Louisiana. 

Stone, Henry B., wounded at Hartville ; discharged June 18, 1863. 

Southern, Leonard W., mustered out July 15, 1865. 

Sullivan, John, mustered out July 15, 1865. 

Talmadge, Edgar L., died June 4, 1863, at Memphis, Tennessee. 

Van Antwerp, Jacob, captured at Beaver Creek, November 24, 1862 ; mustered 
out July 15, 1865. 

Voorhees, Charles C, promoted to sergeant; mustered out July 15, 1865. 

Williams, John W., died July 16, 1863, at St. Louis, Missouri. 

Wilson, Allen L., mustered out July 15, 1865. 

White, Ward, discharged April 21, 1863. 

« Recruits 

The following were transferred to the Thirty-fourth Iowa, July 12, 1865: 
Albinger, Joseph ; Alford, Cornelius E. ; Blood, George W. ; Crosier, Cassius M. ; 
Dalrymple, Isaiah; Davenport, Leonard; Dunlap, Ephraim; Edgington, Marion 
S. ; Green, Newton; Green, William; Hamblin, Philander; Houston, Joseph N. 
Karch, Michael ; Kerle, Robert Jones ; McCutcheon, James H. ; Midkiff, Preston 
Porter, Henry G. ; Robinson, Henry; Smith, Merritt A.; Srack, Robert B. 
Tompkins, William; Webb, Lawrence; Nimms, Charles, died March 12, 1865, at 
Dauphin Island, Alabama ; Decker, Clark, deserted from One Hundred Seventy- 
seventh Ohio; returned May 10, 1865. 

Digitized by 




Company F, Twenty-seventh Regiment, was formed at Greeley in 1862, from 
men enlisted in Coffin's Grove, Manchester and Greeley. The people of Greeley 
gave the men a bountiful dinner and presented the company with a flag on the 
day they met and chose their officers. The regiment went into camp for drill at 
Dubuque but was sent to Minnesota in October of that year to act as escort to the 
officers paying the friendly Indians in that state. The command was then ordered 
to Cairo and thence to Memphis. The regiment was moved under Sherman, in 
the demonstration against the rebels at the Tallahatchie. December 21st, six 
companies of the regiment moved into Holly Springs, just vacated by Van Dorn. 
In January, 1863, the regiment took part in the engagement at Lexington, Ten- 
nessee, where Forrest, was badly trounced. In August, the regiment was sent to 
Arkansas and assisted in the capture of Little Rock. It remained at that place 
till November, when it returned to Memphis. 

The following extract from a letter published in the Delaware County Union 
of April 1, 1864, from Lieut. W. N. Boynton, of the Twenty-seventh Iowa 
Infantry, dated Vicksburg, March 10, will give some idea of the services 
performed by that regiment : 

"We have just returned from one of the biggest marches ever made by in- 
fantry during this war, having marched entirely across the State of Mississippi 
and back again, a distance of 475 miles; and this, too, without finding any force 
of the enemy worth mentioning. We left Vicksburg on the .3d of February and 
returned on the 5th of March, having had some of the prettiest weather ever 
known at this time of the year. It only rained a part of two days during the 
entire time. We destroyed fifty-five miles of railroad, burned nine towns, viz. : 
Jackson (the remnant), Morton, Brandon, Hillsboro, Decatur, Meridian, Enter- 
prise (by the Seventh Army Corps), Marion, Marion Station and a little town 
called Union. All of these were most effectually cleaned out. We also burned 
eighteen railroad bridges, twenty-two water tanks and seven railroad depots, 
cotton and cotton gins too numerous to mention. Dwelling houses also caught a 
foretaste of the future. In fact, complete devastation and desolation followed 
us everywhere. Never had I had better reasons for thanking my * lucky star' 
that war was not in the 'land of my home/ than on this occasion. Well may the 
people of the North thank God, or 'Grant's big guns, with fighting boys to man 
them/ that war is not at their doors.' ' 

March 10, 1864, the regiment started from Vicksburg on the Red River expedi- 
tion and four days after assisted in the capture of Fort DeRussey. Colonel 
Woods says the regiment moved too rapidly for a long charge, but all the time 
under good control. The boys mounted the parapet and fired on the rebels, who 
immediately raised the white flag and surrendered. The regiment reached 
Grand Ecore, Louisiana, April 4th and on the 9th was in the engagement at 
Pleasant Hill. Cavalry charged upon the position occupied by the Twenty- 
seventh, resulting in the annihilation of the attacking force. Later in the day 
the regiment was under a heavy fire for two hours and came near being cap- 
tured, owing to the other forces nearby having withdrawn. When the order 
came to retreat, the regiment was being pressed hard on the flanks, but after a 
sharp struggle, marched off in line, and in good order. Captain Holbrook, of 

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Company F, received special mention for his bravery in this action. After 
being severely wounded he continued at the head of his company until a second 
wound compelled him to seek a surgeon's care. The next day General Banks 
ordered a retreat and up to May 19th, the Twenty-seventh heard the roar of 
artillery almost daily. May 18th the regiment took part in the battle of Yel- 
low Bayou, in which it lost three men killed and fourteen wounded. The regi- 
ment marched to Memphis, and on the 6th of June assisted in driving the enemy 
off the field at Ditch Bayou, Arkansas. July 14th and 15th the command took 
an honorable part in the battles of Tupelo and Old Town Creek. The regiment 
was in the heavy fighting near Nashville, December 15th, and on the follow- 
ing day the command made a brilliant charge on the works at Mountain Heights, 
driving the rebels out of their intrenchments into the woods. 

April 9, 1865, the Twenty-seventh was in the charging forces that captured 
Fort Blakely, Alabama. Thence the regiment marched to Montgomery and 
was present at its surrender. July 15th the regiment was ordered to Memphis 
and thence to Clinton, where it was mustered out. During its term of serv- 
ice this regiment marched over three thousand miles and traveled by rail and 
steamboat over ten thousand miles. As can be seen above, its record is a proud 
one, and it is a matter of congratulation that the men of Company F who 
escaped the perils of the battles they were engaged in are in our midst, useful and 
honored citizens. 

This regiment was mustered out of service at Clinton, August 8, 1865. Offi- 
cers not otherwise accounted for were mustered out as with the regiment. 

Assistant surgeon, Albert Boomer, commissioned September 16, 1862: re- 
signed August 22, 1864. 


Marsh, Ed L., enlisted January 23, 1864. 


Captain, F. W. Cooh-idge, enlisted February 25, 1863. 
Captain, Joseph F. Eldridge, enlisted February 25, 1863. 
Captain, Luther Kaltenbach, enlisted February 25, 1863. 
Captain, Henry M. Preston, enlisted February 29, 1864. 


Hanna, H. D., enlisted February 26, 1864. 


Captain, William W. Bickford, commissioned October 3, 1862 ; resigned April 
9, 1863. 

Captain, Joseph M. Holbrook, commissioned first lieutenant October 3, 1862; 
promoted captain April 27, 1863 ; wounded at battle of Pleasant Hill. 

First lieutenant, William N. Boynton, commissioned second lieutenant October 
3, 1862 ; promoted first lieutenant April 27, 1863. 

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Second lieutenant, Jacob S. Eisenhart, enlisted as sergeant, August 8, 1862 ; 
commissioned second lieutenant April 27, 1863. 

Sergeant, William Williams, enlisted August 11, 1862. 

Sergeant, Charles S. Taylor, enlisted August 14, 1862. 

Sergeant, Charles D. Skinner, enlisted August 11, 1862 ; discharged Novem^ 
ber 24, 1862. 

Sergeant, F. M. Gray, enlisted August 15, 1862 ; discharged April 6, 1863. 

Corpora], Howard Lathrop, enlisted August 15, 1862. 

Corporal, John R. Minkler, enlisted August 11, 1862; transferred to Invalid 
Corps, September 30, 1863. 

Corporal, William J. Millett, enlisted August 15, 1862. 
• Corporal, A. D. Hubbell, enlisted August 15, 1862. 

Corporal, C. 0. Torrey, enlisted August 15, 1862; wounded April 19, 1864, 
at Pleasant Hill, Louisiana. 

Corporal, George W. Cromwell, enlisted August 11, 1862; captured; died 
August 2, 1864, at Andersonville. 

Corporal, James W. Kingery, enlisted August 12, 1862. 

Musician, John McKinnis, enlisted August 14, 1862. 

Musician, William G. McLaine, enlisted August 12, 1862. 

Musician, E. Martindale, enlisted August 12, 1862. 

Wagoner, R. H. Wilson, enlisted August 14, 1862. 


Abby, G., enlisted August 13, 1862. 

Arnold, George P., enlisted August 11, 1862; died at Little Rock, September 
23, 1863. 

Barnes, Seymour, enlisted August 13, 1862; discharged March 14, 1865. 

Barr, Charles, enlisted August 14, 1862; died November 10, 1863, at St. Louis. 

Barrett, Joseph L., enlisted December 22, 1863- discharged April 14, 1865. 

Bernard, II. K., enlisted August 15, 1862. 

Bower, P. F., enlisted August 11, 1862; discharged February 19, 1863. 

Brown, A. J., enlisted August 11, 1862; discharged May 13, 1863. 

Burhus, II. C, enlisted August 11, 1862; died at Dubuque, Iowa, November 
1, 1862. 

Calvin, Harmon, enlisted August 11, 1862; captured April 9, 1864, at Pleas- 
ant Hill, Louisiana. 

Clark, C. E., enlisted August 12, 1862; discharged June 20, 1865, disability. 

Clark, Judson, enlisted January 15, 1864. 

Clark, William II., enlisted August 14, 1862; wounded July 15, 1864. 

Coats, Joseph, enlisted August 12, 1862 ; discharged April 2, 1863. 

Cole, Edwin, enlisted August 14, 1862. 

Colson, D. G., enlisted August 12, 1862; died March 23, 1863, at Jackson, 

Combz, A. J., enlisted August 15, 1862; discharged. 

Correll, H. A., enlisted August 15, 1862. 

Crozier, George, enlisted August 11, 1862. 

Crocker, Benjamin P., enlisted January 28, 1864. 

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Dood, N. H., enlisted August 15, 1862. 

Duglas, H. R., enlisted August 15, 1862 ; died December 22, 1862, at Talla- 
hatchie, Mississippi. 

Duncan, Harvey, enlisted August 15, 1862; discharged January 10, 1868. 

Freeman, E. J., enlisted January 15, 1864. 

German, H. R., enlisted August 14, 1864. 
* Grice, A. J., enlisted December 23, 1863. 

Henry, James W., enlisted August 15, 1862 ; discharged April 23, 1863. 

Hill, Francis, enlisted August 15, 1862. 

Hoag, Ezra, enlisted January 6, 1864; died June 5, 1864, on steamer Diadem. 

Hobart, N. L., enlisted August 15, 1862. 

Horn, William M., enlisted August 14, 1862; wounded and captured April 
9, 1864; discharged June 20, 1865. 

Jones, Charles, enlisted August 14, 1862 ; discharged April 7, 1863. 

Jones, William D., enlisted August 15, 1862; died March 22, 1864. 

King, Lewis, enlisted August 15, 1862. 

Kinyon, Bradford, enlisted August 12, 1862; discharged May 13, 1863. 

Knee, James, enlisted August 14, 1862. 

Lathrpp, George B., enlisted August 12, 1862. 

Lewis, Rollin, enlisted August 14, 1862 ; wounded April 9, 1864 ; discharged 
March 23, 1865. 

LeLacheur, John H., enlisted August 15, 1862; wounded April 9, 1864; 
drowned September 10, 1864, at Cairo. 

Lukens, Joseph, enlisted December 22, 1863. 

Malugin, A. W., enlisted August 14, 1862; discharged January 20, 1865. 

Mansfield, John G., enlisted August 13, 1862; discharged November 7, 1862. 

Minkler, C. V., enlisted August 14, 1862 ; discharged June 20, 1865. 

Minkler, Edward A., enlisted August 11, 1862; wounded and captured April 
9, 1864, at Pleasant Hill ; died November 20, 1864, at Cairo. 

Minkler, George, enlisted August 12, 1862 ; discharged April 4, 1863. 

Montgomery, William, enlisted August 14, 1862; died January 26, 1864, at 
Centralia, Illinois. 

Moore, H. H., enlisted August 14, 1862 ; discharged January 6, 1863. 

Moore, John B., enlisted August 11, 1862. 

Morris, A., enlisted August 12, 1862. 

Morris, P., enlisted August 11, 1862. 

Morse, Alpheus, enlisted August 12, 1862 ; wounded May 18, 1864, at Yellow 
Bayou, Louisiana ; discharged May 16, 1865. 

Mullvany, William J., enlisted August 15, 1862; wounded April 9. 1864, at 
Pleasant Hill. 

Nelson, Charles, enlisted August 12, 1862. 

Nute, John, enlisted August 12, 1862 ; died March 9, 1863, at Jackson. 

Paxton, S. A., enlisted August 15, 1862; died November 1, 1862. 

Peers, Curtis C, enlisted August 13, 1862; wounded and captured April 9, 
1864, at Pleasant Hill. 

Perry, H. W., enlisted August 14, 1862 ; wounded April 9, 1864, at Pleasant 

Digitized by 



Putnam, 0., enlisted August 14, 1862; captured February 22, 1864, at 'Union, 
Mississippi ; died at AndersonviUe, September 20, 1864. 

Rardin, Samuel, enlisted August 15, 1862 ; discharged June 21, 1865. 

Robertson, M. H., enlisted August 14, 1862 ; died January 29, 1863, at Jack- 

Rolf, Edward, enlisted August 15, 1862. 

Roe, D. E., enlisted August 11, 1862; transferred to Invalid Corps, June 
1, 1864. 

Rulon, H., enlisted August 14, 1862 ; discharged February 19, 1863. 

Scarborough, M. H., enlisted August 14, 1862 ; wounded at Pleasant Hill and 
Tupelo ; died February 27, 1865, in Mississippi. 

Sherman, D., enlisted August 13, 1862; discharged March 18, 1863. 

Sherman, E., enlisted August 11, 1863. 

Sargeant, Van B. W., enlisted August 15, 1862 ; wounded May 15, 1864, at 
Yellow Bayou. 

Shilling, F., enlisted August 15, 1862. 

Smith, George \V., enlisted August 14, 1862. 

Smith, John K., enlisted August 15, 1862 ; discharged Juue 10, 1863. 

Smith, T. J., enlisted February 1, 1863. 

Stevens, D. D., enlisted August 14. 1862 ; drowned June 16, 1863. at St. Louis. 

Talcott, L. C, enlisted August 14, 1862. 

Thompson, F. A., enlisted February 1, 1864; died June 23, 1864, at Memphis. 

Tripp, A. W., enlisted August 14, 1862 ; discharged June 6, 1863. 

Tripp, C. P., enlisted August 13, 1862 : wounded at Tupelo and Nashville. 

Utley, Charles L.. enlisted August 13, 1862 ; wounded April 9, 1864, at Pleas- 
ant Hill. 

Walker, Daniel, enlisted August 15, 1862 ; wounded July 14, 1864, at Tupelo. 

Waters, Thomas, enlisted August 15, 1862 ; discharged June 24, 1865. 

Welsh, James, enlisted August 15, 1862; wounded April 9. 1864. at Pleasant 

Whitson, William, enlisted August 13, 1862. 

Wilcox, F. N., enlisted August 14, 1862; died June 8. 1863. 


Hammond, Newton, enlisted August 22, 1862; discharged July 15, 1863. 

(100 days) 

This regiment was recruited as a one hundred day regiment and went into 
camp at Davenport early in the spring of 1864. It did guard and garrison duty 
at Memphis and La Grange, Tennessee, during the summer and on expiration of 
the term of service, returned to Davenport, where the men were mustered out. 
The history of the regiment is uneventf ul. This regiment was mustered out at 
Davenport. September 15, 1864. 


Bunn, Jacob, enlisted May 12, 1864. 

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Second lieutenant, James Spenee, enlisted as sergeant; promoted to second 
lieutenant July 10, 1864. 

Sergeant, William B. Morgan, enlisted as corporal April 30, 1864 ; promoted 
to sergeant. 

Corporal, Edmond P. Weatherby, enlisted April 30, 1864. 

Corporal, Thomas J. Edgington, enlisted April 30, 1864. 

Corporal, Robert B. Marshall, enlisted April 30, 1864. 

Musician. John E. Davis, enlisted May 1. 1864. 


Dunn, Jerome, enlisted May 14, 1864. 
Laughlin, James C, enlisted April 30, 1864. 
McCutcheon, James H., enlisted May 12, 1864. 
Smith, Ed M., enlisted April 30 2 1864. 
Smith, James A., enlisted April 30, 1864. 
. Streeper, William T., enlisted May 14, 1864. 
Whitaker, William K., enlisted April 30. 1864. ' 
Woods, Ren wick, enlisted May 7, 1864. 


Sergeant, C. T. Peet, enlisted as private May-1, 1864; promoted to sergeant 


Baldwin, Frank, enlisted May 12, 1864. 
Lynes, A. J., enlisted May 18, 1864. 
Myers, James H., enlisted May 18, 1864. 
Peet, Robert, enlisted May 6, 1864. 


This was also a one hundred day regiment. It went into service at Daven- 
port, June 10, 1864, and was forwarded to Cairo and thence to Memphis, arriv- 
ing at the latter place June 20th. June 27th the regiment was ordered to Camp 
Lookout, near Colliersville, Tennessee, where the men did heavy duty, being on 
picket alternate days for about two months. The only brush with the enemy 
occurred at that place in August. A squad of guerrillas captured two 
pickets and a detachment was sent out to rescue them, if possible. In the 
skirmish that followed four of the men of the Forty-sixth were wounded. Sep- 
tember 1, the Forty-sixth returned to Memphis and on the 10th of the same 
month started homeward, reaching Davenport on the 16th. The regiment was 
mustered out and paid off on the 23d. This regiment was mustered out at 
Davenport, September 23, 1864. 

Principal musician, Buel G. Dunham, enlisted May 19, 1864, from Com- 
pany F. 

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Carter, James E., enlisted May 18, 1864. 
Shafer, Oliver, enlisted May 9, 1864. 
Shaffer, Ensign, enlisted May 20, 1864. 


Captain, James Hawkins, commissioned June 10, 1864. 
Second lieutenant, John F. Merry, commissioned June 10, 1864. 
Sergeant, Cyrus Craig, enlisted May 18, 1864. 
Sergeant, Henry Stroud, enlisted May 20, 1864. 
Corporal, David Witter, enlisted May 18, 1864. 
Corporal, James W. Wright, enlisted May 17, 1864. 
Corporal, John W. Cattron, enlisted May 18, 1864. 
Musician, M. P. Towslee, enlisted May 18, 1864. 
Wagoner, Clark Towslee, enlisted May 16, 1864. 


Babcock, W. G., enlisted May 18, 1864. 
Besst, Solomon, enlisted May 30, 1864. 
Blatt, John, enlisted May 20, 1864. 
Box, M. Van Buren, enlisted May 30, 1864. 
Boylan, Thomas J., enlisted May 18, 1864. 
Conner, Thomas J., enlisted May 18, 1864. 
Craig, William, enlisted May 18, 1864. 
Cummings, Charles W., enlisted May 30, 1864. 
Davis, A. B., enlisted May 18, 1864 ; died in September, 1864. 
Dunham, B. G., enlisted May 18, 1864 ; promoted to principal musician. 
Fairchild, Caleb, enlisted May 20, 1864. 
Felter, John W., enlisted May 18, 1864. 

Flanders, O. B., enlisted May 18, 1864; died at Jefferson Barracks, Mis- 
souri, September 20, 1864. 

Fowler, Edward, enlisted May 18, 1864. 
Fox, Henry C, enlisted May 18, 1864. 
Gilbert, Charles H., enlisted May 18, 1864. 
Goodman, Henry, enlisted May 30, 1864. 
Guinn, John S., enlisted May 18, 1864. 
Hyde, Samuel, enlisted May 18, 1864. 
Knee, David, enlisted May 18, 1864. 
Livingstine, Eli, enlisted May 20, 1864. 
Maxwell, Henry, enlisted May 30, 1864. 
Odell, Gabriel, enlisted May 18, 1864. 
Rea, George W., enlisted May 18, 1864. 
Robinson, James M., enlisted May 18, 1864. 

Digitized by 



Redabaugh, Jonathan, enlisted May 18, 1864. 
Sims, Thomas L., enlisted May 18, 1864. 
Slattery, Michael, enlisted May 18, 1864. 
Smith, Albert, enlisted May 18, 1864. 
Smith, Robert, enlisted May 18, 1864. 
Tompkins, William, enlisted May 18, 1864. 
Trowbridge, Marvin, enlisted May 18, 1864. 
Veasy, Albert, enlisted May 7, 1864. 
Wheeler, James A., enlisted May 18, 1864. 



First sergeant, John H. Earl, enlisted June 8, 1861; reenlisted as veteran 
January 4, 1864 ; mustered out July 12, 1865. 

Sergeant, Nelson R. Winn, enlisted June 8, 1861 ; reenlisted as veteran Janu- 
ary 4, 1864; mustered out July 12, 1865. 


Keidle, Frederick, enlisted June 8, 1861; reenlisted as veteran January 4, 
1864; mustered out July 12, 1865. 

Messer, G., enlisted June 8, 1861; reenlisted as veteran January 4, 1864; 
mustered out July 12, 1865. 

Sanford, George, enlisted June 8, 1861; reenlisted as veteran January 4, 
1864; mustered out July 12, 1865. 


Sergeant, Myron L. Roberts, enlisted November 3, 1862; mustered out No- 
vember 16, 1864. 

Corporal, Marcellus Whitcomb, enlisted April 15, 1863 ; mustered out Novem- 
ber 16, 1864. 


Murray, James L., enlisted December 9, 1863; transferred from Company 
H ; mustered out November 16, 1864. 


Corporal, James M. Lee, enlisted January 2, 1862; reenlisted as veteran 
January 1, 1864; mustered out July 19, 1864. 


Calhoun, H., enlisted January 12, 1862; died March 1, 1862. 

Carter, John, enlisted February 28, 1862; mustered out July 19, 1864. 

Digitized by 



Kaltenbach, M., enlisted January 1, 1862; reenlisted as veteran January 1, 
1864; wounded October 3, 1862; mustered out July 19, 1864. 

Custar, Columbus, enlisted April 25, 1864; wounded at Atlanta, Georgia, 
July 21 ; discharged April 3, 1865. 

Kane, John A., enlisted January 3, 1862 ; mustered out July 19, 1864. 

Raster, R., enlisted March 6, 1862 ; wounded April 6, 1862, at Shiloh ; dis- 
charged September, 1862. 

Lanning, R., enlisted March 6, 1862; reenlisted as veteran March 6, 1864; 
wounded July 21, 1864 ; captured July 22, 1864, at Atlanta ; mustered out July 
19, 1864. 

Mesher, J., enlisted January 6, 1864. 

Wilson, Thomas, enlisted March 5, 1862; mustered out July 19, 1864. 


Davis, Leander, enlisted March 15, 1862; reenlisted as veteran March 20, 
1864; captured October 13 at Tilton, Georgia; mustered out July 25, 1865. 


Cane, Thomas, enlisted August 20, 1862 ; mustered out June 27, 1865. 

Kortright, R. F., enlisted August 21, 1862; transferred to Invalid Corps 
May 1, 1864; mustered out June 27, 1865. 

Mathew, John H., enlisted August 14, 1862; wounded; mustered out June 
27, 1865. 


Surgeon, Philander Byam, commissioned assistant surgeon April 3, 1863; 
commissioned surgeon January 15, 1865 ; mustered out August 24, 1865. 


Assistant surgeon, George S. Dewitt, commissioned January 2, 1863; re- 
signed February 17, 1863. 


Pinney, J. L., enlisted December 26, 1862 ; died February 18, 1864, at Rock 


Corporal, Thomas L. Guthrie, enlisted as private May 10, 1864; promoted 
to corporal ; mustered out October 21, 1864. 


Blanche, Charles H., enlisted May 14, 1864; mustered out October 21, 1864. 

Digitized by 



FIRST INFANTRY A. D. (60th U. S. Vols. A. D.) 

First lieutenant, William H. Williams, commissioned second lieutenant 
Company A, October 11, 1863; promoted to first lieutenant this company, 
September 19, 1864; mustered out October 15, 1865. 


Second lieutenant, William H. Williams, commissioned March 1, 1862. 


Risher, Oliver, enlisted December 15, 1863. 


The First Cavalry was recruited during the summer of 1861. Its services 
began during the following winter. Its first action was at Silver Creek, Mis- 
souri, where the rebel camp was attacked and routed. In February, 1862, a 
detachment from the First helped surprise and capture General Price at War- 
saw. Another detachment had a brush with guerrillas near Montevallo in the 
following April. During the next few months the regiment had skirmishes 
with the rebels near Clinton, Big Creek, Clear Creek and Newtonia. December 
7th the First and Third Battalions participated in the battle at Prairie Grove. 
That month the command assisted at the capture of Van Buren, where a num- 
ber of steamboats, several hundred prisoners and a large amount of stores fell 
into the hands of our forces. April 26, 1863, the most of the regiment was con- 
cerned in a night attack upon a portion of Marmaduke's forces, breaking lip 
the camp and inflicting heavy loss. August 26th and 27th the regiment did 
gallant service at White River. From September 10th until the following Jan- 
uary the First was stationed at Little Rock. April 24, 1864, the command 
repulsed a charge of the enemy at Mono River, and had a share in the battle, 
at Jenkins' Ferry, on the 30th. The regiment continued doing scout service 
until January, 1865, when they were sent to Dardanelle and had a brush with 
Colonel Cooper, driving him off the field. They went thence to Pine Bluff and 
to Memphis. From this place they made two incursions into Mississippi. After 
the war closed, much to the disappointment of the men, the regiment was ordered 
to Texas under Custer. On the route two or three of the regiment committed 
some depredations on the inhabitants, contrary to specific orders from General 
Custer, who was in command. A few of the men were detected and ordered to 
be flogged. This order created much bitterness of feeling toward Custer, which 
had hardly disappeared when he met tragic death on the plains. This regiment 
was mustered out at Austin, Texas, February 15, 1866. 

company c 

LaCosta, N., veteranized December 24, 1863. 
Lee, Callender, enlisted December 17, 1863. 

Digitized by 




Second lieutenant, Eli Waring, enlisted as private; promoted to corporal, 
then sergeant; reenlisted as veteran January 5, 1864; promoted second lieu- 
tenant January 3, 1865. 

Bugler, Hiram J. Dunwell. 


Foukes, Allen. 

Dubois, George H., reenlisted as veteran February 29, 1864. 

Kintz, Augustus J., committed suicide May 31, 1863, at Luke Springs, 

Monroe, Jack, deserted November 16th; killed at Jefferson City, Missouri, 
December 15, 1861, in attempting to rob a store. 

Morgan, Ari, enlisted 1861 ; reenlisted as veteran January 5, 1864. 

Rudolph, A. F. 

Skinner, B. F., enlisted August 15, 1861. 

Skinner, E. J., enlisted June 13, 1861; discharged July 15, 1862, for dis- 

Stone, James L., discharged for disability June 3, 1862. 

Timmins, W. W., enlisted 1861 ; reenlisted as veteran January 5, 1864. 

company L 

Quartermaster-sergeant, Hiram A. Park, enlisted August 15, 1861. 


Dodd, Garrett. 

Guthrie, William S. 

McClavey, James, enlisted December 13, 1863. 

Miller, Andrew, reenlisted as veteran January 5, 1864. 

Somers, Joab, reenlisted as veteran January 1, 1864. 


The Second Cavalry contained thirty-seven men from this county and was 
also raised in 1861. It began active service under General Grant in the opera- 
tions against New Madrid and Island No. 10, giving Jeff Thompson a rattling 
chase and capturing many of his men and horses. During the spring of 1862 
the Second had skirmishes with the enemy at Monterey, Farmington, Jacinto, 
Boonville and Corinth, being invariably successful. The regiment continued 
having frequent brushes with the enemy until October 28th, seizing ammunition, 
capturing prisoners and guarding the lines. In April, 1863, the Second en- 
countered General Chalmers' force, vastly outnumbering that command, but 
retreated leisurely back to camp without serious loss. During this raid the 
men obtained a remount of horses captured from the enemy. D. E. Coon 

VoL 1—9 

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commanded the regiment during its raid around Jackson, in which it ran 
against Forrest, but coming off in good shape. In August, the Second fought 
its way to Grenada, where an immense amount of railway property was seized 
and destroyed. In June, 1864, the regiment marched under General Smith in 
pursuit of Forrest, in which Lieut. B. K. Watson obtained special mention 
from his commanding officer. In August, General Smith gave the Second boys 
a little more exercise. During the succeeding autumn, the regiment had 
skirmishes at Shoal Creek, Aberdeen, Butler Creek, Lawrenceburg, Campbell- 
ville, Linnville, Mount Carmel and New Franklin. The last heavy duty of the 
regiment was in the battle in front of Nashville in the closing days of 1864, in 
which the regiment did valuable service and joined in the chase of Hood's 
demoralized forces. In the marching which followed, the Second picked up 
200 prisoners and one battle flag. The regiment was mustered out in Alabama, 
September 3, 1865. 

B. C. S. George M. Scripture, enlisted August 4, 1861; deserted August 
3, 1862. 


Teamster, N. M. Ives, enlisted July 30, 1861. 


Captain, Benjamin K. Watson, enlisted as sergeant August 31, 1861; pro- 
moted first sergeant December 19, 1861 ; promoted second lieutenant October 
16, 1862; promoted captain January 21, 1865. 

First lieutenant, John W. Wright, commissioned second lieutenant August 
31, 1861; promoted first lieutenant December 1, 1861; resigned September 5, 

Quartermaster-sergeant, William S. Babcock, enlisted August 4, 1861 ; 
wounded at Prairie Station, Mississippi, February 21, 1864. 

Quartermaster-sergeant, Henry Trenchard, enlisted August 4, 1861; reen- 
listed March 1, 1864; discharged August 20, 1865. 

Sergeant, John McMartin, reenlisted as veteran March 1, 1864. 

Corporal, Garrett L. Thorp, enlisted August 14, 1861. 

Corporal, Thomas Conner, enlisted August 14, 1861. 

Bugler, George W. Barden, enlisted August 4, 1861; discharged for dis- 
ability April 11, 1862. 

Bugler, Joseph G. Thompson, enlisted August 4, 1861. 

Farrier, Edmond Rich, enlisted August 14, 1861. 

Saddler, E. C. Albrook, enlisted September 26, 1861. 

Wagoner, Isaac Wilson, enlisted August 14, 1861; died December 16, 1864, 
of wounds received at battle of Nashville. 

Wagoner, Van Rensselaer Kelly, enlisted August 4, 1861. 


Albrook, J. B., enlisted October 3, 1864. 

Barden, Silas, enlisted August 4, 1861; reenlisted as veteran March 1, 1864. 

Belden, D., enlisted August 14, 1861. 

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Bradfield, Joshua, enlisted August 4, 1861; killed at Little Harpeth, Ten- 
nessee, December 17, 1864. 

Breramer, William, enlisted August 4, 1861; wounded in Tennessee, April 
27, 1862. 

Brown, C. P., enlisted August 14, 1861 ; killed in battle November 3, 1863. 

Bryan, C, enlisted August 14, 1861; died October 27, 1861. 

Clark, A., enlisted August 4, 1861. 

Cromwell, George W., enlisted September 25, 1861 ; discharged for dis- 
ability April 7, 1862. 

Dodd, James 6., enlisted August 4, 1861; reenlisted as veteran March 1, 

Houser, D. M., enlisted August 4, 1861; discharged for disability October 
29, 1862. 

Hulbert, Charles, enlisted August 4, 1861; reenlisted as veteran March 1, 

Ireland, James, enlisted August 14, 1861. 

McConnell, James, enlisted August 14, 1861 ; reenlisted March 1, 1864. 

McMartin, John, enlisted August 4, 1861. 

Rich, Edmond, enlisted August 14, 1861 ; reenlisted as veteran March 1, 1864. 

Rutter, H. E., reenlisted March 1, 1864. 

Rutter, J. A., enlisted February 26, 1864. 

Wood, John, enlisted August 14, 1861 ; wounded at Prairie Station, Missis- 
sippi, February 2, 1864. 

Wragg, Peter, enlisted August 14, 1861. 


Abbott, A. J., enlisted December 15, 1862. 

Hathaway, Lewis H., enlisted in 1861; reenlisted as veteran March 1, 1864; 
died of wounds received at battle of Nashville, December 23, 1864. 
Rice, E. P., enlisted in 1861; reenlisted as veteran March 1, 1864. 


Roberts, P. S., enlisted February 29, 1864. 
Shultz, Charles, enlisted February 29, 1864. 


Company B of the Fourth Cavalry was mainly recruited at Delhi, this 
county, having seventy-nine in the regiment. The serious business of the regi- 
ment began January 14, 1863, and continued for over three months, the com- 
mand being stationed near Helena, Arkansas. The regiment occupied the 
advance in Sherman's corps while moving from Milliken s Bend to Vicksburg. 

The Federal lines were thrown around the rear of Vicksburg on the 18th 
day of May, 1863, under command of Gen. U. S. Grant, who found himself in 
command of about sixty thousand men — cut off from supplies and his rations 
nearly exhausted — for fortifications of Haines' and Snyder's bluffs on the 

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Yazoo River effectually cut off all communication between the right flank and 
the supply boats on the Mississippi, while General Price rendered land trans- 
portation impracticable. 

On the evening of the 18th of May, General Grant determined to send the 
cavalry to reconnoiter in the direction of Haines ' and Snyder's bluffs, and if 
possible, open communication with gunboats on the Yazoo River. The Fourth 
Iowa was ordered on this expedition and started early on the morning of the 
19th but moved very slowly, as they were constantly picking up the foot-sore 
and disabled soldiers of the rebel army that had escaped from the battlefields 
of Champion's Hill and Black River Bridge; and by 2 o'clock P. ML they had 
only made about twelve miles, reaching a point where the Brownsville road 
crossed the one on which the column was marching. The reports received from 
captured soldiers and negroes placed a command of some four thousand rebels 
a short distance up the Brownsville road and estimated the garrison at Snyder 's 
Bluff at four thousand more, which would make it extremely hazardous for a 
small command to cross the Brownsville road. At this juncture Colonel Swan, 
commanding the regiment, determined to return. Seeing the regiment reversed 
and marching back was the first intimation Captain Peters had of the move- 
ment, as he was at the rear. He immediately hastened to Colonel Swan and 
endeavored to dissuade him, justly arguing that they could not return and make 
a satisfactory report, without at least attempting to execute the instructions. 
Unable to change the colonel's determination, he urged to be allowed to take 
his old company and make an attempt to look into the rebel fortifications. His 
offer was at first refused, and the proposition looked upon as wildly desperate 
and reckless; but, after moving back for a mile or two, the colonel finally con- 
sented, agreeing to throw his regiment into line, await his return, and render 
what assistance the occasion might require. Captain Peters then rode to Com- 
pany B and called for volunteers, when the whole company, to a man, turned 
out. He selected only such horses as in his judgment would carry their riders 
ten miles at a fast gait and found but twenty-three men, his two lieutenants and 
Lieut. S. P. Kelly, of Company A, who volunteered to take his place in the ranks 
and accompany the expedition. They started at the gallop and in twenty 
minutes came upon a convalescent camp containing some two or three hundred 
rebel soldiers. They next surprised and captured an Irishman, in citizen 's dress 
and well mounted. The captain charged him with being a rebel soldier and 
belonging to the fortifications and offered him his liberty and a free pass x to 
St. Louis if he would conduct him into the fortifications by a route that would 
avoid the rebel pickets. This proposition was accepted and as the column had 
all the time been riding at a fast gallop, they were soon at the foot of Snyder's 
Bluff. The guide here pointed out a by-path, through the brush and timber, 
capable of the passage of troops in single file. Entering this path, the party 
soon arrived at the top of the bluff and came out upon a broad military road 
leading into the fortifications and formed in a column of fours, and at a sharp 
gallop turned the corner leading into the fortifications, sloping from their feet 
gradually down to the Yazoo River. The guard left by the evacuating rebels 
endeavored hastily to form a line across the road, but the column of cavalry 
eharged down upon them so suddenly that not a shot was fired, and in an instant 
they threw down their arms and surrendered. The cavalrymen were irame- 

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diately dismounted and dispersed in every direction in squads of threes and 

fours, so that in less than twenty minutes the whole rear guard of evacuating 
rehel forces were moving, disarmed, toward the landing on the Yazoo River. 
An unsuccessful attempt was then made to signal the gunboat DeKalb, lying 
some four miles down the river. After a few moments, Captain Peters ordered 
Lieutenant Clark and two men to go down the river and communicate with the 
gunboat, and directing Lieutenant Parsons to look after the prisoners, he took 
three men and started for Haines' Bluff, situated some three miles up the 
river. Here he found no troops, and after counting the guns and making ob- 
servations until dark, he returned to the landing at Snyder's Bluff. The gun- 
boat DeKalb had arrived, the prisoners were received on board, the cavalrymen 
were eating their supper, the first "square meal" for fourteen days, and 
Captain Peters was taken from the saddle and carried to the officers' deck, 
where a sumptuous repast was waiting. After eating supper — in regular gun- 
boat style — and directing an orderly boat to communicate the capture to the 
transports on the Mississippi, he and his men remounted and started back to 
join their command, but found it gone. Continuing their march they arrived 
at 2 o'clock A. M. at the camp they had left the previous morning. Here 
Captain Peters learned that Colonel Swan had reported to General Grant the 
failure of his expedition and that Captain Peters and his small command had 
been either killed or captured. He immediately mounted a fresh horse, rode 
to General Grant's headquarters and reported the true state of things and by 
daylight in the morning the mule teams were bringing army stores from the 
Chickasaw Bayou to feed the sixty thousand hungry soldiers. 

The Fourth (under command of Lieutenant Colonel Peters) accompanied 
General Sherman on his expedition to Meridian in February, 1864, in which it 
had a daily skirmish for twelve successive days, and performed many daring 
exploits near Memphis and at Tupelo in the following months. The regiment 
was transferred to Arkansas in September, whence the command marched into 
Missouri under General Mower, and had a severe engagement with Price's forces 
near Independence. In October, General Pleasanton, by general orders, au- 
thorized the regiment to place on its colors "Big Blue," and "Osage," the 
Fourth having done especial service in both engagements. In a subsequent 
order, General Pleasanton said: "Winslow's brigade of cavalry being about 
to leave for another department, the major general commanding takes this 
occasion not only to express his regrets in separating from such glorious troops, 
but also to recall the splendid manner in which this regiment fought at Osage, 
capturing five pieces of artillery from the enemy, with a large number of pris- 
oners, and carrying, by a daring charge, the most important and conspicuous 
position on that brilliant field." The regiment returned to St. Louis Novem- 
ber 29th. In March, 1865, the regiment was again at the front, Colonel Peters 
having rejoined and taken command. March 31st, the regiment repulsed an 
attack by two regiments of the enemy, driving them two miles. April 2d, the 
regiment captured the defenses of Selma and the city itself, including 1,500 
prisoners, besides an immense amount of war material. The regiment was 
present at the taking of Columbus, Georgia, April 16th, capturing one of the 
strongest defenses of that city. The command then marched toward Forsyth, 
destroying railroad property until the 21st, where the armistice concluded its 

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labors and the regiment returned to Macon, thence to Atlanta, where it was 
mustered out August 8, 1865. 

As a brilliant, dashing and successful cavalry officer, Colonel Peters had 
few if any superiors in the western army, and successfully led many a perilous 
expedition which, though necessary, required an officer possessing cool judg- 
ment, bravery and indomitable pluck to execute. A universal favorite among 
his associates and companions in arms, he was nevertheless often considered 
reckless and foolhardy, although he never failed to prove, by his oft-repeated 
successes, that he was led by judgment rather than impulse. Such was his 
popularity with the soldiers of the command there he could always secure more 
volunteers than he wished to accompany him on any extra hazardous expedi- 
tion, no matter how dangerous or hopeless it might seem. This regiment was 
mustered out at Atlanta, Georgia, August 8, 1865. 

Lieutenant colonel, John H. Peters, commissioned captain Company B; 
wounded November 8, 1862 ; promoted major June 20, 1863 ; promoted to lieu- 
tenant colonel September 2, 1863. 

Assistant surgeon, Stephen Cummings, commissioned July 2, 1863. 

Third B. C. S., George W. Reid, enlisted September 23, 1861 ; died May 14, 
1862, disability. 

Third B. C' S., C. A. Crawford, enlisted September 23, 1861. 


Captain, Alonzo Clark, commissioned second lieutenant, August 16, 1861; 
promoted to first lieutenant December 7, 1863 ; promoted to captain September 
27, 1864. 

Captain, George B. Parsons, commissioned second lieutenant November 23, 
1861 ; wounded at Helena, Arkansas, May, 1862 ; promoted to captain, Septem- 
ber 2, 1863 ; resigned September 1, 1864. 

First lieutenant, Thomas Bowman, enlisted as private October 9, 1861 ; 
promoted to corporal; promoted to sergeant; promoted to second lieutenant 
March 1, 1864 ; promoted to first lieutenant September 28, 1864. 

Sergeant, Joseph Gamble, enlisted September 23, 1861 ; reenlisted as veteran 
December 12, 1863 ; killed December 1, 1864, in battle near Memphis. 

Sergeant, Joseph Vesy, enlisted September 26, 1861; reenlisted as veteran 
December 12, 1863. 

Sergeant, John W. Corbin, enlisted September 23, 1861; wounded near 
Helena, Arkansas, May, 1862; and at Mechanicsburg, Mississippi, June 29, 1863. 

Sergeant, Cyrus Stoner, enlisted September 23, 1861. 

Corporal, Thomas Henry, enlisted September 23, 1861. 

Corporal, William W. Peak, enlisted September 23, 1861 ; discharged May 
15, 1862; disability. 

Corporal, I. Saunders, enlisted September 23, 1861 ; discharged July 23, 1862. 

Corporal, William T. Smithers, enlisted September 23, 1861; reenlisted as 
veteran December 14, 1863. 

Corporal, William Graham, enlisted September 25, 1861; reenlisted as vet- 
eran December 14, 1863. 

Digitized by 



Corporal, David Behan, enlisted September 23, 1861 ; reenlisted as veteran 
December 14, 1863. 

Corporal, O. H. Marvin, enlisted September 25. 1861; reduced to ranks 
August 1, 1862. 

Corporal, William Lees, enlisted September 23, 1861; reenlisted as veteran 
December 12, 1863. 

Corporal, James Reeder, enlisted September 23, 1861; reduced to ranks 
August 1, 1862. 

Corporal, C. Eldridge, enlisted September 23, 1861 ; reenlisted as veteran 
December 12, 1863. 

Corporal, Levi Washburn, enlisted September 23, 1861 ; reenlisted as veteran 
December 14, 1863 ; captured near Memphis, December 14, 1864. 

Corporal, Peter McElmeel, enlisted November 7, 1861 ; reenlisted as veteran 
December 12, 1863; wounded at Pilot Knob, September, 1864. 

Bugler, J. McNulty, enlisted November 7, 1861; reenlisted as veteran De- 
cember 21, 1863; captured June 11, 1864; died at Milan, Georgia, November 
18, 1864. 

Bugler, Charles W. Tuffs, enlisted November 2, 1861. 

Farrier, James Barker, enlisted September 23, 1861; reenlisted as veteran 
December 14, 1862. 

Farrier, Peter Ward, enlisted November 7, 1861 ; reenlisted as veteran 
December 14, 1862. 

Teamster, James A. Walker, enlisted September 23, 1861; reenlisted as 
veteran December 12, 1863. 

Teamster, T. Watkins, enlisted October 9, 1861 ; reenlisted as veteran Decem- 
ber 14, 1863. 


Akers, John W., enlisted February 29, 1864; captured December 14, 1864, 
near Memphis. 

Allen, J. W., enlisted September 23, 1861 ; promoted to musician ; dis- 
charged April 9, 1862, disability. 

Barnes, George F., enlisted October 8, 1863. 

Blackburn, A. H., enlisted October 10, 1863. 

Bowman, Josiah, enlisted November 21, 1863; captured December 14, 1864, 
near Memphis. 

Brayton, H., enlisted September 23, 1861; promoted to musician. 

Clapp, George W., enlisted February 25, 1864; captured December 14, 1864^ 
near Memphis. 

Coates, Charles, enlisted September 23, 1861 ; died November 15, 1863. 

Cole, Thomas J., enlisted October 11, 1863; killed in battle at Little Blue 
River, Kansas, October 23, 1864. 

Council, Edward, enlisted September 28, 1863; wounded near Memphis, 
December 14, 1864. 

Cronan, Timothy, enlisted March 24, 1864. 

Delancey, William F., enlisted October 8, 1863. 

Dennis, Daniel, enlisted March 12, 1864 ; died August 29, 1864. 

Dillen, Edward, enlisted September 18, 1863. 

Digitized by 



Douglas, J. N., enlisted October 8, 1863. 

Dufo, Watson 0., enlisted October 8, 1863. 

Dutton, H., enlisted September 30, 1861; reenlisted as veteran December 
12, 1863. 

Dutton, P., enlisted September 30, 1861 > discharged July 14, 1862, disability. 

Ellis, Levi, enlisted September 23, 1861. 

Evens, James H., enlisted September 28, 1863. 

Fierstine, Joseph, enlisted February 15, 1864. 

Fitch, James, enlisted September 18, 1863. 

Flinn, John H., enlisted November 22, 1863. 

Gaffney, Thomas, enlisted September 18, 1863. 

Gaffney, Patrick, enlisted September 30, 1861 ; died June 7, 1862, at Bates- 
ville, Arkansas. 

Gibbs, John F., enlisted December 18, 1861 ; reenlisted as veteran December 

18, 1863. 

Gray, James A., enlisted October 28, 1861 ; wounded October 11, 1862. 
Griffin, G. G., enlisted December 19, 1861; reenlisted as veteran December 

19, 1863. 

Griffin, William H., enlisted September 23, 1861; reenlisted as veteran De- 
cember 14, 1863. 

Guthrie, A. A., enlisted December 19, 1861; reenlisted as veteran Decem- 
ber 18, 1863. 

Guthrie, Joseph, enlisted December 19, 1861; reenlisted as veteran Febru- 
ary 29, 1864. 

Halsted, John I., enlisted September 23, 1861; discharged for disability 
January 15, 1863. 

Hampton, James A., enlisted December 19, 1861; discharged December 23, 

Healey, Chester, enlisted December 19, 1861; reenlisted as veteran Decem- 
ber 19, 1862. 

Ireland, John, killed near Jackson, Mississippi, September, 1864. 

Johnson, Thomas, enlisted November 3, 1861; reenlisted as veteran Decem- 
ber 12, 1863. 

La Grand, George, enlisted December 21, 1863. 

La Grand, Melvin, enlisted December 21, 1863. 

Lawrence, H. J., enlisted December 13, 1861. 

Linkin, Jonathan, enlisted November 4, 1863. 

Littlejohn, L. J., enlisted February 26, 1864; taken prisoner June 11, 1864, 
at Ripley, Mississippi ; died at Andersonville prison. 

McBride, Benjamin, enlisted October 8, 1863. 

McCallum, John, enlisted December 19, 1861; reenlisted as veteran Decem- 
ber 19, 1863; wounded at Black River Bridge, February 3, 1864. 

McCormack, Marshall, enlisted December 1,'1863; died at Paducah, Ken- 
tucky, February 12, 1865. 

McKee, Miller, enlisted October 6, 1863. 

McNulty, F., enlisted November 3, 1861. 

McNulty, Thomas, wounded at Battle of Tupelo, July, 1864. 

Marvin, Oscar, enlisted 1861 ; reenlisted as veteran December 21, 1863. 

Digitized by 



Millard, Thomas, enlisted September 23, 1861 ; reenlisted as veteran Decem- 
ber 19, 1863. 

O 'Brian, John L., enlisted December 28, 1863; transferred to Company A, 
March 18, 1864. 

Phillips, H. C, enlisted December 1, 1863. 

Pierce, L., enlisted December 19, 1861. 

Price, Henry, enlisted September 23, 1861; reenlisted as veteran December 
14, 1863. 

Ramsey, C. D., enlisted September 30, 1861; deserted December 31, 1862; 
reenlisted as veteran December 19, 1863. 

Reid, D., enlisted September 30, 1861; reenlisted as veteran December 14, 

Rust, John B., enlisted October 24, 1863; killed in battle near Memphis, 
December 14, 1864. 

Shreck, J. P., enlisted December 18, 1861. 

Smith, George D., enlisted February 10, 1864. 

Spears, Robert, enlisted October 8, 1863; captured December 14, 1864, near 

Taylor, M. B., enlisted Jafiuary 11, 1862. 

True, George, reenlisted as veteran December 14, 1863. 

Turner, E., enlisted September 23, 1861 ; discharged June 30, 1862. 

Van Clear, James H., enlisted October 1, 1863. 

Walker, Mely, enlisted September 23, 1861 ; reenlisted as veteran December 
12, 1863; wounded in action December 14, 1864. 

Washburn, Cyrus, enlisted October 9, 1861; captured June 22, 1863, rear 
of Vicksburg; reenlisted as veteran December 12, 1863. 

Washburn, Lewis W., enlisted February 24, 1864. 

Wellman, L. D., enlisted September 25, 1861. 

Williams, O. J., enlisted October 30, 1861 ; reenlisted as veteran December 
12, 1863. 

Young, William W., enlisted February 24, 1864. 


Hartman, John C, enlisted February 12, 1864; died of wounds at Memphis, 
June 25, 1864. 


Taylor, S. C, enlisted September 23, 1861. 


Fox, Daniel K., enlisted March 14, 1864. 


McCarty, John, enlisted September 10, 1864. 
Morgan, Henry, enlisted September 10, 1864. 

Digitized by 




The Sixth Cavalry was recruited in 1862, and was sent to Minnesota imme- 
diately after being mounted and drilled where it marched under General Sully 
against the Indians. During August, 1863, three companies of the Sixth, 
under command of Major House, while on detached service, undertook to hold 
a camp of 1,500 Indians until word could be sent to the main force, but this 
proved to be almost too large a job for the men, for thfc Indians were break- 
ing away just as General Sully came up with Col. D. S. Wilson at the head 
of the Sixth and Colonel Furnas in command of the Second Nebraska, The 
battle began instantly, two companies of the Sixth going through the camp, 
and Colonel Furnas joining Major House. The engagement lasted till after 
dark, when the bugles sounded the recall^ The Indians fled during the night, 
leaving everything but their ponies and arms behind. The next day (5th), the 
command destroyed half a million pounds of dried meat, three hundred lodges, 
and other valuable property. Over a hundred dead Indians were found on 
the field. July 28, 1864, the Sixth had a hand, in the engagement with the 
Indians at Tahkahokutah, where the Indians Occupied a secure position on 
some steep and rocky bluffs partly covered wi{h timber. The Indians threw 
out mounted skirmishing parties eight or ten miles in advance of this position, 
which were driven back to the bluffs. The Indians were then shelled out of 
their position in the rocks and forced to retreat with considerable loss. August 
8th, the regiment, which had camped the previous night on the Little Missouri, 
had a skirmish with a heavy force of Indians, and on the following day got a 
chance to charge them a distance of over two miles, killing a considerable num- 
ber. The regiment remained in Dakota until winter, bivouacked at Sioux City 
until spring and was mustered out October 17, 1865. 

Major, Albert E. House, commissioned October 21, 1862. 


Miller, Andrew, enlisted October 17, 1862. 


Captain, Abraham B. Moreland, commissioned January 31, 1863. 

First lieutenant, Wesley A. Heath, commissioned January 31, 1863; adju- 
tant, June 1, 1864. 

Second lieutenant, Charles F. Hobbs, commissioned quartermaster-sergeant; 
promoted second lieutenant August 27, 1865. 

First sergeant, E. M. Jones, enlisted September 17, 1862; died April 19, 
1865, at Webster City, of wounds received in a shooting affray. 

Commissary sergeant, T. B. Hobbs, enlisted September 17, 1862. 

Sergeant, H. S. Sang, enlisted September 18, 1862. 

Sergeant, William Cuppett, enlisted September 22, 1862. 

Sergeant, Roland Aubrey, enlisted September 26, 1862. 

Corporal, Samuel Levenstine, enlisted September 19, 1861. 

Corporal, George T. Rea, enlisted September 22, 1862. 

Digitized by 



Corporal, James T. Haught, enlisted September 22, 1862. 
Corporal, E. Kaster, enlisted September 22, 1862. 
Corporal, Peter W. Keith, enlisted September 21, 1862. 
Corporal, James H. McMahon, enlisted September 18, 1862. 
Corporal, R. Reynolds, enlisted December 25, 1862. 
Corporal, William Aubrey, enlisted September 26, 1862. 
Teamster, T. J. Radabach, enlisted October 21, 1862. 
Teamster, George W. Ashburn, enlisted September 26, 1862. 
Farrier, James Lee, enlisted September 22, 1862. 
Wagoner, James Ashburn, enlisted September 26, 1862. 


Bangle, J. W., enlisted September 22, 1862 ; discharged May 9, 1864. 

Barnhart, G. T., enlisted September 19, 1862; wounded at White Stone 
Hills, September 3, 1863. 

Blacmer, Austin, enlisted December 31, 1862; died at Fort Randall, Dakota 
Territory, February 23, 1864. 

Blair, J. L., enlisted November 21, 1862. 

Bosteder, 0. D., enlisted September 22, 1862. 

Boyles, D. M., enlisted October 15, 1862; died August 8, 1864. 

Bradley, C. J., enlisted September 22, 1862. 

Bullis, S., enlisted November 22, 1862. 

Butler, A., enlisted September 19, 1862 ; discharged March 23, 1863. 

Butler, R., enlisted September 19, 1862. 

Darlington, Thomas, enlisted December 5, 1862. 

Clendenen, John, enlisted September 25, 1861 ; died September 8, 1864. 

Crosby, E., enlisted September 21, 1862 ; discharged April 7, 1863. 

Crosier, B., enlisted November 22, 1862. 

Dunham, George, enlisted January 5, 1863. 

Durfey, A. B., enlisted December 28, 1862. 

Earl, Mark, enlisted December 15, 1862. 

Faust, William, enlisted October 21, 1862. 

Gafney, T., enlisted September 14, 1862. 

Groce, William, enlisted September 26, 1862. 

Haas, Andrew, enlisted September 18, 1862. 

HanMns, J. H., enlisted October 21, 1862. 

Hewitt, J. W., enlisted September 19, 1862. 

Hulbert, J. W., enlisted September 23, 1862. 

Hulbert, P., enlisted September 23, 1862; discharged October 22, 1863, 

Hussey, C. L., enlisted September 18, 1862; discharged June 17, 1864, for 
promotion to second lieutenant, Company C. 

Tmpson, Reuben, enlisted January 5, 1862. 

Kearney, F., enlisted September 14, 1862. 

Kinnear, James, enlisted September 23, 1862. 

Loveless, Perry, enlisted December 29, 1862. 

McFarlan, Peter, enlisted September 22, 1862. 

Digitized by 



Mann, Z., enlisted January 9, 1862; discharged January 7, 1864. 

Miller, Jacob, enlisted September 20, 1862. 

Nutting, S. M., enlisted December 24, 1862. 

Osborn, J. M., enlisted September 22, 1862.. 

Ransdell, C. C, enlisted September 14, 1862. 

Reardon, John, enlisted September 18, 1862; died at Sioux City, March 
28, 1865. 

Robinson, T. W., enlisted September 13, 1862. 

Seaton/M. D., enlisted September 22, 1862. 

Shear, C. B., enlisted September 22, 1862. 

Shepardson, Van R., enlisted December 15, 1862. 

Smith, E., enlisted September 22, 1862. 

Stephens, C, enlisted October 20, 1862 ; died September 6, 1863, of wounds 
received at the Battle of White Stone Hills. 

Townsend, E. W., enlisted September 13, 1862. 

Vosburg, 0. A., enlisted October 7, 1862. 

Walter, J. J., enlisted September 22, 1862; wounded September 3, 1863, 
and died November 17, 1863, at Sioux City. 

Walter, J. S., enlisted September 22, 1862. 

Wilson, E. C, enlisted October 11, 1862. 

Wood, John, enlisted December 15, 1862. 


Henkel, Frank, enlisted October 29, 1862; discharged January 25, 1864, 

Henkel, William, enlisted October 29, 1862. 


Corporal, A. C. Cruikshank, enlisted September 12, 1862. 

Cruikshank, J., enlisted September 12, 1862. 


Sergeant, William Lutes, enlisted February 27, 1863. 

Kennedy, John, enlisted January 5, 1863. 


Acers, Wilson, enlisted September 10, 1864. 
Bailey, Clement, enlisted September 10, 1864. 

Digitized by 



Foley, Dennis, enlisted September 15, 1864. 
Stockwell, James H., enlisted September 10, 1864. 
Turner, Salem, enlisted September 10, 1864. 


This regiment was mustered out at Leavenworth, Kansas, May 17, 1866. 

Quartermaster-sergeant, Nathan B. Gleason, enlisted as private March 19, 
1863, promoted to quartermaster-sergeant July 27, 1863; discharged January 
26, 1866, disability. 


Clark, Alexander, enlisted February 9, 1863; discharged May 26, 1865, 

McQuirk, Ed J., enlisted February 10, 1863. 


Twombly, Frederick, enlisted May 18, 1863. 


Dodd, Thomas C, enlisted March 21, 1864; discharged March 22, 1866, 

King, J. H., enlisted February 23, 1863. 

Murphy, John, enlisted May 21, 1863; died August 4, 1865, at Julesburg, * 


Wagoner, Enos B. Wright, enlisted June 25, 1863; discharged August 23, 


Chambers, Henry, enlisted October 17, 1864. 
Hutton, William, enlisted October 17, 1864. 
Malvin, John, enlisted October 17, 1864. 
Malvin, Joseph, enlisted October 17, 1864. 
Malvin, Nicholas, enlisted October 17, 1864. 
Mann, Robert, enlisted October 17, 1864. 
Merton, John, enlisted October 17, 1864. 


Livingston, D. J., enlisted March 28, 1864. 

Digitized by 




This regiment was mustered out at Macon, Georgia, August 13, 1865. 

Major, John Jay Brown, commissioned second lieutenant Company K, 
Twelfth Infantry, November 25, 1861; promoted first lieutenant March 18, 1862; 
promoted major, Eighth Cavalry May 28, 1863; resigned April 14, 1864. 

Sergeant, William II. Finley, commissioned assistant surgeon Twelfth In- 
fantry October 30, 1861; promoted surgeon Eighth Cavalry July 23, 1863; 
resigned April 14, 1864. 


First lieutenant, Charles A. Crawford, commissioned second lieutenant Sep- 
tember 30, 1863; promoted first lieutenant February 6, 1865. 

Sergeant, Robert G. Crawford, enlisted August 3, 1863. 

Trumpeter, George W. Borden, enlisted June 8, 1863; captured July 30, 
1864, at Newman, Georgia; died November 30, 1864, while a prisoner of war 
at Florence, South Carolina. 


Cavanaugh, Michael, enlisted July 30, 1863; transferred to Veteran Relief 

Crouch, F. J., enlisted August 27, 1863 ; died May 17, 1864, at Nashville. 
Kaho, Patrick, enlisted July 26, 1863. 
Keith, James E., enlisted July 26, 1863. 


Mahoney, John, enlisted November 28, 1864. 



Assistant surgeon, George S. Dewitt, commissioned February 19, 1863; 
resigned March 18, 1864. 


Cousins, William A., reenlisted as veteran January 1, 1864; died October 
9, 1864, of wounds at Atlanta, Georgia. 

Doolittle, A. H., enlisted December 6, 1863; reenlisted as veteran January 
5, 1864; transferred from Company K, Fifth Infantry; mustered out August 
11, 1865. 

Griffin, Asel, reenlisted as veteran January 5, 1864 ; transferred from Com- 
pany K, Fifth Infantry ; mustered out August 11, 1865. 

Knee, James, enlisted February 26, 1864; mustered out August 11, 1865. 

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Lockridge, George C, enlisted February 26, 1864; mustered out August 11, 

Melugin, A. W., enlisted February 28, 1864 ; mustered out August 11, 1865. 

Melvin, William P., enlisted February 27, 1864; mustered out August 11, 

Mosheir, T., reenlisted as veteran February 29, 1864; transferred from 
Company K, Fifth Infantry; mustered out August 11, 1865. 

Pratt, L. A., enlisted February 18, 1864; mustered out August 11, 1865. 

Sackett, Lewis, enlisted February 29, 1864; mustered out August 11, 1865. 


Pierce, S. W., enlisted September 11, 1861, from Company G, Fremont 
Hussars; discharged for disability October 1, 1862. 


Captain, Melville C. Wright, commissioned first lieutenant, Jr., September 
16, 1861; promoted to first lieutenant, Sr., September 4, 1862; promoted to 
captain, October 4, 1864; discharged January 5, 1865. 

Second lieutenant, Leroy S. House, enlisted as sergeant, promoted to second 
lieutenant, Jr., December 13, 1863 ; promoted second lieutenant, Sr., October 4. 
1864; resigned November 14, 1864. 


Miller, John, enlisted February 26, 1864; mustered out October 3, 1865. 

Perry, Amos, reenlisted as veteran December 22, 1863 ; mustered out October 
3, 1865. 

Phelps, A., reenlisted as veteran December 22, 1863 ; mustered out October 
3, 1865. 

Wasson, William, enlisted February 6, 1864; mustered out October 3, 1865. 

Webb, Thomas J., enlisted February 25, 1864 ; mustered out October 3, 1865. 



Artificer, John D. Mclntyre, enlisted September 9, 1861. 
Artificer, Dean Talcott, enlisted September 9, 1861. 


Jones, George, enlisted September 9, 1861; missed in action at Tuscumbia 
River, Mississippi, May 30, 1862. 

Smith, D., enlisted September 9, 1861. 
Talcott, D., enlisted September 9, 1861. 

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Stationed at this point is Company D, Fifty-third Regiment Iowa National 
Guards, which was mustered into the state militia service April 25, 1905. 
Officers were elected at the time and at the expiration of their commissions in 
1910, a new roster was made up, both of officers and men. The lists follow : 


Captain, Harry G. Utley ; first lieutenant, Jesse 0. Young; second lieutenant, 
Jesse G. Lewis; first sergeant, Charles L. Leigh; quartermaster-sergeant, Wil- 
liam W. Matthews. 


Adams, Geo. W., Ackley, Norman G., Allyn, Howard S., Atkinson, Ray L., 
Atkinson, Roy L., Atwater, Nelson J., Bishop, Calvin S., Bishop, Guy W., 
Bishop, Lawrence B., Boucher, Henry W., Broadie, James A., Burrington, 
Chauncey V., Cloud, Albert M., Copeland, Edward R., Cunningham, Willis C, 
Dobbins, Frank S., Eldridge, Jay, Eldridge, Wra., Fiestine, Ross D., Glew, 
Lee 0., Gorham. Edward N., Gorman, Jas. C, Harrison, Earle H., Hollister, 
Edw. H., Hutson, Earle, Johnston, Geo. W., Joseph, Frank D., Kling, Floyd S., 
Livingston, Chas W., Malven, David H., Malven, John W., Matthews, L., Jr., 
Newcomb, Chas. G., Pride, Levi D., Richardson, Mellie A., Rieger, Frank J., 
Rizer, Jas. W., Seeley, John A., Smith, Howard T., Smith, Oscar 0., Southall, 
Purnell, Thorpe, Garry T., Wagner, Howard T., Walker, Thos. E., Wilson, 
Geo. W., Young, Lewis F., Young, Samuel R., Hamblin, Arlie L., Shelden, 
Alex M., Simon, Arle H. 


Captain, Don A. Preussner; second lieutenant, Frederick W. Miller; first 
sergeant, William W. Matthews; quartermaster-sergeant, Lewis A. Frank; 
sergeants, Jay C. Barr, Ray B. Miller, Arthur W. West, Samuel H. Townsend ; 
corporals, Roy J. Todd, Clinton O. Burch, Dale W. Munger, Edwin R. Hensley, 
Robert S. Risher; cook, Albert C. Meyers; musicians, Clarence H. Atkinson, 
John L. Anderson. 


Andrews, Harry R., Anderson, Earl G., Atwater, Nelson J., Anderson, Wil- 
liam H., Anderson, Arthur R., Breyfogle, Lyle E., Barger, Earl E., Boone, 
John E., Champlin, Leo C, Carl, Cecil C, Erickson, Harry, Fox, Lee E., Fuller, 
Orlie E., Fuller, William S., Harrington, Harry 0., Harrington, Guy 0., Hosier, 
Floris G., Hammel, Henry J., Johnston, George S:, Jewell, Earl W., King, 
Allen P., Miskimen, Glen E., Minkler, Don D., Mellinger, Lewis F., McGee, 
William H., May, John W., Miller, Lyle G., Pilgrim, Lester H., Pettlon, Allen 

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P., Purkey, Millard E., Power, McKinley H., Power, Tony B., Preston, Walter 
E., Risher,. Waldo 0., Ross, Churchill W., Ryan, Ernest M., Smith, Harry E., 
Schmidt, Frank, Satterlee, Jerome E., Sheppard, Arthur R., Seymour, Charles 
R., Traver, Clair M., Utley, Miles A., Utley, Carl P., Witheral, Arthur L., 
Wilkins, Harold F., Zirtzman, Ray F. 


W. A. Morse Post, No. 190, Grand Army of the Republic, was organized 
May 23, 1883, in memory of Capt. W. A. Morse, who assisted in raising the 
first company from Manchester for the Civil war. On the evening of the day 
mentioned, G. L. Yount, of Fred Steele Post, No. 4, Anamosa, mustered in 
the following comrades : G. A. Day, J. B. Satterlee. G. 0. Vincent, W. S. Jones, 
J. B. Thompson, A. G. Thompson, H. C. Fox, B. W. Jewell, B. P. Skinner, W. 
S. Martin, H. Harger, L. Rich, A. J. Collinge, James Shade, R. B. Lynn, 
Andrew Miller and James McFarland. 

Officers were then voted for, with the following result : P. C, Col. George A. 
Day; S. V. C, J. B. Satterlee; J. V. V., G. O. Vincent; Adjt., B. W. Jewell; 
Q. M., W. S. Jones; Surg., C. C. Bradley; Chap., H. C. Fox; 0. D., J. B. 
Thompson; 0. G., A. G. Thompson; Serg.-Maj., B. F. Skinner; Q. M.-Sergt., 
W. S. Martin. 

The second meeting was held May 26th following, and another squad was 
mustered in, namely: A. Work, J. P. Wilson, A. Lightfoot, J. M. Garrison, 
G. G. Merrill, T. Scudder, D. K. Fox, S. W. Trenchard, A. J. Abbott, A. 0. 
Moore, and A. C. Carter. 

At the third meeting another list was added to the muster rolls: Joseph 
Mitch, C. B. Gaton, A. Dunham, H. M. Day, A. H. Blake, George H. Morrisey, 
S. E. Meserve, A. A. Morse, J. Van Antwerp, C. L. Bradley, C. W. Hamblin 
and A. A. Hamblin. 

At one time W. A. Morse Post had over one hundred members and on the 
annual memorial day upon parade made a goodly showing, but as the years 
have gone by their ranks have become thinner and thinner until they can hardly 
muster a corporal's guard. The names of those who have served as post com- 
manders are here given : J. B. Satterlee, George H. Morrisey, George A. Day, 
George H. Morrisey, A. G. Thompson, B. F. Skinner, A. Lightfoot, C. 0. 
Torrey, R. M. Marvin, A. J. Collinge, J. F. Merry, J. B. Satterlee, A. Dunham, 
C. B. Eaton, George Commerford, Peter Boardway, E. E. Newcomb, Abner 
Dunham, — Fleming, C. Bailey, A. B. Tirrill, G. M. Heacock, A. C. Carter, 
C. H. Johnson and A. C. Carter. 


The Soldiers' Monument in Oakland Cemetery was erected by the county 
in 1912, under the direction of a Soldiers' Monument Commission, selected by 
the Soldiers' Relief Commission and the board of supervisors. The monument 
commission consisted of Capt. J. F. Merry, chairman ; R. M. Marvin, secretary ; 
Frank Mead and R. W. Tirrill. 

Vol I— 10 

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The monument was constructed and erected by the Capitol Hill Granite 
and Marble Works, of Des Moines, at a cost of $1,725. It is of Barre granite, 
height 20 feet, 6 inches; weight, about twenty-four tons. The designs on the 
second die represent the four branches of the service — infantry, cavalry, artiU 
lery and the navy. It is conceded by those who have seen it to be the most 
beautiful soldiers' monument in the state; and it might be added, that it is 
the first of this design to be erected in Iowa. The same design for a soldiers* 
monument has since been followed for one erected at Strawberry Point, Clayton 
County, and also for one erected at Edgewood in this county, September 23, 
1914. Capt. John F. Merry was also master of ceremonies at the unveiling of 
this last mentioned handsome memorial to the soldier dead, making the presen- 
tation address, while R. M. Marvin directed the unveiling. 

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The pioneers of the healing art in Delaware County were the guardians 
of a widely dispersed population. Aside from their professional duties, they 
contributed their full share to the material development of a newly opened 
country. Some were men of culture, who had gained their medical education 
in college. Others were of limited educational attainments, whose professional 
knowledge had been acquired in the offices of established practitioners of more 
or less ability in the sections from which they emigrated. Of either class almost 
without exception, they were practical men of great force of character who 
gave cheerful and efficacious assistance to the suffering, daily journeying on 
horseback scores of miles, over a country almost destitute of roads and encounter- 
ing swollen, unbridged streams, without waterproof garments or other now 
common protection against the elements. Out of necessity the pioneer physician 
developed rare quickness of perception and self-reliance. A specialist was then 
unknown, and the physician was called upon to treat every phase of bodily 
ailment, serving as physician, surgeon, oculist and dentist. His books were 
few and there were no practitioners of more ability than himself with whom 
he might consult. His medicines were simple and carried on his person and 
every preparation of pill or solution was the work of his own hands. 

During the summer and autumn of 1837, cases of bilious remitting fever 
occurred, which readily yielded to treatment. The winter following several 
cases of bilious pneumonia demanded prompt attendance and special vigilance 
in the observance of changes indicative of greater danger. These were the 
diseases and the principal ones which called for medical help up to the year 
1849. Since that year, or from that period, the summer and autumnal fevers 
ceased to be epidemical and pneumonia became less frequent. It may be well 
to mention here that the fevers of 1849, after the third or fourth day, assumed 
a typhoid character, the remission hardly observable, and the nervous depres- 
sion occasioning great anxiety. 

It was probably Doctor Bush of Philadelphia — a great name up to about 
1825 — who said the lancet was a "sheet anchor" in all inflammatory diseases, 
so it might have been said of quinine, as used in remittent and intermittent 
fevers, in both the Mississippi and Missouri valleys from 1830 up to 1850. 
During that period 120,000 square miles west of the Mississippi and north' of 
St. Louis became populated and all of it more or less malarious. In some of 
these years the demand for quinine w^s so great that the supply in the Ameri- 
can market became exhausted. "Sappington's pills' ' were indirectly the power 
which worked steamboats up the river from 1835 to 1843. They were verily, 
the "sheet anchor' ' not only aboard boats but in many households. Doctor 


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Sappington was a regular allopathic physician of considerable ability, residing 
up the Missouri River, who thought it would be a benefaction to the new 
civilization of the West to prepare quinine ready to be taken in the form of 
pills. Boxes of his pills contained four dozen each and the pellets two grains 
each. The direction on the box was to take from two to twenty, as the urgency 
of the case seemed to require, without reference to the stage of the paroxysm. 
While the country was wild and settlements few, no physician licensed to 
practice his profession was obtainable in the country and the pioneer mothers 
were largely called upon to administer to the sick and ailing. Many of them 
became proficient in their homely way, using herbs and other remedies which 
in many cases proved their virtues. They also acted as midwives and it was 
nothing peculiarly unusual for these brave, resourceful, sensible women to 
take in hand a patient suffering with a broken limb or wound and bring him 
or her safely through their troubles. Certain of the sterner sex, having no 
education or regular training for the practice of medicine, posed as doctors 
and practiced the healing art among their neighbors, some with more or less 

Dr. Joseph W. Robbins was probably the first physician to locate in Man- 
chester. After graduating from Geneva (New York) Medical College in 1852, 
he settled at Colesburg and remained there until 1855, when he removed to 
Manchester, then a town becoming of some importance, and hung out his 
shingle. He was a man of considerable ability and became quite successful in 
practice. Dr. John Acers had before this time located at Delaware Center, or 
Acersville as it was more familiarly known. He practiced medicine, as did 
Doctor Hamlet, who located in Manchester in 1856. 

Another early physician at Manchester was Dr. C. C. Bradley, now deceased. 
After locating here he soon gained in favor as an able physician and successful 
surgeon. He was successful and popular and built up a splendid business. He 
was also a soldier in the Civil war. In 1862 Dr. Walter B. Sherman located in 
Delaware County and graduated from the Cleveland Medical College in 1870. 
He began the practice of his profession in Manchester and became junior mem- 
ber of the firm of Bradley & Sherman. 

Dr. Benjamin H. Reynolds was a native of the State of New York. He 
removed to Kankakee, Illinois, and enlisted there for the Civil war, serving 
nearly three years, after which he attended college at Ann Arbor, Michigan, 
' and in March, 1866, came to Delaware County and located at Masonville. He 
took up his permanent residence in Manchester in 1873, where he successfully 
engaged in the practice of his chosen profession. 

Among others of the early doctors in Manchester may be mentioned Drs. 
J. M. Lanning, John Acers, W. A. Morse, S. W. Green. 

Dr. Alfred Boomer was early in the practice in Delhi and was one of its 
most successful physicians. He was a good citizen, a prominent church man, 
and energetic in whatever he undertook to do. 

Dr. S. Haskins, after serving in the Civil war as assistant surgeon of the 
Fourteenth Iowa Regiment, located at Earlville. He was a graduate of Bellevue 
College, in 1868. - Doctor Haskins not only enjoyed a good practice, but also the 
confidence of the community. 

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Dr. H. H. Pierce graduated from a medical school at Burlington, Vermont, 
in 1870, and before the end of the year was in the practice of his profession 
at Delaware, this county. He had quite a successful practice and held the office 
of county coroner. 

P. E. Triem was born in Canton, Ohio, January 17, 1850. During his infancy 
his parents moved to Will County, Illinois. At the age of fourteen he entered 
Northwestern College at Plainsfield, Illinois, from which institution he graduated 
in the spring of 1872. Soon afterwards he commenced the study of medicine 
at Naperville, Illinois, and subsequently, at Laporte, Iowa; he then entered 
Hahnemann Medical College at Chicago, graduating in March, 1874. He began 
practice at Laporte, Iowa, and continued there until 1879, when he came to 
Manchester, Iowa, and engaged in the practice of medicine for the remainder of 
his life. In August, 1877, he married Mary A. Dewey, of Lockport, Illinois. 
Two children were born to them, Paul and Flora. He w r as a member of the 
Congregational church, an Odd Fellow and Modern Woodman, and a man of 
sterling worth. Doctor May who, for several years, was associated with Doctor 
Triem, says that he was considered one of the most successful homeopathic 
physicians in the state. He died in the State of Washington a few years since, 
leaving many to sincerely mourn his loss. 

Dr. George Harwood, a native of England, after traveling pretty nearly 
over the globe, settled at Mason ville in 1877, and in connection with W. E. 
Lawrence opened a drug store. He practiced his profession there. 

Dr. W. H. Finley was one of the early practitioners at Hopkinton. He was 
a graduate of the State Medical College at Cincinnati, Ohio, in 1858, and in 
January of the following year began the practice of his profession at Hopkin- 
ton. He was for 2y 2 years assistant surgeon of the Twelfth Iowa Volunteer 
Infantry and then a surgeon of the Eighth Iowa Cavalry. After the war he 
resumed practice at Hopkinton. 

Dr. Stephen Cummings was another physician who made a success of his 
profession among the sick and ailing of that town. He located here in 1858, 
coming from his first field of professional activities in Illinois at that time. 
He was assistant surgeon of the Fourth Iowa Cavalry in the Civil war and 
after the close of hostilities, was given charge of a hospital in Macon, Georgia. 
He then returned to Hopkinton and resumed the practice, becoming very suc- 

The foregoing is not by any means a complete account of the valiant men 
of intellect, learning in their chosen field of endeavor, and expertness, who 
had the hardihood to leave comfortable homes in the East and brave the unknown, 
sparsely settled prairie villages of Delaware County. There were others who 
came here and got a foothold within the confidence of the people and made a 
living, precarious at first, but always having a moiety of hopefulness for the 
future. There were men of character and high standing who remained but a 
short time and then sought other fields for the exercise of their talents. Some 
made the county their permanent home, locating in the various towns, raising 
families and accumulating a greater or less share of this world's goods. But 
the names not mentioned of these worthy men of the healing art have not been 
obtainable. That accounts for the absence of them in this chapter. 

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However, the following names have been supplied by Dr. H. A. Dittmer, of 
physicians who were early in the practice in this county : Dr. Robert M. Wade, 
of Masonville, who was also a minister of the gospel, was born in England, but 
moved with his parents to Dublin when fifteen years of age, and eventually- 
entered Wesleyan and Trinity Colleges. He next became a student at the 
College of Physicians and Surgeons at Steven's Oreen. The young physician 
then, in 1865, crossed the Atlantic and became a citizen of Iowa, locating at 
Tipton, where he joined the Methodist Episcopal conference, and became active 
in the pulpit and the practice of his profession in Tajna City. Some years 
latqr he took up the practice at Masonville, this county. 

Dr. N. S. Craig was for many years one of Delaware County's leading" 
physicians. For a time he was associated with Dr. B. H. Reynolds and later 
with Dr. John Lindsay. He is now located at Jennings, Louisiana, and has a 
large and lucrative practice. The supervising editor of this history has a warm 
place in his heart for Doctor Craig as after a thirteen weeks' illness the doctor by 
his skillful care and nursing saved his life. 

Dr. Richard Stedman was long in the practice at Colesburg, locating there 
in 1855. He was a graduate of the Syracuse Medical College, and enjoyed the 
confidence of a large clientele. 

George H. Fuller attended lectures at Ann Arbor Medical School and gradu- 
ated at the Chicago Medical College in 1869. He took up the practice at Delhi 
in 1873 and afterwards was the government's physician at the Crow Indian 
Agency, of Idaho. He resumed the practice at Delhi in 1877. 

Dr. William F. Davis graduated from Bellevue Hospital, New York City, 
in 1868, and began the practice of his profession at Greeley in 1876, building 
up an extensive practice. 

The name of Lindsay is closely associated with the early history of Dela- 
ware County, and will not be permitted to go into oblivion, in these parts at 
least, as a beautiful stream and grove in Honey Creek Township, often are 
designated by the name of Lindsay, after one of the first settlers in the com- 
munity. Dr. J. J. Lindsay is a son of that old pioneer and for many years has 
been successfully practicing his profession of medicine in Manchester. His 
reputation as a physician and surgeon places him in the front rank of the fra- 
ternity in this county. 

Dr. John A. May is also the son of an early settler. He has been in the 
practice at Manchester a number of years and has a large and paying clientele. 

Other physicians in the practice at Manchester are H. M. Bradley, T. J. 
Burns and the firm of Wilson & Byers — Norman Wilson and B. H. Byers. 

An extended sketch of the Doctors Dittmer will be found in the second 
volume of this history. 


The old records of the Delaware County Medical Society supply the names 
of men who engaged in the practice of medicine in Delaware County in the 
early days not already mentioned, as will be seen later on. This society was 
organized March 3, 1856. On that day the following " Regular physicians of 
Delaware County," Albert Boomer, John Acers, John F. Stout, Albert E. 

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Smith, Joshua Doran, E. C. Taylor and James Wright, assembled under a call 
at Delhi, for the purpose of organizing a county medical association. Dr. 
John Acers was placed in the chair and Dr. Albert Boomer was made secretary. 
A constitution and code of by-laws were adopted and the name chosen was 
the Delaware County Medical Society. The constitution was signed by Drs. 
J. B. Ames, J. P. Stout, C. S. Ward and Thomas C. Magee. After its adoption 
officers were elected for the ensuing year, whose names follow: President, 
Albert E. Smith ; vice presidents, John Acers and J. Doran ; recording secre- 
tary, Albert Boomer; corresponding secretary, J. F. Stout; censors, Doctors 
Smith, Stout and Doran; essayists, Doctors Stout and Doran. 

In the evening of the day mentioned the new society assembled at the court- 
house in Delhi and was addressed by Doctors Smith, Doran, Acers and Wright. 

From time to time new members were added to the roll of the society. 
Among them may be mentioned Drs. James Wright, J. W. Robbins, W. II. 
Finley, W. A. Morse, J. M. Lanning, A. A. Noyes, C. H. Rawson, Lyman J. 
Adair, C. C. Bradley, David Leroy, W. D. Stannard, L. H. Keyes, Alexander 
Wiltse, B. II. Reynolds, W. B. Sherman, Lewis Blanchard, George H. Fuller, 
C O. Paquin, Stephen Cummings, H. H. Pierce, Milo Blodgett. 

This society is still in existence, although at intervals interest in its objects 
and by-laws have lapsed and months and even years have been permitted to 
roll around without regular meetings of the society. That condition exists at 
the present day. The society may be said not to be active, as a long time has 
elapsed since its last meeting. 


It may be truthfully said that the American people have made marvelous 
advancements in demanding the safety and convenience of hospitals for the 
sick, maimed, crippled and abnormal in physical make-up. Never in the history 
of the United States have there been as many good hospitals as now and nu- 
merous new ones are being erected every year. In cities where for years only 
one hospital existed, there are now several, and all well patronized. In smaller 
towns and cities where only ten years ago it was considered impossible to estab- 
lish and maintain a hospital, there now stand splendid buildings, well equipped 
for the treatment and comfort of patients. 

Twenty-five years ago it was a very rare occurrence to call a graduate nurse 
to the bedside of a patient in a private home. Nurses were then considered 
necessary only in hospitals, but today the average family immediately on call- 
ing the family physician, also demands the presence of a competent nurse, even 
though the ailment is not of a serious nature. In evidence of this demand there 
have been graduate nurses admitted to practice in the State of Iowa at the rate 
of one for every day for the past several months, and the demand for good nurses 
is even still greater now than a year ago. This cry for more and better hos- 
pitals, for more and better nurses, is one of the best evidences of the self-propa- 
gating power of Christianity, and the best indication of the advancement of 


It is said that never in the history of Manchester, or of Delaware County, 
have so many people gone to hospitals as in the past four or five years, and 

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since the establishment of Parkview Hospital in October, 1911, there have even 
more patients gone to outside hospitals than before that date. Since October, 
1911, 300 patients have been cared for in Parkview Hospital, half of which 
were surgical cases. Most of the surgical cases would have been of necessity 
sent to other hospitals, and had the Parkview institution been more extensive, 
many of the patients sent elsewhere would gladly have remained here and en- 
tered the home institution instead of going elsewhere. 

As before related, Parkview Hospital was established in October, 1911, by 
a coterie of Manchester physicians. They leased a two-story frame building 
facing the main entrance of Tirrill Park, which they, with the assistance of the 
citizens, furnished with the means at hand. Many contributions were made 
and money raised through the efforts of the loyal women of the community, 
which was expended in securing necessary appliances, furniture and comforts 
for the institution. The doors of the hospital were then opened to every physi- 
cian in and out of the county, and appeals were sent out to local organizations 
for support, but only to a limited degree have these supplications been fruit- 
ful. However, the aims and objects of the men and women who have placed 
themselves in the management and control of the hospital have reached a degree 
of unanticipated success that has led them to strongly hope that the condition 
of things of this worthy institution will reach the hearts and purse strings of 
the community, to the end that a larger and better sanitarium will be built at 
no far distant day. The hospital building is entirely inadequate to the demands 
upon it. The equipment does not meet the demands daily made by the neces- 
sities and conditions of its patrons, so that a strong movement is now* on foot 
for the creation of a citizens' hospital organization, whose duty it shall be to 
devise plans for the building of a new hospital. A larger hospital is necessary 
and greater efforts to obtain one are also imperative. 

The present management of the hospital is composed of the following physi- 
cians: H. A. Dittmer, president; T. J. Burns, vice president; J. A. May, sec- 
retary; E. G. Dittmer, treasurer; and H. M. Bradley. These physicians also 
compose the board of directors. 

An auxiliary board composed of women is made up as follows: Mesdames 
W. N. Boynton, Charles Seeds, M. P. LeRoy, C. Lister, J. J. Goeri, F. L. Durey, 
Thomas Elder, R. W. Tirrill, and Miss Eva Smith. The officials are: Presi- 
dent, Mrs W. N. Boynton ; first vice president, Mrs. Charles Seeds ; second vice 
president, Mrs. M. P. LeRoy; recording secretary, Miss Eva Smith; correspond- 
ing secretary, Mrs. Thomas Elder ; treasurer, Mrs. R. W. Tirrill. 

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Perhaps no body of men, not excepting the clergy, may exercise a greater 
influence for good in a community than those who follow the profession of the 
law, and it must be admitted that to no other body, not even to the so-called 
criminal classes, are corfimitted greater possibilities for an influence for evil. 
What that influence shall be depends upon the character of the men who con- 
stitute the bar of the community — not merely on their ability or learning but 
on their character. If the standard of morality among the members of the bar 
is high, the whole community learns to look at questions of right and wrong 
from a higher plane. If the bar, consciously or unconsciously, adopts a low 
standard of morality, it almost inevitably contaminates the conscience of the 
community. And this is true not only in the practice of the profession itself, 
not only because of the influence of members of the bar as men rather than 
lawyers, but in the effect upon other professions and occupations to which the 
bar acts as a feeder. The members of the legislature are recruited largely from 
the legal profession. How can legislation, designed solely for the welfare of 
the public, be expected from one whose honor as a lawyer has not been above 
suspicion? And since lawyers, outside of the legislature, have a great influ- 
ence in shaping the law, how can the people expect that influence to be exerted 
in their behalf when the bar itself is unworthy ? Still more does the character 
of the bar affect the judiciary, which is supplied from its ranks. It is not al- 
ways, perhaps not generally, the case that members of the bench are chosen from 
those lawyers who have attained the highest rank in their profession. If a 
judge be industrious and honest but not of great ability, or if he be able and 
honest, though lacking industry, the rights of the litigants are not likely to 
suffer seriously at his hands. But there have been instances- where judicial 
office was bestowed solely as a reward for political service ; and while it is some- 
times realized that one who has been a strenuous and not too scrupulous politician 
up to the moment of his elevation to the bench, has thereafter forgotten that 
there was such a trade as politics and has administered justice without fear 
or favor, the experiment is a dangerous one. No one need be surprised if in 
such a case the old maxim holds true: "He who buys the office of judge must 
of necessity sell justice.' ' Let our judges be men who are subject to other 
influences than those of the facts submitted to them and the law applicable to 
those facts, let them lack that independence which is an imperative requisite 
to one who holds the scales of justice, let a well founded suspicion arise that 
their decisions are dictated by something outside of their own minds and con- 
sciences, and the confidence of the people in the maintenance of their rights 
through the agency of the courts is destroyed! It has been the good fortune of 
the City of Manchester and the County of Delaware that the members of the 


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bar here have been, for the most part, men of high character as well as of ability 
and learning, so that its bar has won a high and honorable reputation through- 
out the rest of the state and because of the high character of the bar it has 
followed that those of its members who have been elevated to the bench have 
enjoyed the confidence and respect of the public and have been hpnored not only 
in their own locality but in many cases throughout the state and in other states. 

Yet the preparation of a history of the bar, so far at least as that part of 
it which lies back of one's own generation is concerned, is attended with con- 
siderable difficulty. Probably few men who in their time play important parts 
in the community or even in the state or nation, leave so transient a reputation 
as lawyers do. A writer on this subject who took for his text, "The Lawyers 
of Fifty Years Ago, ' ' said : ' ' In thinking over the names of these distinguished 
men of whom I have been speaking, the thought has come to me how evanescent 
and limited is the lawyer's reputation, both in time and space. 1 doubt very 
much if a lawyer, whatever his standing, is much known to the profession out- 
side of his own state." Those who attain high rank in the profession must 
realize that with rare exceptions, their names are "writ in water." One may 
turn over the leaves of old reports and find repeated again and again as counsel 
in different cases the name of some lawyer who must have been in his time a 
power in the courts, only to wonder if he has ever seen that name outside of 
the covers of the dusty reports in which it appears. Hamilton, in the conven- 
tions, in the Federalist and in the treasury, and Webster in the Senate and in 
public orations, have perpetuated and increased the fame of lawyers Hamilton 
and Webster ; but were it not for their services outside the strict limits of their 
profession, one might come upon their names at this date with much the same 
lack of recognition as that with which one finds in a reported case the names 
of some counsel, great perhaps in his own time, but long since forgotten. 

And there is another difficulty in preparing such a history as this, brief 
and therefore necessarily limited to a few names, and that is that some may be 
omitted who are quite as worthy of mention as those whose names appear. It 
is not often that any one man stands as a lawyer head and shoulders above the 
other members of the profession; and the same may be said of any half dozen 
men. In many cases the most careful measurement would fail to disclose a 
difference of more than a fraction of an inch, if any. Lives of eminent men 
who have at some period been practicing lawyers, have contained the assertion 
that while they were engaged in the practice of their profession they were the 
4 'leaders of the bar," but there is almost always room for doubt as to whether 
the title is not a brevet bestowed by the biographer alone. Therefore, the men- 
tion in this article of certain lawyers must not be taken as any disparagement 
of those who are not mentioned, and finally, it is to be observed that this article, 
so far as the bar is concerned, will treat not only of those members who are 
past and gone, but will make mention of some of those now in the flesh. 

Let us first consider the early courts, as provided for by the general gov- 
ernment during the existence of the state while then a part of the Territory of 
Michigan, Wisconsin, and under its own territorial laws; finally, the measures 
passed under the state constitutions creating judicial districts. 

Iowa has an interesting territorial history. By an act of Congress, approved 
June 28, 1834, the Iowa country was attached to the Territory of Michigan. On 

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April 20, 1836, it was made a part of the original Territory of Wisconsin ; and 
two years later, on June 12, 1838, Congress passed an act establishing the Ter- 
ritory of Iowa. After eight years of territorial existence, Iowa was admitted 
to the Union as a state on December 28, 1846. 

There really was no judicial districting of Iowa country during the two 
.years that it formed a part of the Territory of Michigan. However, on Sep- 
tember -6, 1834, by an act of the Legislative Council the territory lying west 
of the Mississippi and north of a line drawn due west from the lower end of 
Rock Island to the Missouri River was organized into the County of Dubuque. 
The territory south of this line was organized as the County of Des Moines. 

Moreover, section three of this act of the Legislative Council of the Terri- 
tory of Michigan provided that "a County Court shall be and hereby is estab- 
lished in each of the said counties;" while section six declared that "Process, 
civil and criminal, issued from the Circuit Court of the United States for the 
County of Iowa, shall run into all parts of said counties of Dubuque and Des 
Moines and shall be served by the sheriff or other proper officer, within either 
of said counties ; writs of error shall lie from the Circuit Court for the County 
of Iowa, to the county courts established by this act, in the same manner as 
they now issue from the Supreme Court to the several county and circuit courts 
of the territory. 

Thus it will be seen that during the Michigan period the Iowa country 
formed an area which was subject to the jurisdiction of the Circuit Coufrt of the 
United States for the County of Iowa. 

Section nine of the organic act establishing the original Territory of Wis- 
consin made provision for dividing the territory into three judicial districts. 
Accordingly, among the first acts passed by the First Legislative Assembly 
was one entitled "An act to establish the judicial districts of the Territory of 
Wisconsin, and for other purposes.' ' By this act the counties of Dubuque and 
Des Moines were constituted the Second Judicial District and Judge David 
Irwin, of the Supreme Court of the territory, was appointed district judge. 
During the Wisconsin period, therefore, the Iowa country formed a distinct and 
independent judicial district. 

The act of Congress dividing the Territory of Wisconsin and establishing 
the Territory of Iowa, provided that the new territory should be divided into 
three judicial districts and that each district should have a court presided over 
by one of the judges of the Supreme Court. Furthermore, and unless until 
the Legislature should pass some act of the state, the governor shall be given 
the power to divide the districts and assign the judges. In accordance with 
this provision William B. Conway, secretary of the territory, who had assumed 
the duties of acting governor prior to the arrival of Gov. Robert Lucas, issued 
on July 25, 1888. a proclamation dividing the territory into three judicial 
districts. The first district consisted of the counties of Clayton, Dubuque. Jack- 
son and Cedar and was assigned to Judge Thomas S. Wilson. Delaware County 
was one of those attached to Dubuque and consequently was in this district, 
and as we only have the status of Delaware County in mind, no attention will 
be paid to the other districts. 

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The first act of the Legislative Assembly of the Territory of Iowa, relative 
to judicial districts, was to divide the territory into three judicial districts, as 
follows. The First District was composed of the counties of Henry, Van Buren, 
Lee and Des Moines, and was assigned to Chief Justice Charles Mason. The 
Second District was composed of the counties of Louisa, Muscatine, Cedar, John- 
son and Slaughter, and assigned to Judge Joseph Williams. The Third District 
was composed of the counties of Jackson, Dubuque, Scott and Clayton, and 
assigned to Thomas S. Wilson. Delaware County was attached to Dubuque 
and consequently was a part of the Third Judicial District. 

The first constitution of the State of Iowa provided that "the judicial 
power shall be vested in a supreme court, district courts and such inferior 
courts as the General Assembly may from time to time establish." It was fur- 
ther provided that "the first session of the General Assembly shall divide the 
state into four districts, which may be increased as the exigencies of the case 
may require.' ' Accordingly, the four districts were created and Delaware was 
placed in the second, among the following counties: Muscatine, Scott, Cedar, 
Clinton, Jackson, Jones, Dubuque and Clayton. The counties north and west 
of Delaware and Clayton were attached to the County of Clayton for judicial 

The act of 1853 was "an act fixing the boundaries of the several judicial 
districts and the time of holding courts therein and constituted an entirely new 
district. By its provisions the state was divided into nine judicial districts 
and Delaware was assigned to the Second District, with Dubuque, Clayton, 
Cherokee, Winneshiek, Fayette, Buchanan, Black Hawk, Bremer, Chickasaw 
and Howard. 

Under the Constitution of 1857 the General Assembly passed "An act 
creating eleven judicial districts and defining their boundaries." Delaware by 
this measure was placed in the Ninth District, with Dubuque, Buchanan. Black 
Hawk and Grundy. 

An act was passed by the General Assembly in 1886, by which the judicial 
districts of the state were reorganized and eighteen districts created. By this 
rearrangement Delaware came into the Tenth District, with Dubuque, Buchanan, 
Black Hawk and Grundy, where it remains at the present day. By the Act 
of 1894 the Nineteenth Judicial District was created and section one provided 
"that the County of Dubuque shall hereafter constitute the Nineteenth Judi- 
cial District.' ' Section two defined the Tenth Judicial District as being com- 
posed of Delaware, Black Hawk and Grundy counties. This section was 
amended, so as to include Buchanan County. In 1896 the Twentieth Judicial 
District was created and now there are twenty judicial districts in the state. 

A number of able, painstaking men of high legal attainments and judicial 
capacity have presided over this court in Delaware County. The first one 
was Thomas S. Wilson, of Dubuque, who was not only judge when the county 
was in the Third District, but also when it was a part of the Second and Ninth 
districts. James Burt, of Dubuque, Sylvester Bagg, of Waterloo, Winslow T. 
Barker, of Dubuque, and John M. Brayton, of Delhi, presided over this court, 
among others, when Delaware County was in the Ninth Judicial District. Since 
assigned to the Tenth Judicial District a long list of judges have come here 

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to hold court, as the following names show : Judges, A. S. Blair, Manchester ; 
E. E. Cooley, Decorah; C. F. Couch, Waterloo; L. 0. Hatch, McGregor; J. L. 
Husted, Waterloo; D. J. Lenahan, Dubuque; Milo McGlathery, West Union; 
Charles W. Mullan, Waterloo; Samuel Murdoch, Elkader; John J. Nye, Inde- 
pendence; Reuben Nobles, McGregor; Fred O'Donnell, Dubuque; Franklin C. 
Piatt, Waterloo; Charles E. Ransier, Independence; James J. Tollerton, Cedar 
Falls. The present judges of the district are Franklin C. Piatt, Waterloo; 
George W. Dunham, Manchester ; and Charles W. Mullan, Waterloo. 

Under the Territorial Act of 1844, whereby the Third Judicial District was 
created and the placing of Delaware therein, it was provided that the District 
Court should be held at Delhi, the county seat, on the first Monday after the 
fourth Monday in September of each year. Soon after the passage of the act 
Charles W. Hobbs was appointed clerk pro tern, of the United States District 
Court for the County of Delaware, by Judge T. S. Wilson. On the day set 
apart for convening of the first District Court in Delaware County, judge, 
officials, jurors, litigants and lawyers (?) were on hand, as the following 
excerpt from the clerk's record attests: 
Territory of Iowa, County of Delaware, ss. 

"This being the day fixed by law, to wit, 30th of September, 1844, for the 
session of the District Court of the United States for said county, the court met. 
Present, Hon. Thomas S. Wilson, one of the judges of the Supreme Court and 
presiding judge of the Third Judicial District; William E. Leffingwell, United 
States marshal; John W. Penn, sheriff; and Charles W. Hobbs, clerk pro tern. 

"By order of the court, the sheriff returned into court the venire for a 
grand jury, issued in behalf of said county, the following persons summoned 
and in attendance, viz: Gilbert D. Dillon, Henry Baker, John Stansberry, 
Samuel Dickson, Oliver P. Anderson, Edward Flinn, John Bradley, Daniel 
Noble, John Keeler, Fayette Phillips, Allen Wilson, Hiram Minkler, Adin 
Paddleford, David Moreland, Daniel G. Beck, Morris M. Reed, Joel Bailey, 
Drake Nelson, Ezra Hubbard and Liberty W. Cole." 

It should be remembered that the first courthouse, built by the settlers, was 
a very crude affair and for some years stood without a roof, owing to inability 
of the county to raise funds for its completion. The upper story, designed for 
a jury room, was reached by an outside ladder, and with no roof and a single 
floor, was considered too open and public to be used for the purpose designed. 
So that, after the jury had been instructed by Judge Wilson as to their duties, 
that body was taken, under escort of United States Marshal Leffingwell, to a 
little grove, a short distance southwest of the primitive temple of justice, for 
deliberation. David Moreland, foreman, sat on a stump, while his fellow jurors 
accommodated themselves to all that Nature had provided for them in the way 
of seats. There was little to be done by the grand jury. No complaints were 
presented and consequently, they found no "true bills." There being no 
necessity for a petit jury this first term, no summons were issued for a panel. 
One day finished the business of the court and on the evening of the 30th of 
September, 1844, the term was ended. 

The only name appearing on record as an attorney at this time was that of 
James Crawford. "At this time," Judge Wilson is said to have related, "the 

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log courthouse was the only building in Delhi. Mr. Hobbs, the clerk, had a 
little cabin in which he was living *west of the courthouse. The road had not 
been opened to Delhi from Rockville, and I was obliged to go by way of the 
military road and up to Hopkinton, where I stayed over night with Mr. (Leroy) 
Jackson. The next day I went to Delhi and held court, and took my dinner 
out of Mr. Moreland's wagon.' ' It is a far cry from the days of Judge Wilson 
and Delhi's roofless courthouse and Judge Dunham and Manchester's beautiful 
temple of justice. 

The second term of court was a special one, commencing April I, 1845, 
Judge Thomas S. Wilson, presiding. The grand jury was made up of Leroy 
Jackson, foreman; James Eads, Robert B. Hutson, William H. Martin, Lucius 
Kibbee, Jr., Phipps Wiltse, Malcolm McBane, Lawrence McNamee, Missouri 
Dickson, Robert Gamble, Daniel Brown, Moses Dean, William Phillips, Silas 
Gilmore, James Cavanaugh, Henry W. Hoskins and John Hinkle. 

The case of Missouri Dickson vs. Ezra Hubbard, an action to recover pay 
for the building of a chimney, was continued from the first term and tried by 
the first petit jury impanelled, which consisted of the following named per- 
sons: John Flinn, 0. A. Olmstead, John Paddleford, Eli Wood, Orlean Blanch- 
ard, S. V. Thompson? Levi Billings, Jacob Dubois, James Collier, Samuel P. 
Whitaker, John Corbin and John Clark. Timothy Davis, attorney for Hub- 
bard; Gen. James Wilson for Dickson. The plaintiff was given a verdict for 

The first criminal case was that of the United States vs. Jefferson Lowe, 
for the murder of Drury R. Dance, details of which crime are given on another 
page of this volume. Lowe's attorney was Gen. James Wilson. James Craw- 
ford was prosecuting attorney for the district, and was assisted by Timothy 
Davis. Lowe was acquitted but public opinion was strongly against him and 
the verdict was not a very popular one. 

At this term, as far as is known, James Crawford, James Wilson, Timothy 
Davis and William Hamilton were the only lawyers in attendance, and for 
some years thereafter but few members of the bar had located in the county. 
Probably the first lawyer to settle at Delhi was Arial K. Eaton. Of him and 
other lawyers of the Delaware bar, Col. John H. Peters, one of its oldest and 
ablest members, has given for this article the following impressions. He says: 

"I was admitted to the bar in Connecticut, then immigrated to Illinois and 
practiced in the latter state a year or eighteen months. My associate in Illinois 
was one Tom Turner, who had a friend here in the person of a Methodist 
preacher. Turner induced me to come here and defend the preacher, so I did, 
making my way to Delaware County on horseback. This was about the year 
1852, and upon my arrival in Delhi I found Arial K. Eaton already enjoying 
a practice at the bar. He was probably the first lawyer to take up a permanent 
residence in the old county seat. When I met him he was a man of middle 
age and I soon discovered he was more of a politician than a lawyer. He in- 
duced me, however, to locate in Delhi and we had arranged to enter the practice 
together but he was appointed receiver of the land district at Washington and 
pulled out. ' 

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' 'The next lawyer to settle in Delhi, if my memory serves me right, was 
Daniel Baker, a man of but little education and a lawyer of no very great 
ability or attainments. 

"Zina A. Wellman came from the State of New York and located here for 
the practice of his profession. He was well read in the principles of law but 
had no pugnacious attribute in his composition. He was easily discouraged and 
did not amount to much of a lawyer. I practiced with him about a year but 
never could get a decision from him on any legal question of importance. He 
died a few years ago in Cherokee. 

"A. E. House was a natural lawyer. If he had had energy in proportion to 
his ability, he would have made one of the best attorneys of the state, for he 
was highly successful. House was a major in the Sixth Iowa Cavalry and 
fought the Indians in the Northwest for three years. He returned to Delhi 
but never practiced after he got back and died three or four years ago in the 
insane asylum at Independence. 

"Col. N. L. Ingalls came from Jefferson County, New York, two or three 
years after Colonel Peters, and located at Delhi. Col. S. O. Van Anda appeared 
about the same time. Ingalls was a finely educated man and successful law- 
yer. Van Anda was also a good lawyer. The latter died in an insane asylum 
at Independence. Ingalls went to Kansas on a visit, which was coupled with a 
business matter, took sick, died and was buried there. 

"William Crozier stood high at this bar and was a very fine lawyer. He 
only practiced a year or two, however, and then went int6 the army. 

"Wesley A. Heath had a natural legal mind and I think was as fine a 
draftsman of legal papers as any lawyer in Delaware County, but he was ex- 
tremely modest. We practiced together for years. He would prepare a case 
so thoroughly that I could take his brief and try the cause as if it was my own. 
He spent his last days in Delhi and was buried there. 

"George Wattson and his brother John were both fairly good lawyers but 
intemperate habits got the better of them, so that they failed to prove a success 
in their chosen profession. 

" J. M. Brayton practiced under the firm name of House, Brayton & Wattson. 
He was elected to the bench in 1871 when this county formed a part of the 
Ninth Judicial District. ,He had not the judicial mind of an order that fitted 
him for the bench, so that his friends prevailed upon him to resign from the 
position he had attained. 

"Jerome B. Satterlee was one of Delaware County's able lawyers. For 
some years past he has been in the land department at Washington. 

"Samuel Hussey and Eli C. Perkins early began practice at Delhi and the 
latter is still enjoying a good legal business. 

"Ray B. Griffin was a good lawyer but had only a limited practice, as he 
devoted most of his time to speculation in real estate, in which he was very 
successful and became a large landowner. His practice was confined mostly to 
real-estate matters. Mr. Griffin served the county both as treasurer and re 
corder. He died some years ago while attending to some business matters at 

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" Charles S. Crosby was a very good lawyer and at one time was attorney- 
general of New Hampshire. He was a large hearted man and was well equipped 
with a thorough education. He lived in Manchester but has long since passed 
away. He was a brother of a member of the firm of Washburn-Crosby, the 
great millers of the Northwest. 

" Simeon L. Doggett located in Delhi about 1858. He was a good man, a 
leader in the Congregational Church and was justice of the peace while he 
lived here. He had no force, however, and was not a success as a lawyer. He 
moved away some years ago and is now deceased. 

' ' Charles Husted had a natural legal mind and was well versed in the prin- 
ciples of law but did not succeed in practice. He was a soldier in the Twenty- 
first Iowa Infantry and died some years since. One of his daughters, Mrs. 
Robert Denton, resides in Manchester. 

" Dennis Ryan was admitted to the bar at Delhi, having read in the office 
of Griffin & Crosby. He practiced but very little here and finally removed to 
one of the Dakotas, where he continued in practice with more success. He is 
still living.' ' 

Of the present members of the Delaware County bar but little will be said 
in this place, as sketches of many of the more prominent ones can be found in 
the second volume. Col. John H. Peters is the nestor of the bar and is enjoy- 
ing the shady side of life in retirement. He came to the county about the year 
1852 from Freeport, Illinois, to which place he had removed from Hartford, 
Connecticut. He was one of the leading lawyers of his day and is the only 
living member of that body of men who gave to the State of Iowa its present 
constitution, which was adopted in the year 1857. Colonel Peters made a bril- 
liant record in the Civil war. 

Charles E. Bronson was born at Lee Center, Oneida County, New York, 
November 21, 1841, came to Iowa City with his parents in 1*855, studied law 
with the firm of Fairall & Beal, was admitted to the bar in 1866, and came 
directly to Manchester, where he practiced law until his death. In 1868 he 
married Jennie E. Shelden, who still resides in Manchester. Unto this worthy 
couple were born five sons, four of whom are still living and one of them, 
Henry, is practicing law in Manchester. Charley Bronson was elected to the 
State Senate in 1877 and made a valuable member. One of the prominent 
business men of Manchester was asked the question why he always consulted 
Charley Bronson. He replied, "because he is a good lawyer and an honest 
man." When Charles E. Bronson passed away Manchester lost one of its best 
citizens. For many years he was the senior member of the law firm of Bronson 
& Carr. 

Judge Blair came to Delaware County from -Huron County, Ohio, in 1858, 
his parents locating in Delaware County in 1855. Here the father, David J., 
died in 1861, and the mother followed him some years later. Judge Blair re- 
ceived a collegiate education in the Buckeye state and read law at Norwalk, 
Ohio, where he was admitted to the bar in 1854. He was a lawyer by nature 
as well as by adoption and has been very active in the profession. He traveled 
the circuit in early days and became what is known as an " all around lawyer." 
While actively engaged in the profession, he had a large practice, many of his 

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eases being of more than ordinary importance. He was elected to the bench 
and served as judge of the District Court from 1894 until 1906, opening the 
first term of court held in the new courthouse at Manchester in 1894. 

Calvin Yoran, senior member of the firm of Yoran & Yoran, came from his 
native state, New York, to Delaware in 1870. He began the practice of law in 
1871, at Manchester, at which time he was admitted to the bar. He is still in 
practice here and is one of the leading men at Manchester in his profession. 

E. ]$.. Carr is not only one of the leading members of the Delaware County 
bar, but also is recognized as an editorial writer of force and fluency. He is a 
native of New York and of Irish parentage. Mr. Carr immigrated to Iowa 
with his parents in 1856 and located in Buchanan County. His entry at the 
State University culminated in graduation from its law department in 1872. 
Locating at Manchester that year, Mr. Carr formed a partnership with Ray B. 
Griffin, which continued until 1884, when the firm of Bronson & Carr was 
formed. Since Mr. Bronson 's death he has practiced alone and at the same 
time given attention to his newspaper, the Manchester Democrat. 

William H. Norris has been a very successful lawyer at this bar, coming 
with his parents to Iowa from Massachusetts in 1861. He received a common- 
school education, spent a short time in college, taught school, and in 1881 grad- 
uated from the law department of the State University. He removed to Man- 
chester in 1882 and began the practice of his profession. The next year he 
formed a partnership with A. S. Blair, which continued four years. In 1888 
the firm of Blair, Dunham & Norris was formed and continued for some years 
as the leading law firm of the county. Mr. Norris is not only prominently 
identified with this bar, but is also largely interested in several banks of the 

E. B. Stiles is the present county attorney. He is a son of E. R. Stiles, a 
former pastor of the Congregational Church. E. B. was superintendent of the 
Manchester schools for several years. He then read law, was admitted to the 
bar and commenced the practice in Manchester. He is not only an able law- 
yer but a Christian gentleman and one of Manchester's reliable citizens, having 
before him a bright future. 

Those practicing at the Delaware County bar at the present time are : E. B. 
Stiles, W. H. Norris, R. W. Thrill, Henry Bronson, Arnold & Arnold (H. F. 
and Floyd H. Arnold), Carr & Carr (E. M. and Hubert Carr), J. H. Peters, Hugh 
Clemans, Fred B. Blair, A. M. Cloud, Yoran & Yoran (Calvin and Melvin J. 
Yoran), at Manchester; P. M. Cloud and W. I. Millen, Earlville; E. C. Per- 
kins, Delhi. 

Vol. i —u 

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Not many years were permitted to pass, after Delaware County got out of 
her swaddling clothes, before the newspaper man made his appearance "to 
supply a long felt want" He came in the year 1853, in the person of Datus 
E. Coon, who founded the Delhi Argus at the then county seat. Editor Coon 
published the Argus about one year and then sold the paper to GL W. Field. 
At the outbreak of hostilities between the northern and southern states, Coon 
entered the army and rose to the rank of brigadier-general. J. L. Noble, who 
handled the roller and applied the ink to the forms of the Argus, under Coon's 
regime, also went into the volunteer service and gained the rank of captain. 
Field continued the editorship of the Argus until the fall of 1856, when he 
gave way to Charles F. Hobbs, who soon sustained a loss of part of his plant 
by fire. Hobbs continued the paper under its old name until 1858, when he 
changed it to the Delhi Democrat. Enlarging the forms for a seven-column 
paper, Mr. Hobbs gave his patrons the local and foreign news and prospered in 
his endeavors to "make good." Finally Hobbs sold out to C. L. Hayes, and 
later the firm name became Hayes & Corbett, who sold to Rev. L. S. Ashbaugh. 
Then came Dr. James Wright, county clerk, as part proprietor and later J. L. 
McCreery purchased an interest. 


On January 1, 1859, James L. Noble secured the interests of L. S. Ash- 
baugh in the Democrat and later transferred them to J. L. McCreery who, 
now being sole owner, changed the name to the Delaware County Journal, and 
continued the publication until January, 1864, when he removed the plant to 
Dubuque. In the following month of March the material was sold to Edward 
Burnside, who moved it to Manchester and it became a part of the Delaware 
County Union outfit. 


The Iowa News came into existence at Delhi in 1860 and lived about one 
year. The founder and owner, Charles L. Hayes, sold the material, which 
was taken to Anamosa. 


This paper was established March 24, 1871, by J. A. Cole, as the Earlville 
Sun, at Earlville. C. Sanborn purchased it in June following, removed the 


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plant to Delhi and named it the Delaware County Recorder. In August, 1872, 
J. B. Swinburne became its owner and brought it out as the Delhi Monitor. 
He continued its publication until some time in the '808, when it was suspended. 


The Journal, at Delhi, suspended publication in the winter of 1863-64. The 
material was purchased by Edward Burnside, $300 of the purchase money hav- 
ing been subscribed by Manchester people, who greatly desired a newspaper. 
The plant was removed to Manchester and with it the first issue of the Dela- 
ware County Union appeared March 25, 1864. Mr. Burnside died in 1866 and 
in January, 1867, the paper passed into the hands of L. L. Ayer, who enlarged 
the sheet to a seven-column folio. The Union became the official organ of the 
republican party, but that did not save it from starving to death. On December 
ber 3, 1872, the Delaware County Union gave up the ghost and the body, being 
dismembered, was divided between H. L. Rann, of the Press, and J. B. Swin- 
burne, of the Delhi Monitor. 

earlville 's defunct papers 

The Nottingham Observer was started at Earlville in the spring of 1859, 
by Ed Stanton, and ceased to exist six months later. 

The Earlville Sun already has been mentioned. Two other papers later 
were published in Earlville and finally submitted to force of circumstances. 
The Gazette was established by W. A. Hutton, December 31, 1875, who soon 
sold to N. Rose & Son. The latter changed the name to The Commercial, the 
first number of whieh appeared May 26, 1876. In April, 1877, the last paper 
was published. The Earlville Record was another unfortunate that was born 
on December 19, 1877, J. V. and J. A. Matthews being its sponsors. The Record 
long since has passed away. 


C. Starr Barre founded the Earlville Graphic in 1882 and this publication 
flourished under Barre 's efficient editorial and mechanical management up to 
1887, when the Graphic plant was destroyed by the fire that devastated the 
entire business section of the town. It was but a few months, however, before 
there was another printing office ready and equipped for newspaper work and 
the new publication was appropriately named The Earlville Phoenix. Mr. 
Barre later sold the plant to Albert Knowles, who was succeeded by a company 
that published the paper under the firm name of the Phoenix Publishing Com- 
pany. In 1889 the plant was purchased of Charles E. McCannon, who was suc- 
ceeded in 1890 by Miss Christie Scroggie. After two years Miss Scroggie sold 
the plant to Charles A. Durne. In November, 1894, J. B. Swinburne became 
the owner of the plant and The Phoenix under his management became a news- 
paper of wide circulation and for a few years five papers were printed each 
week at the Phoenix plant. The extra editions were named The Colesburg 
Clipper, The Delhi Monitor, The Greeley Graphic and The Worthington Watch- 

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man. In September, 1901, R. V. Lucas, of Bedford, Iowa, purchased the plant 
and successfully conducted the paper until 1905, when he sold the business to 
P. M. Cloud and James Rogers. Mr. Lucas resigned from his position as post- 
master at Earlville after disposing of the newspaper property, and P. M. 
Cloud succeeded him in that position. Cloud & Rogers secured the service of 
Albert Voit aa manager and editor of The Phoenix. Mr. Rogers severed his 
interests in the paper in 1907, and in 1909 Mr. Cloud sold the plant to Albert 
Voit and he conducted the paper until January 1, 1914, when a partnership was 
formed with Arthur J. Rogers. The plant has been refurnished, new machin- 
ery and material added and the paper increased in size. It is well edited, has 
a large circulation and is well patronized by the advertising public. 


A quite newsey, neatly printed local paper is the Home Press, published at 
Greeley. It was established March 5, 1897, by Victor E. Dow, present owner 
and publisher, and is a six-column quarto, with four pages home print. 


E. E. Coakley, a Delaware County boy, is editor and proprietor of the Ryan 
Reporter, a well edited and readable weekly paper, that gives its large list of 
subscribers the local and foreign news. Mr. Coakley established his paper in 
one of the best trading points in Delaware County and issued its first number 
January 19, 1899. It is a six-column quarto, with two pages home print. 


The Leader, one of the best edited and printed newspapers in Delaware 
County, was established at Hopkinton in 1888. The Leader reflects the opin- 
ions of the neighborhood, has a good* patronage, and its editor and publisher, 
W. S. Beels, has made a splendid success in the journalistic field of the college 


The Manchester Press, the oldest paper in the county, in point of continuous 
publication, was established in June, 1871, by the late H. L. Rann, father of 
the present publisher. Mr. Rann got the paper well on its feet and in 1874 
sold it to the late C. Sanborn, going to St. Louis to engage in the job printing 
business. Finding the St. Louis enterprise of doubtful value, Mr. Rann returned 
to Manchester after an absence of two years and bought out Mr. Sanborn. 
He continued the publication of The Press until his death in May, 1897, when 
the paper came under the management of his son. 

The Press was started as an eight-column paper of four pages and later 
increased to eight pages, four of which consisted of what was known as the 
Kellogg " patent insides" service, later taken over and developed by the West- 
ern Newspaper Union. As time went on, the demands of the business made 
necessary reduction of the ready-print pages to two, and in June, 1914, the 

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paper was converted into a twelve-page edition of six columns to the page, 
printed entirely at home. 

The Press has always endeavored to keep fully abreast of the times with 
respect to the modernity of its equipment. It boasted the first pow^r press 
in the county, the first type-setting machine (the Simplex), and the first lino- 
type (the Junior). In January, 1913, the paper moved into a handsome new 
home on the corner of Main and Madison streets, a brick building designed 
with especial reference to its needs and equipped with every convenience and 
utility. The plant now consists of a Model 8 linotype, a Cottrell drum cylinder, 
two jobbers, Omaha folder, power cutter, and other equipment in keeping with 
modern ideas. The machinery is operated by individual motors, and the build- 
ing has its own steam plant. 

With a view to further modernizing the business The Press is one of the 
few weekly newspapers of the state maintaining a thorough and accurate cost 
system and a cash-in-advance system of subscription settlements. There is not 
a delinquent subscriber on its list, which is well toward the three thousand mark. 

The Press has educated or employed nearly all of the pioneer printers of the 
county, such as Frank B. Gregg, "Joe" Thompson, "Lute" Fisk, "Wood" 
Jewell, Edward Andrews, and others. For a time, in its earliest days, it was 
published in quarters on the third floor of what is now the Globe Hotel, later 
removed to offices over the A. C. Philipp pharmacy, then to the first floor and 
basement of the Thorpe Building on the corner of Main and Madison, from 
which location it was definitely removed to its present home. 

The Press has always been a staunch and uncompromising republican news- 
paper, and particularly under the management of the late H. L. Rami, its 
founder, established a high standing for the clarity and strength of its editorial 
page. It has sought to serve its people faithfully and well, to what effect can 
best be judged by those who have so long given it their support and confidence. 


The Manchester Democrat was established and its first number was issued 
January 13, 1875, by F. B. Gregg, proprietor and publisher. L. L. Ayres was 
editor. Politically the paper was democratic and has so remained ever since. 
After a few months Mr. Gregg retired and the paper passed into the hands of 
the Democrat Publishing Company, a corporation, of which the late Nixon 
Denton was president, and E. M. Carr, secretary. This company continued 
the publication of the paper until the 3d day of July, 1878. L. L. Ayres con- 
tinued as editor until the 17th of April, 1878, from which date until the 3d of 
the following July it was edited and published by the Democrat Publishing 
Company. The late Charles E. Bronson and E. M. Carr became sole owners 
of the newspaper and dissolved the corporation, and the firm of Bronson & Carr 
commenced the publication of the Manchester Democrat on July 10, 1878, and 
continued to publish and edit the paper until March 22, 1905, when the part- 
nership was enlarged by Hubert Carr and Henry Bronson becoming members 
of the firm, and thereafter and until the death of the senior member, which 
took place on the 18th day of November, 1908, the newspaper was published 
and edited by the firm of Bronson, Carr & Sons. 

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After Mr. Bronson 's death the newspaper was published and edited by the 
firm of Carr, Bronson & Carr, a copartnership consisting of E. M. Carr, Henry 
Bronson and Hubert Carr, until the 24th day of October, 1912, when Henry 
Bronson sold his interest in the paper to Wade E. Long and Fred W. Herman, 
and since that date the newspaper has been published and edited by the firm 
of Carr, Carr, Long & Herman, a copartnership consisting of E. M. Carr, 
Hubert Carr, Wade E. Long and Fred W. Herman. 

The publishers of the Democrat during all the years of its existence have 
strived to make it a clean, reliable newspaper ; a paper that would not cdntain 
anything that could not with propriety be read in any company; a paper that 
would not contain anything that any man would not be willing for his wife and 
children to read. The paper has at all times enjoyed a good patronage and it 
has been a financial success. It is now one of the best country newspapers in 
the state. 


With her many ups and downs, Delhi, first seat of justice of Delaware 
County, still glories in that intangible treasure, Fame. Lost to her is the erst- 
while proud eminence as a county seat and no longer remains to her the prized 
privilege of entertaiiling judges, lawyers and disputatious litigants. Her capitol 
building remains standing, silent and alone, in its beautiful park; but its walls 
echo no longer forensic speech of jurist or counsellor. The days for all such 
have passed away and now the historic pile is headquarters for a fast dwindling 
remnant of the Union's defenders in the Civil war. But, Delhi is proud of her 
past and still retains an illustrious position in history, for in her younger days 
a poet was given to the place, whose one sweet song preserved, will live down 
into the ages. The writer of the poem which follows, the late J. L. McCreery, 
was a resident of Delhi from 1861 to 1865 and edited the Journal during that 
period of time. He then went to Dubuque and attached himself to the Times 
of that city. McCreery was a man of more than ordinary accomplishments 
and was rather versatile in natural abilities. The poem, "There Is No Death,' ' 
was written while he was doing newspaper work in Delhi in an humble way. 
It received instant attention and was generously copied by publications in this 
country and in Europe. The authorship was given to many, among whom was 
the great classic, Lord Lytton of England. It might be here stated, by way of 
parenthesis, that Mr. McCreery was also superintendent of schools when he 
gave to the world the beautiful words preserved in the lines below. He is the 
author, and the compiler of this history only renders him due credit by preserv- 
ing the poem for future generations in this volume: 


There is no death ! the stars go down 

To rise upon some other shore, 
And bright in heaven's jeweled crown 

They shine for evermore. 

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There is no death ! the forest leaves 
Convert to life the viewless air ; 

The rocks disorganize to feed 
The hungry moss they bear. 

There is no death ! the dust we tread 

Shall change, beneath the summer showers, 

To golden grain, or mellow fruit, 
Or rainbow tinted flowers. 

There is no death ! the leaves may fall, 
The flowers may fade and pass away — 

They only wait, through wintry hours, 
The warm, sweet breath of May. 

There is no death ! the choicest gifts 
That heaven hath kindly lent to earth 

Are ever first to seek again 
The country of their birth. 

And all things that for growth or joy 
Are worthy of our love or care, 

Whose loss has left us desolate, 
Are safely garnered there. 

Though life become a dreary waste, 
We know its fairest, sweetest flowers, 

Transplanted into paradise, 
Adorn immortal bowers. 

There is no death! although we grieve 
When beautiful familiar forms 

That we have learned to love are torn 
From our embracing arms. 

Although with bowed and breaking heart, 
With sable garb and silent tread, 

We bear their senseless dust to rest, 
And say that they are "dead." 

They are not dead ! they have but passed 
Beyond the mists that blind us here 

Into the new and larger life 
Of that serener sphere. 

They have but dropped their robe of clay 
To put their shining raiment on ; 

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They have not wandered far away — 
They are not "lost" or "gone." 

Though disenthralled and glorified, 

They still are here and love us yet ; 
The dear ones they have left behind 

They never can forget. 

And sometimes when our hearts grow faint, 

Amid temptations fierce and deep, 
Or when the wildly raging waves 

Of grief or passion sweep, 

We feel upon our fevered brow 

Their gentle touch, their breath of balm : 
Their arms enfold us and our hearts 

Grow comforted and calm. 

And ever near us, though unseen, 

The dear, immortal spirits tread; 
For all the boundless universe 

Is life — "there are no dead/' 

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The first railroad built into and across Delaware County was the Dubuque 
& Pacific. In close connection with this company was the Iowa Land Company, 
which provided for the right of way, secured building sites and laid out towns. 
Construction on the road began in 1855, between Dubuque and Dyersville, and 
was nearly completed to the latter point in December, 1856. In the following 
spring, trains were running to Dyersville, and in December, 1857, the road was 
in operation as far as Earlville. The rails were not laid to Manchester until 
the fall of 1859. The depot was built on the west side of the river. The road 
subsequently passed into the hands of the Dubuque & Sioux City Railroad 
Company, and, in 1870, was leased for a period of twenty years to the Illinois 
Central. That corporation now has full control of the line and it forms one 
of the important branches of the great Illinois Central system of railroads. 


The building of the Davenport & St. Paul Railroad is due mainly to the 
indomitable energy and determination of a coterie of Delhi's business men. 
The Dubuque & Pacific (Illinois Central) road had been completed across the 
county in the year 1860, and left Delhi, the county seat at that time, high and 
dry, three miles south. Delhi, thus isolated, in company with other towns of 
the county, determined to relieve the situation. In the fall of 1867, F. B. Doo- 
little and Col. John H. Peters got their heads together and after long delibera- 
tion concluded they would take the initiative by opening a correspondence with 
railroad men, and others interested in the proposition to build a road from 
Clinton, or some other point on the Mississippi River, to a point in Payette 
County. The letters of Colonel Peters were given due respect and in January, 
1868, enough interest in the project had been awakened to secure a meeting at 
Cascade that year, attended by men of influence from Fayette, Strawberry 
Point, Greeley, Delhi, Hopkinton, Maquoketa and DeWitt. The discussion at 
this meeting was upon the feasibility of building a railroad from Clinton north- 
ward, and resulted in the temporary organization of the Iowa & Minnesota 
Grand Trunk Railroad Company. The officers elected at this time were George 
W. Trumbull, president; J. M. King, secretary; C. M. Dunbar, treasurer. A 
committee, also, was selected to draw up articles of incorporation. 

The next meeting was held at Maquoketa, in February, 1868, to consider 
the question of route and other details, but no result was reached until the 
meeting in April following, held at Hopkinton, when W. A. Heath and F. B. 
Doolittle reported the drafting of articles of incorporation, which was adopted 
and then the company completed its organization. The incorporators were: 


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P. B. Doolittle, H. S. Bronson, Richard Boon, Benjamin Burch, M. 0. Barnes, 
G. C. Croston, Z. G. Allen and W. H. Pinley. 

But by this time the road's prospects as relating to Clinton were not en- 
couraging and Delhi promoters were far from feeling jubilant. However, 
a combine between Fayette, Strawberry Point, Delaware, Delhi, Hopkinton 
and Greeley, formed an agreement to stick together and fight for each other's 
interests. In May, Messrs. Bronson, Boon, Barnes, Doolittle, Finley and others 
went to Davenport, where they met leading men of that city and proposed to 
them to make Davenport the eastern terminus and give them the control of the 
road if they entered the combination. Davenport became interested and the 
company name was changed to the Davenport & St. Paul Railroad Company, 
with the following named directors: Benjamin Burch and H. S. Bronson, 
Payette; G. Allen, Brush Creek; Richard Boon, Delaware; P. B. Doolittle, 
Delhi ; W. H. Finley, Hopkinton ; John L. Davis, Michael Donahue, Davenport ; 
G. C. Croston, Cascade. 

Subscription books were at once opened. Delhi was expected to subscribe 
$40,000, Hopkinton, $3,000, Delaware, $15,000, Greeley, $10,000, and " Yankee 
Settlement" (Edge wood), $5,000. Judge Doolittle, in charge of the Delaware 
County books, soon secured in subscriptions the allotment of $100,000 assessed. 
An engineer was employed and paid by the men above named, to make a pre- 
liminary survey and other substantial preparations were made. 

At a meeting held in Delhi in August, 1868, William H. Holmes, of Daven- 
port, was elected president, and W. A. Heath, of Delhi, secretary, upon the 
resignation of their predecessors in office, and at the annual election, held at 
Davenport in January, 1869, Holmes and Heath were reelected; M. O. Barnes 
was elected vice president, and R. Eddy, treasurer. At this meeting it was 
officially learned the required amount of stock had been subscribed and every- 
thing looked favorable for the outcome of the enterprise. But the Supreme 
Court interposed, by declaring the voting of a tax by towns to aid in the con- 
struction of railroads was unconstitutional. This was the hardest blow of all 
to the towns so desirous of securing the road. But a meeting was held at Daven- 
port in January, 1869, at which time and place the Davenport people showed 
the white feather and declared they were ready to quit Delhi, but the other 
Delaware County towns were not so disposed and made it clear to Davenport 
that they were determined to go ahead and if Davenport failed to stand with 
them, some other point would be chosen. After several meetings and lengthy 
discussions, Davenport decided to stay with the proposition and then the re- 
quired amount of subscriptions, to make up for the loss occasioned by the 
Supreme Court's decision, was sought and obtained, with the help of a law 
passed by the Legislature of 1869-70, enabling towns to vote a 5 per cent tax. 
In the summer of 1870 contracts were let for grading, bridging and laying of 
ties the whole length of the road from Davenport to Fayette. Work commenced 
in this county in September of that year, under the management of Judge 
Doolittle. Col. John H. Peters and W. A. Heath, of Delhi, were attorneys for 
the road and with these men, having their hearts and souls bound up in the 
winning of their fight, the road was completed in the fall of 1872 and by Sep- 
tember of that year trains were running to Delhi. The depot was built there 
in September and S. S. Summers was placed in charge as agent. Some years 

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later the road became and is now operated as a part of the Chicago, Milwaukee 
& St. Paul Railroad system. 


This road was built in 1886-7 and enters the county on section 25, in Bremen 
Township, and taking a northwesterly direction makes its exit at section 19, 
Richland Township. It maintains four stations in the county — Almoral, Oneida, 
where it crosses the Davenport & St. Paul, Thorpe and Dundee. 


The Manchester & Oneida Railway Company adopted articles of incorpora- 
tion on the 12th day of April, 1900. The first provisional board of directors 
consisted of the following named persons : E. M. Carr, Albert Hollister, B. W. 
Jewell, A. S. Blair, S. A. Steadman, J. W. Miles, W. A. Abbott, W. D. Hogan, 
Joseph Hutchinson, W. L. Drew, Charles J. Seeds, W. N. Wolcott, Charles A. 
Peterson, E. H. Hoyt and William Hockaday. 

This board of directors elected the following named officers: President, E. 
M. Carr; vice president, S. A. Steadman; secretary, B. W. Jewell; assistant 
secretary, W. A. Abbott ; treasurer, Charles J. Seeds ; auditor, Joseph Hutchinson. 

The object of the corporation was to build and operate a railway from the 
City of Manchester to the Town of Oneida, and in that way give the City of 
Manchester shipping facilities over the Chicago Great Western and the Chicago, 
Milwaukee & St. Paul railways. 

Four-fifths of the electors of Manchester petitioned the city council to order 
an election for the purpose of voting a 5 per cent tax on the assessed value 
of the property of the city, to aid in the construction of the Manchester & 
Oneida Railway. At the election held in pursuance of said notice, on the 7th 
of May, 1900, the tax carried by an overwhelming majority. There were 1,118 
ballots cast at the election. Five hundred and ninety-four men voted in favor 
of the tax; and 70 against; 423 women voted in favor of the tax; and 31 
against. This vote showed conclusively that Manchester had commenced to 
stand up for better shipping facilities and that the powers that had held her 
down for so many years would have to either bend or break. Before the ex- 
piration of thirty days after the voting of the tax, an engineer corps was at 
work locating the line, and upwards of fourteen thousand dollars worth of 
stock had been subscribed for. 

The offers of all foreign promoters, brokers and contractors for the construc- 
tion of the road were declined and a Manchester corporation, called the Man- 
chester Construction Company, composed of the following named men, was 
organized: Joseph Hutchinson, M. F. LeRoy, A. A. Morse, E. M. Carr, Albert 
Hollister, William Hockaday, H. C. Haeberle, E. H. Hoyt, J. J. Hoag and 
W. N. Wolcott. 

These ten men signed a written agreement that they would each take an 
equal part of the company's $25,000 capital stock. There were several more 
whose names did not appear as incorporators, who became interested in the 

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company. The ten men signing the agreement constituted the company's pro- 
visional board of directors, and they elected the following as officers of the 
construction company, which commenced to transact business on the 1st day 
of September, 1900: President, Joseph Hutchinson; vice president, William 
Hockaday; secretary, H. C. Haeberle; treasurer, M. F. LeRoy; auditor, E. EL 

The railway company forthwith contracted with this construction company, 
and the grading contracts were all let before the first of the following October. 
Morse & Son, of Manchester, took the contract for grading the four miles nearest 
the city, and other contractors commenced work on the remaining portion of 
the line. An endeavor was made to complete the grading before the end of 
the year, but unfavorable weather caused delays which retarded the work, and 
some of the grading had to be carried over until the following spring. 

At the first annual meeting of the stockholders of the road, which was held 
at the council rooms in Manchester, on Tuesday evening, April 2, 1901, the 
following board of directors, consisting of fifteen members — five to serve one 
year, five to serve two years, and five to serve three years — was elected: A 
Hollister, M. F. LeRoy, A. A. Morse, C. A. Peterson and B. W. Jewell were 
elected directors to serve one year; E. M. Carr, J. W. Miles, C. J. Seeds, E. H. 
Hoyt and W. N. Wolcott were elected directors to serve for two years; and 
A. S. Blair, W. L. Drew, W. A. Abbott, William Hockaday and Joseph Hutch- 
inson were elected directors to serve for three years. One thousand one hun- 
dred and twenty-three shares of stock were "represented at this meeting. The 
newly elected board of directors elected officers for the ensuing year, as follows : 
President, E. M. Carr; vice president, A. Hollister; secretary, B. W. Jewell; 
assistant secretary, W. A. Abbott ; treasurer, C. J. Seeds ; auditor, Joseph Hutch- 
inson ; chairman executive committee, A. S. Blair. J. C. Scott, of Galena, Illi- 
nios, was employed as chief engineer, and it was decided to vigorously prose- 
cute the construction work as soon as the weather would permit, and endeavor 
to have the line in operation by the following Fourth of July. Had it not been 
for a delay in procuring some of the steel rails, trains would have been run- 
ning into Manchester on the Fourth. The failure, however, did not prevent 
the formal dedication of the road at the Fourth of July celebration held in 
Manchester that year. Nearly all of the officers of the road made short speeches 
at the dedicatory services. The late Col. D. E. Lyon, of Dubuque, delivered the 
principal oration of the occasion. 

During the second week of August, 1901, regular trains commenced run- 
ning on the Manchester & Oneida Railway, which for all practical purposes 
brought the Chicago Great Western and the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul 
railroads to within one block of the center of the City of Manchester. They 
also brought the Wells Fargo Express Company to Manchester, and a few 
months later, the Postal Telegraph Company. 

It is now about fourteen years since the company engaged in the con- 
struction and operation of its line of railway, and, during that long period of 
time, the company has not had a single personal injury claim to adjust. The 
officers of the company do not refer to this marvelous exemption from accident 

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in a boastful maimer. They feel that good management and constant vigilance 
could not, unaided by a greater power, have secured such immunity. 

While a number of changes have taken place in the company's board of 
directors, caused mostly by deaths and removals from Manchester, the affairs 
of the corporation are now, and have been at all times, largely managed by 
men who were potential in the formation of the company and the building of 
the road. 

The present board of directors consists of the following named members: 
Joseph Hutchinson, E. M. Carr, C. J. Seeds, E. H. Hoyt, A. S. Blair, A. R. 
LeRoy, Hubert Carr, W. H. Hutchinson, George W. Dunham, Lafe Matthews* 
William Hockaday, J. S. Jones, R. W. Tirrill, A. D. Long and A. A. Morse. 

The general managing board consists of E. M. Carr, chairman ; A. R. LeRoy, 
secretary; and Joseph Hutchinson, C. J. Seeds and E. H. Hoyt. 

The present officers of the company are: Joseph Hutchinson, president; 
E. H. Hoyt, vice president; Ix Matthews, secretary; A. R. LeRoy, treasurer; 
Charles J. Seeds, auditor ; A. S. Blair, general counsel ; Hubert Carr, passenger 
agent; William Hutchinson, freight agent; J. S. Jones, superintendent of main- 
tenance of way, and W. F. Grossman, traffic manager. 

The Manchester & Oneida Railway was built to promote the welfare and 
happiness of the people of Delaware County and their business neighbors, and to 
aid in the upbuilding of the City of Manchester. That was the hope of the men 
who built the road. And that hope, that invisible guide, seems to have done 
more for the road and made it a greater success than its promoters anticipated. 

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A large body of early settlers of Delaware County assembled in the city hall 
at Manchester, upon a stated call for the purpose, and organized the Society of 
Early Settlers of Delaware County after first having placed E. 0. Clemens in 
the chair and selected E. Healey as secretary of the meeting. After the objects 
of the assemblage had been stated by B. H. Keller, a constitution was adopted 
and the following officers elected : President, Joel Bailey ; vice presidents, J. S. 
Barry, of Prairie ; B. H. Keller, Delaware ; John Magirl, Adams ; L. McNamee, 
Colony; John Lillibridge, Milo; Aaron Sullivan, Coffin's Grove; A. A. Strong, 
Honey Creek; H. D. Wood, Richland; A. Parliman, Elk; John W. Penn, Delhi; 
James Le Gassick, Bremen; William Nicholson, North Pork; Leroy Jackson, 
South Fork; C. L. Flint, Hazel Green; S. B. Whittaker, Union; H. C. Merry, 
Oneida, who was selected as the secretary; L. L. Ayers, recording secretary 
and treasurer. 

This organization was effected January 17, 1877, and before adjournment 
the voice of the society was declared by vote in favor of according honorary 
membership to the wives of all pioneers. 

A partial list of the names of members of this society is given below : 

Joel Bailey, born in New York, came to Delaware County March, 1838; 
Henry Baker, New York, June, 1841; John Lillibridge, Mrs. J. Lillibridge, 
New York, October, 1843; Aaron Sullivan, Ohio, November, 1844; C. G. Reyn- 
olds, Pennsylvania, 1844; Mrs. S. E. Tilton, Pennsylvania, 1845; E. D. 01m- 
stead, New York, 1847 ; Joseph S. Belknap, Vermont, May, 1848 ; H. D. Wood, 
Kentucky, November, 1848 ; E. Tilton, Pennsylvania, 1850 ; G. R. Buckley, New 
York, 1850; D. S. Potter, New York, May, 1850; Henry Acers, New York, 
March, 1850: S. Knickerbocker, New York, 1851; James Lewiston, Ireland, 
June, 1852; E. J. Skinner, New York, 1852; J. C. Skinner, New York, 1852; 
N. Andrews, New York, 1852 ; T. Crosby, Massachusetts, 1852 ; J. W. Robbins, 
Massachusetts, 1852; Allen Love, Scotland, September, 1852; W. Potter, Iowa, 
November 18, 1852; Mrs. T. Crosby, Massachusetts, 1852; Mrs. E. A. Strong, 
New York, 1853; Mrs. W. B. Smith, New York, 1853; W. B. Smith, Ganada, 
spring of 1853 ; A. Swindle, Ireland, April, 1853 ; James McLaughlin, Ireland, 
1853; A. A. Strong, Ohio, 1853; Rufus Dickinson, New York, May, 1853; 
Chauncey M. Mead, Indiana, May, 1853 ; J. F. Gillespie, Michigan, fall of 1853 ; 
W. J. Doolittle, New York, October, 1853; H. L. Ryan, New York, July, 1854; 
H. Munson, New York, 1854; S. P. Moshier, New York, 1854; M. Eldridge, 
June, 1854; William Ryan, New York, 1854; S. J. Edmonds, winter of 1854; 
Mrs. A. Kirkpatrick, May, 1854; William Cattron, May, 1854; B. M. Amsden, 
New York, spring of 1854; Justin Healy, Vermont, 1854; H. P. Duffy, Ohio, 
spring of 1854; E. Healy, Canada East, May, 1854; J. B. Robertson, Prince 

Vol. 12-1 J 


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Edward's Island, 1854; Mrs. H. Ryan, New York, 1858; A. N. Smith, winter 
of 1855 ; E. L. Tomlinson, 1855 ; John Towslee, spring of 1855 ; Mrs. F. Dun- 
ham, New York, February, 1855; I. U. Butler, New York, spring of 1855; 
F. Dunham, New York, February, 1855; W. H. Hollister, New York, 1855; 
A. Shew, New York, 1855; Thomas Toogood, England, January, 1855; S. 6. 
Van Anda, Pennsylvania, April, 1855; S. R. Young, Maryland, October, 1855; 
James Dunham, Indiana, 1855; Henry Lister, England, March, 1855; Thomas 
Hilliar, England, 1855; F. Bethell, England, 1855; W. H. Board, June, 1855; 
A. Kirkpatrick, Indiana, 1855; R. M. Marvin, Ohio, 1855; A. Dunham, Indi- 
ana, 1855; Edson Merrell, New Hampshire, August, 1855; H. M. Congar, 
New York, March, 1856; Oliver Cronk, New York, April, 1856; E. Hamblin, 
New York, 1856; E. P. Orvis, New York, 1856; L. S. Shirwin, New York, 
1856; B. H. Keller, New York, April, 1856; John S. Barry, Massachusetts, 
April, 1856 ;. Alfred Durey, England, April, 1856 ; Mrs. Alfred Durey, Eng- 
land, April, 1856 ; R. W. Tirrill, New Hampshire, November, 1856 ; D. Young, 
Maryland, 1856; Mrs. E. Hamblin, Ohio, spring of 1856; D. P. Ferris, Ohio, 
1856; D. Magirl, Ireland, May, 1856; A. H. McKay, Virginia, April, 1856; 
James Clugston, Indiana, August, 1856; N. Denton, England, 1856; Charles 
Paxson, Pennsylvania, 1856; John Magirl, Ireland, 1856; D. Pierce, Massa- 
chusetts, 1856 ; G. S. Snover, New Jersey, March, 1856 ; Mrs. E. P. Orvis, Maine, 
1856; A. F. Coon, New York, June, 1857; H. N. Cornish, New York, 1857; 
D. R. Lewis, New York, 1857; A. Sledon, Massachusetts, April, 1857; Thomas 
Vibbard, New York, 1858; A. S. Blair, Nfew York, October, 1858; Seth Brown, 
England, January, 1858; J. U. Schelling, Switzerland, 1858; J. B. Frentress, 
Illinois, March, 1860; L. S. Gates, Ohio, I860; Mrs. J. F. Gillespie, Michigan, 
June, 1861; S. W. Green, New York, 1861; E. 0. Clemens, Massachusetts, 
June, 1855; Alfred Coates, New York, October, 1854; Ann Coates, New York, 
October, 1854; Philemon Stowe, Thomas E. Averitt, Wisconsin, July, 1855; 
William S. Adams, Pennsylvania, 1854; Thomas Cole, New York, June, 1847; 
Daniel S. Cairl, Pennsylvania, November, 1854; Michael Cole, Tennessee, Sep- 
tember, 1853; Thomas Carrigan, Canada, November, 1851; Benjamin Cole- 
man, Pennsylvania, April, 1850 ; Marion Cloud, Pennsylvania, November, 1848 ; 
Francis Curler, Vermont, June, 1849; George Conrad, Illinois, April, 1849; 
Joseph Chapman, New York, December, 1850; P. C. Boisinger, Penn- 
sylvania, April, 1847; William Bohnenkamp, Germany, August, 1846; 
John V. Bush, Pennsylvania, October, 1852; William Barker, Rhode 
Island, 1857; Getfrge W. Bush, Pennsylvania, 1853; C. Bockenstedt, Ger- 
many, 1856; James Dickson, Indiana, 1857; Robert Dickson, Scotland, 
1851; William Ellis, New York, 1860; John Fishel, Ohio, June, 1850; Joseph 
Grimes, New York, June, 1845; William H. Graves, New Hampshire, April, 
1848; G. H. Goodken, Ohio, 1846; J. Hubbard, Connecticut, April, 1841; Pat- 
rick Hogan, Pennsylvania, May, 1845 ; Hezekiah Hubbard, Pennsylvania, 1846 ; 
James Hughes, New York, May, 1852; Harmie Hulbert, Illinois, May, 1853; 
Joseph Holbert, Pennsylvania, April, 1855; Jerome B. Jacobs, New York, 
June, 1856; John D. KlAus, Missouri, August, 1842; H. H. Klaus, Missouri, 
June, 1845; Anton Knipling, Germany, June, 1854; Rudolph Keller, Penn- 
sylvania, March, 1855 ; Henry Kipp, Illinois, April, 1857 ; David Knee, Pennsyl- 
vania, April, 1855; S. G. Knee, Pennsylvania, April, 1855; John H. Knee, 

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Pennsylvania, April, 1855; James Knee, Pennsylvania, April, 1855; Frank 
Keller, Pennsylvania, March, 1855; 0. H. T. Knee, Pennsylvania, April, 1855; 
Jacob Landis, Pennsylvania, April, 1842; Joshua Landis, Pennsylvania, April, 
1842; Jacob Landis, Jr., Pennsylvania, April, 1842; Theodore Lampman, 
Germany, April, 1849; B. H. Luhrsman, Ohio, April, 1855; J. B. Moreland, 
Pennsylvania, April, 1839; George Link, Germany, April, 1858; Frederick 
Merten, Missouri, May, 1843; John S. Merten, Missouri, September, 1843; L. 
McNamee, Missouri, September, 1842; E. L. McNamee, Missouri, September, 
1842; Joseph Malvin, Pennsylvania, September, 1846; John McMahon, Iowa, 
September, 1846; F. C. Nichols, New York, September, 1852; Herman Ovel, 
Germany, September, 1852; John Piatt, Pennsylvania, September, 1843; Jacob 
Piatt, Pennsylvania, September, 1843; Jeremiah Page, Missouri, September, 
1847; Perry Perkins, Missouri, September, 1848; Daniel Partridge, Ohio, Sep- 
tember, 1853; James Rutherford, Illinois, July, 1838; William Reueepiper, 
Germany, July, 1846; G. W. Rea, Ohio, July, 1848; A. Rea, Ohio, July, 1848; 
George T. Rea, Ohio, July, 1848; R. Steadman, Canada, July, 1855; Charles 
Simon, New York, May, 1849 ; F. B. Simons, New York, April, 1849 ; Jacob D. 
Smith, Pennsylvania, April, 1843 ; Philip Stillinger, Ohio, 1855 ; Edward Sraout, 
Pennsylvania, April, 1852 ; Jacob H. Smith, Pennsylvania, 'April, 1858 ; Henry 
Tapka, Ohio, April, 1855; John C. Wood, England, June, 1848; R. Wilson, 
New York, May, 1851 ; A. Partridge, Ohio, April, 1853. 

The society still holds together and has its annual reunions, which mean 
the gathering, in a stated place, of not the pioneers any more, but their rep- 
resentatives and friends, many of whom, it may be said, are well advanced in 
years and experience, who rehearse upon these occasions the stories told them 
by their forbears of the country as it was in the '40s ; and how the men and 
women of those days first settled in the timber, the trees of which they cut into 
logs for the building of their first cabin homes; how they cleared a patch of 
ground and, when the timberland became scarce, they tell of the first venture- 
some spirits who had the hardihood to go onto the prairies and turn over the 
sod, which was then an unknown quantity to the husbandman. The men and 
women of Iowa pioneer days had very little, if any, faith in the productivity 
of the prairie soil. That is to say, they placed but little value upon it for 
farming purposes. These old folks also tell, as they best can recollect, of the 
many hardships and privations of their parents and grandparents, of their joys 
and sorrows and the many shifts they were put to in order to make two ends 
meet. Practically, the same narratives are told with each recurring year, 
but, for all that, they retain a peculiar interest and atmosphere that always 
attracts and edifies. 

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Delaware County has within its borders the only fish hatchery, built and 
under control of the United States Government, in the State of Iowa, and the 
people here are proud of it. The industry is a peculiar one in itself and the 
ponds, buildings and beautiful surroundings attract visitors the year round. 
How the Government selected Delaware County for the propagation and dis- 
tribution of fish is best told by the man who was primarily instrumental in 
inducing the department at Washington to locate the hatchery here. In that 
relation A. M. Sherwood says: 

"In the fall of 1892, I happened to be stopping in a hotel in Cedar Rapids, 
when a short item of news in the Gazette of that city caught my attention. It 
stated that Professor Everman, of the United States Pish Commission, was in 
the city and had been making a trip of inspection throughout the Northwest, 
in view of selecting a place for a Government fish hatchery, which would be 
built upon a proper site, at a cost of $50,000. The article also admonished the 
people of Cedar Rapids to look into the matter, that the Government expert 
would again come West the following season to make a further examination, and 
that it would be well worth consideration on the part of the people there. It 
struck me that Manchester was a pretty good location for the proposed hatchery 
and that the people of Delaware County would be conserving their own interests 
by offering inducements to the Government to come here. With this thought in 
mind, I cut out and mailed the little slip, published in the Cedar Rapids Gazette, 
to Professor Everman, at Washington, and also wrote him an invitation to visit 
Manchester when he came West in 1893. 

"Much to my gratification I received a reply from the Government expert, 
in which he stated he would be glad and would make it a point to stop off at 
Manchester when he next visited the West. But before his arrival, I made 
special efforts to meet him in the Government's exposition building at the 
World's Pair, but failed, as he was not on the exposition grounds at the time. 
Upon my arrival home, I received a telegram on the following Sunday from 
Professor Everman, stating he would be in Manchester on Monday True to 
his word, he came on that day, when myself and others accompanied him to the 
locality later selected for the hatchery. He examined the springs and stream, 
thoroughly tested the temperature of the water and the flow « f wate * from th 
Bprings. No. 1 spring, near the old creamery developed a flow of 2 200 ga Bons 
a minute; the next one, which had been enclosed, showed an outflow of 1,800 
gallons per minute; and one on the hatchery grounds showed a capacity of 

14 "pffiL Everman seemed fairly well pleased with the location, but when 
he made his report to the commission, which eventually reached Congress, the 


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people of Manchester considered that the visitor had not given them a fai$ 
representation. The matter was reported to Sen. William B. Allison and the 
representative in Congress from this district, David B. Henderson, who agreed 
with the remonstrances they had received from Delaware County, that the 
expert's report was hardly satisfactory, considering the location. Thereupon, 
A. A. Anderson, who was interested in the matter, was sent to Washington to 
confer with the commission, taking with him a sectional map of Delaware 
County. He went before the United States Fish Commission and showed that 
body the map, at the same time clearly portraying the desirability of the Dela- 
ware County location, and presented its many virtues in a manner that left the 
commission fully informed. After the interview the commissioners remarked 
to Mr. Anderson that his visit was very timely and that his map and report 
clearly indicated an entirely different condition and fairer presentation of 
Delaware County's claim for recognition. 

"The visit of the county's agent, Mr. Anderson, to Washington, resulted in 
the fish commission sending out a civil engineer to make a further examination of 
this place. With his helper, the engineer spent several months looking over the 
grounds and surveying the location, upon which it was finally decided that the 
hatchery should be built, although Delaware County had fifty-two rivals in the 
Northwest for the location of the industry. In the summer of 1894 the Govern- 
ment sent on their superintendent to fit up the grounds and build the hatchery. 
Ponds were made and residences built for the superintendent and assistant 
superintendent. That same summer the superintendent took possession of his 
house at the hatchery and at once began the propagation of fish, and during the 
first ten years of operation this station propagated and distributed in all parts 
of the country over forty-five millions of fish. 

"This station of the United States Fish Commission is located on section 2, 
Milo Township, and consists of twenty-six acres of ground, which was purchased 
by the citizens of Manchester from Charles Thorpe at a cost of $25 an acre. 
The grounds are beautifully laid out, having ponds for the various kinds of fish, 
also separate runways for them. There are various tastefully built structures 
on the ground, among which are residences for the superintendent and his 
assistant, propagating houses and the like. The grounds have a park-like appear- 
ance and through the warm season are enjoyed as such by visitors from far 
and near. The fish propagated here are brook and lake trout, grayling, black 
bass, rock bass, perch, carp and numerous other varieties. 

"To make this institution possible in Delaware County funds for the purchase 
of the land were collected principally by James Belknap, all of which consisted 
of voluntary contributions." 


1910 1900 1890 

Adams Township, including part of Ryan Town 916 868 640 

Ryan Town (part of) 370 

Total for Ryan Town in Adams and Hazel Green 

townships 511 

Bremen Township 883 968 976 

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1910 1900 1890 
Coffins Grove Township, including Masonville Town 927 990 898 

Masonville Town 282 

Colony Township, including Colesburg Town 1,124 

Colesburg Town "271 

Delaware Township, including Manchester City 3,437 

Manchester City 2,758 

Ward 1 * 879 

Ward 2 \ 1,104 

Ward 3 . . 775 

Delhi Township, including Delhi Town 1,040 

Delhi Town 375 

Elk Township, including Greeley Town 1,123 

Greeley Town 383 

Hazel Green Township, including part of Ryan Town. . 768 

Ryan Town (part of) 141 

Honey Creek Township, including part of Edgewood 

Town : 994 

Edgewood Town (part of) 258 

Milo Township 715 

Xorth Fork Township 753 

Oneida Township, including Earlville Town 1,564 

Earlville Town 552 

Prairie Township 588 

Richland Township 826 

South Fork Township, including Hopkinton Town 1,653 

Hopkinton Town 797 

Union Township • 577 



























. 588 









Total 17,888 19,185 17,349 


The first tax assessed in Delaware County was in 1842, and the first assess- 
ment roll, still preserved in the archives of the county, is an interesting historical 
document, as it not only shows the amount of taxes paid but indicates with 
tolerable accuracy the number and names of the actual settlers in Delaware 
County at that time. On the roll appear about one hundred and ten names, 
and the amount of taxes collected for the year was about one hundred and eighty 
dollars. Compare that amount of money with the following table of figures and 
get a clear view of the wonderful growth in wealth of the county in a compara- 
tively few years. 




Coffins Grove 

Colony 924 








25 6,175 



8 4,655 



3 5,857 



27 9,684 






15 5,980 


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Elk 877 

Honey Creek . . , 857 

Hazel Green 1,049 

Milo 797 

North Fork 525 

Oneida 772 

Prairie 946 

Richland 881 

South Fork 1,036 

Union 636 

Oneida Corporation 43 

Greeley Corporation 29 

Ryan Corporation 124 

Masonville Corporation 55 


Adams 485 

Bremen 448 

Coffins Grove 220 

Colony 384 

Delaware 182 

Delhi 427 

Elk .391 

Honey Creek 152 

Hazel Green 502 

Milo 23 

North Fork 246 

Oneida 85 

Prairie 698 

Richland 125 

South Fork 124 

Union 363 

Oneida Corporation 

Greeley Corporation 

Ryan Corporation 82 

Masonville Corporation 115 




















































13,676 213 107,930 43,811 






















5,052 33,242 385,334 1,245,109 

The above tabulation shows the number of all kinds of live stock on the farms 
and in the villages in Delaware County, at the end of the fiscal year 1914. In 
that year the acreage of green corn gathered for canning was 1,145 ; pop corn, 
81 ; total yield of timothy seed from 3,480 acres was 14,659 bushels ; clover seed, 
from 547 acres, 631 bushels; the total acreage in pasture was 114,507; total 

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acreage in gardens, 363 ; total acreage in orchards, 526 ; total number of bushels 
harvested in 1913, 2,981 ; total acreage in waste land, not utilized, 2,025. The 
number of silos was 191, and the average of wages per month paid for farm labor 
was $29.44 during the summer months ; during the winter months, $24.66. 

The taxable valuation of real and personal property in the towns and town- 
ships of Delaware county follows : Manchester, taxable value of land, $126,461 ; 
railroad property, $37,496; town lots, $352,910; personal property, $102,217; 
money and credits, $631,472 ; total, $1,251,556. Malvin, land, $39,650 ; personal 
property, $2,336 ; total, $42,886. Oak Grove, land, $36,810 ; personal property, 
$2,719; moneys and credits, $8,000; total, $47,529. Pleasant Grove, land, 
$44,520; personal property, $4,510; total, $49,030. Ridgeville, land, $32,610; 
personal property, $2,361; moneys and credits, $1,600; total, $36,571. Spring 
Vale, land, $33,940; personal property, $2,654; total, $36,594. Earlville, land, 
$61,802; railroad property, $23,445; town lots, $51,898; personal property, 
$29,035; moneys and credits, $183,328; total, $349,508. Delhi, land, $53,908; 
railroad property, $33,530; town lots, $26,180; personal property, $18,457; 
moneys and credits, $132,394; total, $264,469. Delhi Township, land, $271,640; 
railroad property, $30,831 ; personal property, $32,408 ; total, $334,879 ; moneys 
and credits, $49,500. Greeley, land, $53,828; railroads, $18,113; lots, $30,569; 
personalty, $20,750; moneys and credits, $94,872; total, $218,132. Fountain 
Spring, land, $33,245; personalty, $4,376; money and credits, $6,800; total, 
$44,421. Sunny Side, land, $27,371; personalty, $2,949; money and credits, 
$6,300; total, $36,620. Butterfield, land, $65,258; personalty, $6,823; money 
. and credits, $178.70 ; total, $72,259.70. C^mpton, land, $31,557 ; railroads, 
$10,775; personalty, $3,921; money and credits, $4,200; total, $50,453. Forest- 
ville, land, $36,107; personalty, $4,310; lots, $155; money and credits, $8,000; 
total, $48,572. Union Township, land, $261,554; railroads, $15,570; personalty, 
$24,237; moneys and credits, $22,400; total, $323,961. Bremen Township, land, 
$461,026; railroads, $88,947; personalty, $38,124; moneys and credits, $112,600; 
total, $700,697. Oneida Township, land, $245,013 ; railroads, $69,588 ; personalty, 
$25,824 ; lots, $3,741 ; money and credits, $15,021 ; total, $358,206. Oneida Cor- 
poration, land, $15,686; railroads, $24,835; lots, $7,457; personalty, $6,690; 
money and credits, $9,700 ; total, $64,368. Delaware Township, land, $268,076 ; 
railroads, $58,653 ; personalty, $27,090 ; money and credits, $32,197 ; total, $385,- 
016. Town of Delaware, land, $43,277; railroads, $36,008; lots, $11,392; per- 
sonalty, $6,877; total, $97,554. Sheldon, land, $49,105; personalty, $4,022; 
money and credits, $4,700; total, $57,827. Dyersville, land, $5,983; railroad, 
$7,790; lots, $2,427; personalty, $911; total, $17,111. Pleasant Valley, land, 
$29,125 ; personalty, $2,135 ; money and credits, $5,000 ; total, $37,260. Pleasant 
Hill, land, $27,421; railroads, $12,316; personalty, $2,914; money and credits, 
$1,000; total, $43,651. Harris, land, $46,263; railroads, $16,572; personalty, 
$4,126 ; money and credits, $3,500 ; total, $70,471. Dundee, land, $61,493 ; rail- 
roads, $25,824; lots, $9,212; personalty, $12,413; money and credits, $17,500; 
total, $36,£42. Hopkinton, land, $31,616; railroads, $16,264; lots, $98,323; 
personalty, $36,747 ; money and credits, $156,902 ; total, $339,852. Ryan, land, 
$80,581; railroad, $10,310; lots, $21,844; personalty, $27,409; money and credits, 
$55,320; total, $195,444. Hazel Green, land, $368,005; railroads, $16,114; per- 
sonalty, $38,388; lots, $1,053; money and credits, $100,550; total, $524,110. 

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Oak Grove, land, $36,810 ; personalty, $2,719 ; money and credits, $8,000 ; total, 
$47,529. Monticello, land, $23,483; personalty, $1,013; railroads, $9,095; total, 
$32,591. South Fork Township, land, $372,977 ; railroads, $67,445 ; personalty, 
$46,194 ; lots, $1,982 ; money and credits, $72,900 ; total, $561,498. Adams Town- 
ship, land, $348,941; railroads, $42,439 ; personalty, $40,544; lots, $3,010; money 
and credits, $78,100 ; total, $513,434. North Fork Township, land, $332,543 ; rail- 
roads, $9,095 ; personalty, $39,428 ; lots, $69 ; money and credits, $36,600 ; total, 
$417,645. Fairplay, land, $27,582 ; personalty, $2,376 ; money and credits, $1,900; 
total, $31,858. Milo Township, land, $314,021; railroads, $45,898; personalty, 
$34,848; money and credits, $30,500; totals, $425,267. Prairie Township, land, 
$402,110; personalty, $39,027; money and credits, $20,800; total, $461,937. 
White Oak Grove, land, $24,428; personalty, $3,185; money and credits, 
$12,500; total, $40,113. Colony Township, land, $286,579; personalty, $24,237; 
money and credits, $99,800; total, $410,612. Honey Creek Township, land, 
$369,593 ; railroads, $40,481 ; lots, $2,324 ; personalty, $28,950 ; money and credits, 
$13,450; total, $464,798. Colesburg, land, $31,661; lots, $21,265; personalty, 
$15,772; money and credits, $62,113; total, $110,801. Edgewood, land, $18,795; 
railroads, $5,010; lots, $18,731; personalty, $3,148; money and credits, $53,700; 
total, $99,384. Masonville, land, $21,046; railroads, $11,685; lots, $16,447; per- 
sonalty, $12,006 ; money and credits, $3,650 ; total, $64,834. Coffins Grove Town- 
ship, land, $319,055 ; railroad, $34,825 ; personalty, $30,127 ; money and credits, 
$45,228; total, $429,235. 

The foregoing jumble of names and figures makes a grand total of taxes on 
property of $8,222,142 ; on money and credits, $2,211,966. 


In the early settlement of Delaware County, prairie chickens were very 
numerous — so numerous that in many instances they made great inroads on 
the cornfields. The hunting of these birds furnished rare sport to the hunters 
and trappers. On August 1, 1864, the sportsmen of Manchester and vicinity 
inaugurated a hunting contest, which continued to be an annual occurrence for 
several years. The following description is taken from a copy of the Delaware 
County Union, issued August 17, 1866: 

"The third annual chicken hunt came off on Friday, August 10th, with the 
following contestants: 

1. J. C. Hadley 1. Hiram Hoyt 

2. N. Denton 2. H. M. Congar 

3. Charles Paxson 3. Ray B. Griffin 

4. Charles C. Lewis 4. S. G. Van Anda 

5. H. L. Bates 5. I. U. Butler 

6. J. A. Wheeler 6. Thomas Dodson 

7. Prank Bethell % 7. H. Houghton 

8. B. W. Ellsberry 8. J. W. Myers 

9. J. M. Watson 9. A. W. Randall 

10. C. B. Eaton 10. H. W. Cotton 

11. J. L. Noble 11. G. W. Ward 

12. W. J. Doolittle 12. L. P. Robinson 

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13. WiUiam N. Boynton 13. E. W. Peck 

14. J. G. Strong 14. Charles Hoyt 

15. A. J. Carter 15. George Hoffman 

16. F. A. Lowell 16. J. « A. Stevens 

17. Charles Burnside 17. N. G. Trenchard 

18. L. McCarty 18. Willie Sherwin 

19. Charles Trenchard 19. E. B. Smith 

20. John J. Daly 20. S. M. Jackson 

21. James Provan 21. George E. Toogood 

22. N. T. Hale x 22. James Green 

" About 5 o'clock the two sides started out and were to report at Baker's 

(Coffins Grove) at 11 o'clock. When the hour arrived it was a hurried 

time, for any one late was to furnish a chicken for each minute behind 

time. In spite of whip and panting steed, some half dozen of Hadley's side 

were tardy and forfeited fourteen chickens. When the count was completed 

it was found the two sides were nearly equal, after deducting the forfeitures. 

Five hundred and ten chickens was the result of the forenoon's hunt. The 

ladies of Manchester were on hand with everything necessary for a picnic 

dinner and soon the air became fragrant with the odor of chickens undergoing 

preparations. Each hunter was to furnish two chickens for the dinner and 

<;ould retain the remainder for his own use. Mr. Baker had provided stoves 

on which to cook the chickens, long tables were set up and at 1 o'clock the 

assemblage, consisting of 200 people, . sat down to a * repast that epicures 

might envy. The chickens were cooked to a turn and all enjoyed the meal. 

After dinner the Manchester Cornet Band discoursed sweet music and speeches 

were made by Hon. Thomas S. Wilson and Jesse Clement, of Dubuque. After 

three hearty cheers were given to Mr. Baker for his cordial hospitality and 

the hour for resuming the hunt having arrived, the sportsmen started off- 

for their afternoon's chase. At the tap of the drum off they scampered at full 

speed. The hour for reporting at the Clarence House was to be at half past 

8 and all the hunters were on time. The count resulted as follows: J. C. 

Hadley's side, 483; Hiram Hoyt's, 418; total, 901. The total number of slain 

chickens was 916. Mr. Hoyt and James Green were sick and did not hunt. 

After the result was announced all sat down to a most excellent supper at the 

Clarence House." 

Some of the annual hunts ended with a dance at Hulbert's Hall. In an 
account of the hunt of 1864, the two highest individual scores were made 
by Tom Hunt, 103, and H. M. Congar, 96. Owing to the extreme wet weather of 
1868, when most of the young chickens were killed, the festival was omitted, 
and in 1870 the annual meet was in the nature of a harvest home, held at 
Coffins Grove. 


After prairie chickens, wild turkeys, deer, bear and small game became 
scarce, the huntsman lost his calling and sports of the field are now of a desul- 
tory character. No large gatherings for the purpose of testing marksmanship 

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upon wild game of the woods, prairie or air have been feasible for the last two 
or three generations and when this condition first was realized the harvest 
home, or annual carnival, was devised that the families of a certain community 
might assemble, after the heavy summer work had been completed and the 
small grain garnered, and in happy abandon, feast both body and soul on the 
good things vouchsafed them by a beneficent Creator. As early as 1872, one of 
the first " harvest homes' ' was held at Bailey's Ford, in a grove just west of 
the Maquoketa, upon which occasion, it is said, 3,000 people were on hand to 
hear speeches of the county's leading men, disport themselves in games of 
an innocent and pleasurable character, discuss vocal and instrumental music, 
and also partake of delicious viands, prepared as only the deft and generous 
Delaware County matrons knew how to devise and serve. Like many another 
pioneer society, the harvest home picnic is now a thing of the past. 

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The author of the following interesting article, Jacob Piatt, was born in 
Pennsylvania in 1840, and when two years of age was brought by his parents, 
John and Martha (Gettis) Piatt, to Delaware County, who settled in the Dick- 
son Settlement, Colony Township, in 1843. Mr. Piatt was raised in the settle- 
ment, attended school there and experienced the joys and vicissitudes peculiar 
to a new country. His relations of the early days are intensely interesting ; and 
the incidents described give so vivid a local color to the article as to make it 
valuable to a work of this description. 

At the request of my friends I will endeavor to commit to paper my earliest 
recollections of the conditions of the life of the pioneers of Delaware County, 
their hardships, the difficulties under which they labored and incidents thereto. 
My father settled on Section 14, Colony Township, Delaware County, April 
2, 1843. At that time the writer was two years old. I have continued my 
residence in the county to the present time — November 1, 1907, with the ex- 
ception of three years' service in the army of my country during the great 
rebellion. The lands were surveyed and open for settlement, the Indian title 
being extinguished soon after the close of the Black Hawk war. /Any person 
could enter as much or as little land as they wanted by paying the Government 
price of $1.25 per acre. Many persons came and after looking over the broad 
prairies, covered with grass and wild flowers, returned to their homes in the 
East, rather than endure the hardships incident to pioneer life in Iowa./ The 
first settlements were made along the streams ajad brooks, where there were 
springs of water. Timber grew along, the water courses and the settler must 
have both wood and water for his convenience; the timber was used both for 
fuel and to fence his land. This was the reason the early settler took up the 
poorer quality of land, instead of the rich, rolling prairie that was spread 
out before him. Then it was easier to burn the brush and clear an acre of 
land, after the rails were made on that acre, than it was to haul the rails to 
the prairie to be used for fence. There were no roads, no bridges; our teams 
were oxen, so that travel was very slow, and it took a full load for one yoke of 
oxen to make one rod of fence ; consequently, it was the cheapest and best way 
to fence the land that you made the rails on. This was not ignorance on the 
part of the settler ; it was economy. 

A young man came from the East to look up a situation and, while looking 
over the land in and near our settlement, he was taken sick with a fever, became 
delirious, and in his delirium he kept saying repeatedly, "wood and water is the 
main thing.' ' This idea was the main question in the location of a farm at that 


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There has been some inquiry as to who was the first settler in the county, 
some claiming it was a man by the name of Bennett, at Eads Grove, about three 
miles west of Greeley. He was not a settler, for he only remained there through 
the winter o# 1835-6. He was a hunter and trapper and did not make any 
improvement as a settler. 

In the year 1834 Henry Teegardner, a Frenchman, settled and made an 
improvement, clearing about four acres of land on the southwest quarter of 
section 13, Colony Township, Delaware County. He lived there two years, 
during which time he traded with the Indians. He was also a hunter and sold 
his furs and venison, bear meat and wild honey to the miners at Dubuque and 
Galena. .He moved from there on to the north fork of the Maquoketa, near 
where the Town of New Vienna now stands. He was afterwards killed by the 
Indians near Fort Crawford, Wisconsin. His family escaped and two of hia 
children visited the settlement some years later and told the sad story of the 
death of their father. The foundation logs of his cabin did not burn, but 
remained there on the ground for a number of years. The land he had culti- 
vated grew up to blackberry and plum bushes and that was the condition it was 
in when I remember of seeing it first. 

The early settlers of Delaware County were gathered in groups. Where 
one man started an improvement, then the next man who came along sat down 
by the side of him. These groups of families were called colonies, or settle- 
ments; hence, we have Colony Township in this county. David Moreland, Van 
Side and Wiltse settled near the Town of Colesburg and it was called the Colony, 
the postoffice bearing that name for many years. 


The place where I grew to manhood was called Dickson Settlement. Missouri 
Dickson made his first improvement there in the year 1838, coming in the autumn 
of 1837. He cut the wild grass and protected it with logs and brush that he 
might have it to feed his oxen the next spring. He also prepared the material 
for his cabin by cutting the logs and making the clapboards to cover it. Dela- 
ware County at this time was a veritable wilderness, untouched by the hand of 
civilization. The Indians roamed unmolested over its broad prairies and hunted 
wild game in its forests, where bear, deer, elk and antelope flourished and fattened 
for the untutored savage that inhabited its boundaries. 


Our first roads were established along the Indian trails, that had been chosen 
by the redmen as being the most feasible route between given points, for Indians 
travel in single file. These trails were what we termed paths and were used 
also by the settlers; some of them were cut wider and roads established upon 
them. Some of the roads in the northern part of the county being thus estab- 
lished remain upon the same trails today. 

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The Indians were not troublesome. Quite a number of small bands visited 
our settlement until they were moved by the Government to their reservation in 
Minnesota, at St. Paul, that being the Indian agency, established at the head of 
navigation on the Mississippi. There were but few depredations committed 
by the Indians. The different tribes, Sac and Foxes, Musquakees and Winne- 
bagoes, had become greatly reduced in numbers by the Black Hawk war and had 
combined against their stronger enemies, the great Sioux, so that they were 
masters of the situation so far as Indian warfare was concerned. These weaker 
tribes courted the friendship of the white men as against their powerful enemy, 
the Sioux, and this is the reason settlers along the Mississippi were not disturbed. 
If we had had the Sioux nation to contend with we would have been driven 
from our homes or massacred, as were the settlers at Spirit Lake as late as 1857, 
or those at New Ulm, Minnesota, in 1862, for which crimes the Government 
hanged, at Mankato, at one time, thirty-eight Indians. The Government, in 
order to establish peace among those warlike tribes, established a strip two miles 
wide, reaching from the Mississippi River and opposite Prairie du Chien to the 
mouth of the Coon River, where Des Moines now stands. This was called the 
"Neutral Ground.' ' The Sioux were to occupy the territory on the west and 
north and the other mentioned tribes were to occupy the east side of this strip 
of land. This agreement being lived up to by the Indians, it ended the warfare 
then existing between them. The first map of Iowa, published in 1841, shows 
this strip of " Neutral Ground." This map also shows only eight towns in 
Iowa Territory. A few cattle were killed by the Indians near Greeley. A 
horse was stolen from our settlement and a saddle from James Rutherford, but 
the Indians were overtaken in their flight and abandoned the horse and eluded 
the pursuers in the Turkey Timber. 


Our first mails were carried mostly upon horseback and came once a week. 
The carriers did not have as much mail as one of our rural carriers have now 
every day. The route was from Dubuque to Elkader, about sixty miles. . Daily 
papers had not come into use among us, and there were but few weeklies. One 
paper was passed around among the settlers and served several families, as a 
matter of economy. 


Wild game was very plentiful. Bear, deer and elk were killed by the settlers 
and the meat and hides were sold at Dubuque. A bear skin brought $10. Quite 
a number of bears were killed in Turkey Timber. Elk and deer were about as 
plentiful as sheep. A deer skin brought 50 cents. Wild turkeys were numer- 
ous, also prairie chickens, pheasants and quails were in unlimited numbers. 
Our people were well provided with meat, as wild game was so plentiful that it 
was had for the killing of it. Wild bees were found in every tree that had a 
cavity in it sufficient to hold a swarm. We were well supplied with honey 

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from the forests and with maple molasses, which we made from maple trees 
that grew in our forest. 


Money was a scarce article. Deer skins, other hides and furs were a medium 
of exchange. If a man had anything to sell he managed to exchange with his 
neighbor at the price a fur buyer would pay for hides and furs when he came 
in the spring. Notes were given and they were used in the place of money. 
One of our neighbors had a yoke of oxen to sell. He made the sale to another 
man, the payment being in notes and deer skins. Among the notes was one for 
$5.00 that the man who sold the oxen had given to another party, and when 
it came to accepting his own paper he said, "Hold on; let me see the paper." 
After scrutinizing it for a moment, he remarked, "0 yes, that is a good note. 
I can make something out of that." As the note had not been mutilated or torn, 
he was perfectly willing to accept it, considering only the value of the paper 
on which it was written. Had the note been torn he would have raised the 
objection that he could not pass it on account of it being mutilated. 


Prices of our produce were very low. Corn was sold for 8 and 10 cents 
per bushel; oatS about the same; wheat sold for from 25 to 35 cents 
per bushel and some of that wheat was hauled with ox teams over one 
hundred miles, to the markets on the Mississippi River. Dressed pork brought 
from 1 to 1% cents per pound. Sheep brought 50 cents per head and the young 
lambs were thrown in to make the bargain good. Labor was a very cheap com- 
modity — from $5 to $8 per month was the scale — and in winter a man worked 
for his board. Cord wood was cut on the bluffs of the river for 25 cents per 
cord and sold to the steamboats. Cows sold for from $5 to $8 per head and 
other things in about the same ratio. 


Money was so scarce that a goodly part of our business was barter and 
exchange. We were almost destitute so far as money was concerned. Yet we 
had plenty of the necessities of life at that time, for the demand upon society 
was not to be compared with the present day. The first money that we had, 
that amounted to anything like a surplus, was obtained upon the return of the 
miners, who went to California in 1849 and 1850. About twenty-five men went 
to the gold mines in the two years mentioned ; some remained and made their 
homes there. Several died of disease and exposure, while others returned, but 
only three of them brought any money. The amount that came into Colony 
Township was about $30,000, which, when it came to be used in our community, 
started us on the road to prosperity. . The California emigration started a rise 
in the price of our cattle, bringing as high as $150 per yoke. Cows were also 
yoked and driven across the plains to the Pacific coast. 

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The writer remembers one nugget of pure gold, free from dross, quartz or 
any foreign material, that was brought to the Town of Colesburg by Horace 
Mallory ; it weighed over 4% pounds and its value at the Philadelphia mint was 
over twelve hundred dollars. The people named the nugget Solomon's Moccasin 
Sole, it being shaped like the sole of a round-toed shoe. As gold was given in 
California by the ounce in exchange for miners ' supplies, the Government coined 
at the San Francisco mint a $50 gold piece, for the convenience of handling, 
guaranteed to be so many ounces of fine gold of the value of $50. This was not 
a Government coin, as it did not contain ajiy alloy. It was only guaranteed to 
be so many fine ounces. The piece was octagonal in shape and was called by 
our people a "slug." Some of those slugs were brought home by the miners. 


But alas! Our prosperity, after flourishing a few years, came to a sudden 
halt. The great financial crisis of 1857 stopped all progress. It seemed the 
gold and silver had taken wings and flown away. Our country was flooded 
with worthless paper currency, issued by private banks that had sprung up like 
.Jonah's gourd. All over the then western states private banking, then not re- 
stricted by law, issued an unlimited quantity of paper money. It was brought 
from the states of Michigan, Wisconsin and Illinois, scattered over Iowa with 
no security behind it and no law by which the guilty parties could be punished. 
So that, we found ourselves stranded and it was quite a task to get hold of gold 
or silver to pay taxes, which had to be paid in coin of the country. All articles 
of manufacture remained unsold. Products of the soil were disposed of for less 
than nothing or were not sold at all. All manner of business came to a stand- 
still. Little improvement was made within the state. It was about all a man 
could do to make a living and hold on to what he had. Up until the Government 
issued currency to carry on the war of the great rebellion, prices remained 
very low. Just before the close of the war, in 1864 and 1865, prices of every- 
thing went skyward. Hogs sold as high as $17.35 per hundred, and cattle, horses 
and sheep at about the same ratio. Common calico reached the enormous price 
of 60 cents per yard ; coffee, 65 cents per pound, and sugar, three pounds for 
a dollar. Gold and silver were not in circulation. The Government resumed 
specie payment in 1879, when everything dropped to the lowest possible price; 
again our people labored under adverse conditions for some six or seven years, 
or until the silver coinage by the Sherman Act relieved the situation. 

In 1893 our people went through another financial depression, which closed 
our factories and stopped the consumption of our products. Until 1896 the 
same conditions continued; then prosperity reigned until the present time, 
October, 1907. Now, again, we are going through another similar condition and 
we cannot tell when there will be another rally in prices. The writer predicts 
that the financial crisis will rival the condition of 1857. I have followed the 
various conditions down to the present time, in order to show how regularly they 
have occurred — 1857, 1863, 1893, 1907. Four great financial arises that have 
existed in the last fifty years ! Is there no remedy ? 

Vol. 1-13 

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Our houses were built of logs that were cut from the native timber which 
grew along the streams. Logs for the cabins were notched on the corners and 
laid one upon another. The cracks between the logs were filled with pieces 
of split timber, the size required. These were driven between the logs and the 
space left was daubed full of mud, which had straw or hay mixed with it to keep 
it from crumbling and falling out. In this way the cabin was made comfortably 
warm during the long cold winter. The floors were made of split bass wood 
logs, with the flat side laid up and the uneven places dressed with a foot adze. 
There was, generally, only one window on the south side for lighting the mansion. 
The door was hung on wooden hinges that reached across it. Holes were made 
in the end of the hinges ; the door was then hung on wooden pins driven into the 
logs. The latch was a short strip of wood about one foot long, which was 
fastened on a pin on the inside of the door. This was movable at one end and 
dropped into a wooden catch that was fastened to the logs at the inside of the 
door. A hole was bored through the door above the latch and a string was tied 
to the latch. This string, ran through the hole in the door and hung down on 
the outside. Hence, when you wanted to enter the house, you pulled the 
string, the latch would come up out of the catch and the door would open. If 
you wanted to lock your house, you pulled the latch string on the inside and. 
your door was bolted. From this we have the old expression, "you will find 
the latch string out," when one neighbor was requested to call upon his 

One end of the house was occupied by what was called a fire place, which 
was built of stone and held in place by a wooden frame of logs on the outside. 
This fire place was constructed by cutting out the end logs of a part of the cabin 
and working from the outside at the end of the house, the stone work facing 
into the room. A large flat rock in front of it, called a hearth stone, came level 
with the floor, upon which, if any brands of fire rolled out, they would not burn 
the floor. The cooking was done over the fire. The baking was done over a bed 
of hot coals drawn out on the hearth stone. A cast iron oven, circular in form, 
was placed on this bed of coals and a lid was placed on the oven, upon which 
more hot coals were placed. In this, bread was baked to perfection. On top 
of the fire place was built the chimney, which was made by laying a frame of 
split sticks and daubing them inside and outside with mud, made from water 
and clay. On one side of the fire place was attached an iron crane, that swmng 
in or out over the fire. It had a hook at the end. Upon this hook the dinner 
pot was hung and swung back over the fire. To build a fire, a large log was 
rolled into the back part of the fire place, against which two three-legged irons, 
called dog irons, were placed. Upon these iron supports smaller pieces of wood 
were placed on the under side of which the fire was started. The blaze, striking 
against the large back log, soon had it burned into a bright glowing coal, which 
kept up the heat during the long, cold winter night. 

These log houses were built about sixteen feet square and on the side, or end. 
a lean-to was built. The house was then covered with what was called "shakes/' 
or clapboards, which were about three feet long, split out of straight-grained 
timber and held in place on the roof by a long pole, which reached the full 

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length of the house. This was called a weight pole. Nails were used to hold 
the clapboards in place. The cabins, as a rule, contained one room, which 
served as dining room, kitchen, sitting room, bed room and parlor. The loom, 
spinning wheel, chairs, beds, cooking utensils and other furniture were all 
arranged in this one room. 


All of our clothing was made from the raw material. The wool was first 
carded into rolls, with hand cards about one foot long, then spun into yarn, 
which was knit by some member of the family into stockings, or woven into 
cloth for clothing. This was all made at home, either out of flax or Wool. The 
flax was grown, pulled by hand and rotted in the field until the woody part of 
it was brittle. It was then bound in small sheaves, put through a machine, 
called a flax brake, and worked by hand. This machine broke the woody part 
of the stock, which was then put in bunches or " hands,' ' as they were called. 
Each "hand" was placed across an upright board about eight inches wide. The 
flax was then whipped over the sharp edge of the board with a large wooden 
knife, called a scutching knife. This operation cleaned all the broken woody 
part from the fiber, which was then pulled through what was called a hackle. 
The hackle separated the fine linen from the coarser, called tow, and from this 
sacks and i 'pants' ' were made. After it was woven the fine linen was made 
into tablecloths, fine shirts, towels, etc. This work was all done in the home, 
each member of the family taking a part. The cap maker, or hatter, came to 
the home and made the caps for the family. The dressmaker came and cut 
and fitted garments for the women, and the tailor came and made clothing for 
the men and boys. Such was the mode of life and the conditions of the early 
settlers as I recollect them in early life in Delaware County. Everything we 
wore, in the way of clothing, was made at home. Our hats for summer wear 
were made of wheat or rye straw, taken from the fields just before the grain 


Our small grain was cut with cradles, these being something like a mowing 
scythe, with a frame work of long slender fingers made of hickory wood. The 
length of the scythe held the grain as it was cut. It was swung to one side and 
left the grain in swaths on the ground, to be raked together and bound with a 
band of straw. Sometimes hand sickles were also used to cut the riper and 
fallen down patches of grain in the field. The wages of a strong man, to swing 
one of those cradles, was $1 per day. That was from sun up to sun down. Our 
threshing was done by hand with an implement called a flail, which was about 
the size of a pitchfork handle, with a billet of wood, fastened on the outer end 
of the handle by a leather or buckskin strap about three or four inches long, 
and as you whirled the staff or handle in your hand the billet of wood came 
down with a heavy thud on the Jieads of the grain, which was arranged by 
placing the sheaves in two rows with the heads of the grain in the center, six 
sheaves on either side. After the grain was threshed the straw was removed with 

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a pitchfork, the grain settling to the bottom on the ground. The wheat and chaff 
was then taken up and held about six feet above the threshing floor. It was 
then slowly poured on to the floor so that the wind blew the dust and chaff away 
and the grain lay on the canvas perfectly clean. As our wheat crops became 
large we threshed by placing the sheaves on a circular floor, about twenty feet 
in diameter, and tramped the grain from the straw by driving horses and cattle 
over it, then winnowed, by pouring chaff and grain from a bucket, letting the 
wind separate the grain from chaff and dirt. The first threshing machine that 
came into Colony Township was hauled by horses from Milwaukee, Wisconsin. 
The first reaper was brought from Freeport, Illinois, by wagon, as that was the 
end of the railroad from Chicago west at that time. It was called the Chicago 
& Galena Railroad. This, a McCormick reaper, required four horses and two 
men to operate it. It cut a swath five feet wide. The grain was raked from the 
platform with a long-tooth rake by hand and left in sheaves, or bunches, on the 
ground. It was then bound by hand into bundles, which was heavy and laborious 
work. Other different patents were introduced to our farmers, one of which 
had a self rake and required only one man to operate. Now the self binder does 
the same work at less than one-fifth of the expense. 


Cattle, horses, hogs and all domestic animals ran at large, hence the grain 
fields had to be fenced. Our cattle roamed the prairie. During the summer 
season we cut the native grass, from which we made hay to feed during the winter. 
Our hogs run at will in the timber and some years were fattened on acorns and 
nuts that grew in the woods. Sometimes the hogs, not seeing any person for 
some months, would become wild and after the first snow storm they could be 
tracked to their haunts and shot. Every settler had a brand recorded, and when 
young, the calves, hogs and lambs were marked in the ears with the brand. In 
this way every man knew his own property. The price of live stock was very 
low. A fat five-year-old steer would bring the sum of $8. Dressed pork brought 
from 1 to 1VL» cents per pound and then only one-half was paid in cash at the 
time of the purchase. The other half either had to be taken in trade of some 
description, or the settler waited until the return sales were made. The market 
was on the Mississippi River at Dubuque and when navigation closed on the 
15th day of November, our markets were very slim until navigation again 
opened on the 15th of March following. Our cattle were sold to what we called 
drovers, who bought them during the summer and drove them to the eastern 
markets. Cattle were driven from Iowa to Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, to market. 
As soon as the people began to settle on the prairies it made a home market and 
also railroad building consumed all we had to sell at a home market. 


The early settler also had to contend not only with Indians and wild. beasts 
but with the venomous rattlesnakes, which were quite numerous in the timber 
as well as on the prairie. We had a short, thick, black rattler called the 
Massasauger, or Prairie Rattlesnake. It was more daring and would bite 

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quicker than his timber brother. Horses and cattle were very shy of them, 
detecting them in the grass by their sense of smell. We had one man who could 
also detect them in the same way. I was with him one time when we were 
picking gooseberries and he called my attention to the fact that he could scent 
a rattler. He cut a stick about six feet long and after a few punches with it 
we discovered the snake within a few feet of where we were picking berries. 
Snakes were so numerous that in the early spring men gathered in companies 
and made regular hunts for them along the rocks and bluffs near the water 
courses. As they are quite feeble and sluggish when they come out of their 
winter quarters, they were killed by the hundreds. The hogs that ran at 
large in the timber also destroyed the snakes in great numbers, as the virus 
of the snake did not affect the hog if bitten. The Massasauger has become 
extinct here, but we occasionally kill a few of the big yellow variety. Every 
year quite a number of people were bitten by snakes, but only one death occurred 
from the effect of the poison. This was a woman who was bitten on the wrist 
while picking wild strawberries. She became blind and unconscious in less 
than thirty minutes and died at the going down of the sun. She was so badly 
poisoned that she did not regain consciousness and wanted to bite everything 
near her. The attendants at her bedside had quite a contest to keep her from 
biting them. After her death the color of her body was variegated by the blood 
settling under the skin in the shape of spots on a rattlesnake. They were of a 
dark blood-shot color resembling those of a rattlesnake. 


Wolves were numerous. The large gray timber wolves were very destructive, 
carrying away lambs, pigs and calves and often they attacked full grown 
domestic animals. The lynx" and panther had their abode among the rocks and 
bluffs along Turkey River. The howl of the wolf and the screech of the panther 
could be heard on a quiet evening near our cabin home, as these animals roam at 
night. We were very careful to have everything closely housed in our log barns 
or stables. Deer and bears were hunted for their hides. The hind quarters 
of the deer and the hide were all that were taken when the animal was killed. 
The balance was left for the crows, as the fore quarters were not salable. 


The bears were the large black variety weighing from four to six hundred 
pounds. The Indians killed a bear about one mile east of Petersburg in Bremen 
Township. The den in the cleft of rocks was so small that there could not 
enough Indians get into it to get the bear out, so they had to cut the brute into 
pieces in order to get it into the open; hence, the grove of about one hundred 
acres was called Bear Grove, and the stream of water that ran near by was 
called Bear Creek, its source being near the Town of Colesburg. Running in a 
southeasterly direction, it empties into the north fork of the Maquoketa near 
DyersVille. This is the way the grove and stream got their names. Two large 
bears were killed northeast of Greeley, near the Fountain Mill Springs, by 
Missouri and Samuel T. Dickson. Their hunting camp was at the spring and 

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they discovered the den by the spring that came up through the long blue joint 
that grew on the side of a sink hole. The snow having lapped the grass down, 
the warmth from their bodies had melted the snow in a small spot, from which 
emitted steam. The day being very cold, this was plainly visible. These men 
raised up the long grass and there lay the bears, in a small cavity which they 
had dug in the soft earth on the side of the sink hole. Both were sound asleep. 
One of the men held up the long grass with the muzzle end of his gun and the 
other man shot into the nest, guessing as nearly as he could where the head 
of the bear lay. The bullet broke the under jaw of the bear and out it came, 
knocking the only loaded gun down into the bottom of the sink hole, where the 
bear in his frenzy had rolled. The other bear was killed with an ax. By this 
time the dogs were there and the wounded bear and dogs began fighting. The 
other gun was now loaded but the men were afraid to shoot, fearing they might 
kill the dogs. The battle between bear and dogs waged until the former, becoming 
too much for the dogs, gave up ; the bear was then shot. The men also killed 
two other bears on this hunt near the ice cave at Rigby 's Park, from which Bear 
Creek, in Clayton County, got its name. It may seem singular to some that 
these bears could be approached so closely. In cold weather they hibernate, and 
I have been told by those who have had experience in hunting them that they 
will not waken from their sleep until they are shot ; that they roll up in shape 
of a ball, their paws in their mouth, and in this manner they sleep during the 
winter. This is why the hunter could not tell where to direct his aim so as to 
hit the animal in the head ; and for this reason hunters always carried an ax 
and a large knife, and often killed the bears in their den. Bruin will not fight 
a man from his den but will use every effort to get out and when once on the 
outside is ready for a fight. A. H. Mallory captured a young bear and kept 
it until it was two years old. In the spring of 1849 Mr. Mallory went to 
California during the gold excitement on the coast, and after he left the bear 
refused to eat and became so vicious that it had to be killed. The loss of its 
keeper seemed to arouse all its wild, vicious nature and it became unmanageable, 
but prior to his departure it was perfectly docile and would eat from Mr. Mal- 
lory 's hand and would play and wrestle with him, seeming to enjoy the sport. 


Railroads were not thought of by our people until about 1850 ; and when the 
question of railroad building in Iowa was discussed there were many amusing 
arguments advanced, some declaring that railroads if built across our western 
prairies would have nothing to haul, as no one was living there and that it 
never would be settled; that it would be a useless expense and that capitalists 
would not put their money into so foolish an enterprise as to build a railroad 
where there was no one to patronize it. An Irishman, who was assisting at a 
house raising, suggested that there would not only be railroads built across Iowa 
but, said he: "I will tell ye, gintlemen, some day some venturesome fellow will 
build a railroad across the plains to Calif orny. ,, They all laughed and wanted 
to know how it would be possible to get a train over the Rocky Mountains. He 
replied: "A large engine will be placed on the top of the mountain and while it 
is hauling up one car it will let down another car on the opposite side of the 

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mountain." However, railroad building began about 1854. The Dubuque & 
Sioux City Railroad (now the Illinois Central) was completed to the Town of 
Dyersville in May, 1856, and this remained the terminus of the road for about 
fifteen months. As this was the end of the road everything going west from 
Dyersville had to be hauled by wagon, drawn by either horses or cattle. The 
travel by rail was very slow compared with the present rate of speed upon 
railway trains. 

I will relate an incident of one of our neighbors who owned and operated a 
threshing machine. He broke one of the planet wheels of his horse power and, 
as there was a foundry at Dubuque, he knew that by going there he could get 
another wheel cast. He rode on horseback to Dyersville, his dog following him 
to that point. He left the dog, as he supposed, at Dyersville with his horse, 
but when he stepped off the car at Dubuque the first friend to greet him was 
his dog. It had kept pace with the train — a distance of about thirty miles: 
While this may seem to some slow traveling for a railway train, it is not quite 
so slow as the train traveling through Arkansas, where the conductor had to 
take the cow catcher from the front of the train and attach it to the rear to keep 
the cattle from running against the end car. We now have two main lines 
crossing the county from east to west, also two lines north and south, as well 
as the Manchester & Oneida — eight miles in length — built with Delaware County 
capital and Delaware County enterprise. 


The corn crop was not sure when we first broke up the land, as the corn was 
not acclimated. It did not get ripe, hence at one time we thought that the 
season was too short to ever make this a reliable corn district. The only corn 
we had that would get ripe and made a sure crop was a small flint, eight-row 
corn, the seed of which we obtained from the Indians. We called it Squaw 
Corn. However, as soon as we got home grown seed and the corn became 
acclimated we had no further trouble raising a crop. 


Wheat for many years was our main crop and when the virgin soil of Dela- 
ware County was first broken up we produced as fine a grade of wheat as ever 
grew in any country. However, the price was very low for some years. The 
yield per acre ranged from twenty-five to forty bushels, according to the way 
it was planted and the care it had. We continued raising this crop year after 
year until the cineritious element in our soil had been exhausted by the annual 
prairie fires, so that we could not produce straw strong enough to bear the head 
of the grain. Hence, we changed our tactics and turned our attention to the 
dairy business. 


The cows lifted the mortgage from our farms that the failure in the wheat 
crop had placed upon them. We knew nothing about the creamery business as 

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it is managed today. Every man ran his own dairy. The milk was set in pans 
and crocks and when the cream raised, it was skimmed .and agitated by hand in a 
dash churn. Lifting the dasher and churning the cream up arid down brought 
the butter and when reaching a proper consistency it was separated from the 
buttermilk. The product was packed in large tubs or firkins, these holding about 
one hundred and twenty pounds, and in the fall and winter was sold in the 
markets on the Mississippi River. 


From this primitive beginning the creamery sprang into existence at Spring 
Branch, Delaware County. This was the first established creamery in the world, 
where the patrons owned and operated the business and struck their dividend 
according to the amount of milk each person had. Other creameries were built 
in different parts of the county and we soon became the banner county of the 
state in dairy products. At the Centennial Exposition, held at Philadelphia in 
1876, Delaware County was awarded the first premium on butter, which set us 
on the highest pinnacle in the world as a butter producing county. 


The native grasses that grew in Delaware County became very nutritious. The 
blue joint which grew upon our prairies provided us with an abundance of 
pasture and in the autumn, when it was cut, supplied stock with hay during 
the winter. The mowing was done with a common scythe. A man would mow 
about one acre per day. The hay was raked into windrows by hand, then 
shocked in small stacks, then hauled to the main stack yard, where it was put in 
large stacks. A scythe, hand rake and pitchfork were the haying tools in use, 
all the work being done by the very hardest of exertion. Two men now with 
modern machinery will put as much hay in the barn as ten men would then in 
the same amount of time. The tame grasses were slow in getting started. 
Timothy was first set along the edges and at the head of sloughs in the cultivated 
lands. On higher lands it grew very thin on the ground, and was very tall and 
coarse. Blue grass began to set, where the land was trampled hard in and 
around cattle yards and along old roads, appearing also in small spots where 
the wild grasses were pastured too close. Clover first made its appearance along 
cattle paths and abandoned roads, where the ground had become hard by the 
trampling of cattle and other animals. Red clover came nearer being a failure 
than any of the other tame grasses ; some farmers became discouraged with the 
trials and failures and concluded that this territory never would be a grass 
producing locality, as it was in the states east of us. However, those who 
persevered in their efforts were crowned with success. The seed would come up 
and make quite a growth the first season. In autumn the leaves would blight 
and turn a whitish yellow and by the next spring the whole crop would be 
dead, both root and branch. It first began to produce a crop on the clay points 
in the timber lands, where they had begun to lose their fertility by a succession 
of crops of corn and other grain ; the growing of clover was successful on the 
timber farms but not on the prairie farms. The soil on the prairie was too loose 

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and porous and was not packed solid enough, to support the clover during the 
winter until it had been farmed a number of years and the soil was more compact. 
Then the land was not inoculated for the clover plant and it took years for it to 
inoculate itself. The condition with clover at that time was similar to the 
condition with alfalfa here today. If our farmers persist in sowing alfalfa 
the time will come when our lands will be inoculated and our county will produce 
the alfalfa plant to perfection. Had the early settler stopped sowing and experi- 
menting with clover and no seed been sown, our condition would have been the 
same today with the clover as it is with the alfalfa, as it is only a different 
variety of the same family and can be produced under like conditions. But the 
alfalfa, like the clover, must be inoculated by science or by itself. 


Wild flowers grew to perfection both on the prairies and in the timber. One 
of the most beautiful sights to the human eye was our prairie flowers. In the 
fall of year the prairies were literally covered with the different varieties of 
wild flowers. Violets, Indian pinks, jack in the pulpit, lady slippers and many 
other varieties, with the different varieties of the fern family, grew in profusion 
in the woodlands. Native birds of many varieties visited us during the summer 
months, where they reared their young, and at the approach of winter gathered 
in large flocks and departed for a southern climate to spend the winter. Quite 
a number of the different kinds of birds come no more to our denuded forests 
to rear their young. 


The migrating fowls — ducks, geese and cranes — came in unnumbered quanti- 
ties during the spring, going north to their breeding grounds, and in the early 
autumn returning to our grain fields, where they remained until the cold of 
winter drove them to the south land. The wild pigeons, which have become 
extinct, were so numerous that they would sometimes take fields of wheat after 
it was sown in the spring. We had to keep up a constant warfare against them, 
with both dog and gun, to keep them from taking the seed from the ground before 
the wheat came up. The air would be so full of these pigeons that they would 
darken the sun similar to a cloud in the sky. They remained with uSx until 
about 1867, when they disappeared to places unknown. At their roost in the 
woods, they would alight so thick on a tree that their weight would break off 
the limbs. 


Our streams were well stocked with the different varieties of fish, except the 
brook trout, and that had to be put into our waters. But of other kinds we 
had an abundant supply and as the water in the streams has become less and 
less in quantity as the county and surrounding country has been brought under 
cultivation, our fishes have followed the natural law. The majority of our 
springs of water have ceased to flow and streams cannot support the number of 

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fish that they did when they contained twice the amount of water. The fur- 
bearing animals remain with us yet, except the otter, which, Arab like, has 
folded his tent and silently departed to more congenial waters, where he will 
not be disturbed by man. The black squirrel also disappeared from our forest 
after the fox squirrel put in an appearance. 


The early settlers were a law unto themselves. As courts of law had not 
become established among us it was very difficult to enforce the laws we had, 
which were principally of the old English common law and that, on account of 
the primitive condition of our courts, was very difficult to enforce. Difficulties 
between persons were either settled by a council of their neighbors or by fisti- 
cuffs, the latter being mostly resorted to. However, we had organized bands of 
men that were called regulators, who put to flight the horse thieves and counter- 
feiters that infested our settled colonies. When the regulators got after a 
horse thief they made short work of the job, and if the thief was lucky enough 
to get away he gave this county a wide berth. In this manner law and order 
was established among the settlers. 


There were not many horses stolen in Delaware County but they were 
stolen on the east side of the Mississippi River and were crossed to this side for 
hiding in the groves and timber along our streams, until there was a favorable 
opportunity to sell them. This condition prevailed until about the year 1845, 
when the whole state was aroused by the murder of Colonel Davenport, on the 
island of Rock Island in the river opposite the City of Davenport. The citizens 
of Illinois also became incensed at the Mormon outrages, at and in the vicinity 
of Nauvoo. They were so enraged that they gathered enmasse and hanged both 
Joseph and Hyrum Smith, perforating their bodies with bullets and driving the 
Mormons across the State of Iowa to the Missouri River. Some of the refugees, 
who abandoned the Mormon doctrine, settled in our neighborhood and their 
descendants are respectable citizens of the county today. 


Claim meetings were held where disputes over the right to certain lands 
were settled and where there was controversy over boundary lines and disputes 
as to corners of claims and townships. As the survey in the north part of 
Colony Township was not properly marked, many disputes arose, one of which 
was hotly contested for a number of years. In order to obtain a correct deci- 
sion in the Supreme Court of the United States, the Government ordered a 
resurvey of Delaware County. This was called the James Survey. In the 
northeastern part of Colony Township no Government corners were found and 
the lines and corners were established by this later survey, which settled many 


Many of these claim meetings ended in general fights. There was one case of 
murder in the southeast part of the township where the contest over a claim 

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became so bitter that a man by the name of Button killed a man by the name 
of Collins. In the general melee the former struck the latter a blow upon the 
head with a club, from the effects of which he died. That evening Mr. Button 
took to the timber and escaped across the Mississippi River into the wilds 
of Wisconsin and was never again heard of. This was the first murder in the 
county. Some years later a man by the name of D. Nelson was murdered and 
his body was found in Elk Creek between Colesburg and Greeley. There Was 
a foot log upon which a person crossed the stream. The body lay near the 
log in the water. Some investigation was made at the time but as no proof 
against any person could be established, his murderer went free. The bones 
were exhumed some thirty years afterward and an examination of dents in the 
skull showed that he had been killed with a club from behind. Punishment for 
crime was unknown until the settlers took the law into their own hands and 
meted out justice to offenders. 

Sometimes a man would make claim to a piece of land, erect a cabin, break a 
part of the land and fence it with rails, expecting to enter the land in the near 
future. When he would get to the land office at Dubuque he would find the land 
had been entered by some one else, then, as he could not remove his improve- 
ments, they were burned at night, or his friends would get together and move 
all improvements to another piece of land. 

I know of but one instance where the lash was resorted to for punishment 
and that was a case where a thief had stolen a rifle. He was followed and 
captured near the Town of Colesburg and a jury of regulators was summoned 
to adjust the punishment that was to be inflicted upon him. This jury consisted 
of three persons. They decided he was guilty, for he had the stolen gun when 
he was captured. His punishment was fixed at thirty-nine lashes with a black 
snake whip but, if at the administration of twenty lashes he would promise to 
leave the territory, the other nineteen would not be administered unless he 
returned. About the third blow of the executioner's whip, the fellow began to 
curse and swear vengeance against the parties to the proceeding, when the judge 
called a halt and informed the executioner that the strokes were too light and 
that they must be laid on without mercy, or the executioner would be liable to 
a like punishment for disobedience of orders, in not inflicting a severe enough 
punishment, in accordance with the finding of the jury. The consequence was, 
that long before the twentieth stroke the fellow began to beg for mercy and 
declare he would be glad to leave Iowa never more to return. He was given a 
thorough bathing with bear's oil and departed for parts unknown. While this 
may seem a severe punishment, it was about the only way for the settlers to 
protect themselves from the outlaw and renegade element, th$t had been obliged 
to leave their homes in the East on account of being undesirable citizens and not 
fit subjects to live in civilized communities. 


Three horses were stolen not far from Bellevue, in Jackson County. They 
were followed by the Jackson County regulators into the Dickson Settlement 
and the man who had possession of the stolen horses claimed he had bought them. 
He had received information from some of his partners that he was being 

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pursued. He turned the stolen property over to another one of the gang and 
left our neighborhood. The man who got the horses left the same night with 
them, going in a southwest direction across the prairie. He was overtaken 
near Central City and while cooking his breakfast was shot. Without any trial 
or proceeding, whatsoever, the regulators took the horses, returned and delivered 
them to their owners. These proceedings soon broke up horse stealing and 
outlawry, with which we had been annoyed, and one could turn a horse out on 
the commons to graze without fear of it being stolen. 

Another murder was committed in the southern part of the county. A man 
by the name of Dance was found dead in the timber, supposed to have been 
killed by some of his neighbors. The guilty parties kept the matter so quiet 
that no proof could be obtained whereby any one could be convicted, so that 
the murderer was not apprehended and brought to a just punishment of his 
crime. Thus the guilty parties of the first three murders in our county were 
not punished, consequently it was the only remedy, for the law-abiding citizens 
to organize for their mutual protection. 


The first and only man that was publicly executed in this county was hung 
in the year 1860, and that occurred in the Town of Delhi, it being at that time 
the county seat. This man, Johnson by name and a Swede by birth, killed a 
man near the mouth of Cat Fish Creek in Dubuque County, where he was first 
tried and found guilty. A new trial was granted, with a change of venue to 
this county. He had a fair trial and was again found guilty and sentence and 
execution followed. 

A murder was committed in 1863 in North Fork Township. One man stabbed 
another in a hand to hand fight, from the effects of which he died. The guilty 
party was convicted of manslaughter, a small fine was imposed and he was 
sentenced to a short terra in the penitentiary. 


The first settlers had longer and harder winters to contend with than at the 
present time. Winters for many years would begin early. We generally had 
good sleighing at Thanksgiving, which would last until about the 15th of 
March. The winter of 1856 was very severe, about 2y 2 feet of snow having 
fallen. On this there was a hard crust of ice, thick enough to bear the weight 
of a man. Where the snow was drifted it was packed so closely and frozen 
so hard that it would bear up a team of horses or cattle. Our rail fences were 
regular snow catchers and the snow was frozen so hard that a team could go 
over the fences anywhere. The small game, especially quails, were almost 
exterminated. When the snow melted these birds were found in groups frozen, 
where the snow had drifted over them and fhey had perished. Many deer also 
perished and were caught by dogs and wolves. When the deer would jump and 
run, his weight upon his small sharp hoofs would cut through the crust of ice 
on top of the snow. The wolf or dog could run on top of the ice, consequently 
the deer was soon overtaken and killed. A deer running in a broken path or 

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road would not leave the track, for as soon as he left the beaten track and 
jumped into the snow, he was powerless to run. 

Climatic conditions have changed very perceptibly in the last fifty years. 
The winters are not so cold, nor is the snow as deep, and a cold wave does not 
continue so long. There are quite a number of theories advanced as to what 
has brought about this change. There was an unbroken wilderness where now 
there is cultivation. The country is settled to the coast and heat is going up 
out of millions of chimneys. Besides this railroad engines and furnaces send up 
volumes of heated air. These and many other minor things have brought about 
the change. 

The year of 1851 was a very wet season. Our rail fences were washed away 
by the flood of waters wherever there was a small depression on the high ridge 
lands. Our sloughs were swollen into rivers and low grounds were lakes of 
water. Little creeks were so filled with water that they could not be crossed. 
Everything along the creeks and sloughs were destroyed; mill and other dams 
were washed away. There was but one mill that escaped and that was situated 
on high ground and was run by an overshot wheel. The water that run the 
mill came from a couple of large springs near by. The flood of waters passed 
below the mill in the valley. This mill was about three miles from Colesburg 
and was known as the Bailey Mill. 


The settlers had many means of amusements which were participated in by 
the whole population. One of these forms of amusement was a shooting match. 
The men would get together and shoot for turkeys and other things. The best 
shot being declared the winner, carried off the prize. One method of shooting 
for turkeys was where the bird was put behind a block of wood, so that only the 
head could be seen. The marksman stood at a distance of fifty yards and shot 
at the head of the turkey, off-hand, with an open-sighted gun. No globe or peep 
sights were used and one had to be a good marksman to hit the turkey's head. 

At husking bees, wood choppings and house or barn raisings, everybody 
turned out and after the work was done a general good time was had. In the 
evening dancing and other forms of amusements were participated in by both 
old and young. 


Hunting wolves was another fine sport. As there were no fences on the 
boundless prairie the hunting party went on horseback, carrying a smooth 
hickory club about three-fourths of an inch in diameter and about five feet in 
length. There was a heavy knob on the outer end of the stick, with which he 
could strike the wolf a heavy blow and not have to dismount from his horse. 
Greyhounds were used and when a wolf was started out of his lair the chase 
began. This was very exciting, as often when the dogs caught up with the wolf 
he would turn and show fight. The wolf was often too mucfy for the dogs but 
while engaged in the conflict the hunter would ride up and with one stroke of 
his long hickory club upon the wolf would soon place him at his mercy. The 

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dogs would then soon dispatch his wolfship. A large full grown timber wolf 
would sometimes come off victorious. 


Horse racing was another amusement often indulged in. Quite frequently 
betting and gambling produced some that were called jockey races. One of 
these jockey races was pulled off on a half mile track near the Town of Coles- 
burg. That created great excitement in our settlement. This was called the 
old Bruce race. A horse by the name was brought from Galena, Illinois, and 
matched with an animal that was owned at Colony. There were present a large 
number of persons of the sporting fraternity from Dubuque, Galena, Plattville, 
Lancaster and other towns. Excitement ran so high that men even went so far 
as to bet their coat, the losers going home in their shirt sleeves. All kinds of 
property, horses, cattle, sheep, hogs, as well as money, was wagered on this race. 
The Colesburg mare won the race by a distance of six feet. 


In the year 1845 we held the first Fourth of July celebration, which at the 
time was quite an event. People came from far and near to hear the eagle 
scream. Quite a number came from (at that time) a distance, camped out and 
waited until it was over. The next day they broke camp and departed for their 
homes. This celebration at Colesburg was the first held in the county of which 
the writer has any knowledge. 


Various were the ways in which amusements were indulged in by different 
persons, one of which I will relate. A man had a hog that he wanted to kill 
for his own use and he asked a couple of his neighbors to assist him. They came 
and got ready to butcher the hog by putting the hot water into a barrel that 
had ice in the bottom of it. The water was thus rendered too cold to scald 
the hair off the hog. They put some more water in a kettle near by to get hot 
and while this was heating they went into the house to get another drink, leaving 
the hog in the barrel, partly filled with water. One drink called for another 
and in the meantime the men proposed a game of cards. They played and drank 
until late in the night, and the owner of the hog got so far along he had to go 
to bed ; the two neighbors went to their homes. During the night the weather 
turned very cold and the next morning, when the man went out, he found the 
hog frozen fast in the barrel. Intemperance among our pioneer people was 
not any worse than it is today, although we had several distilleries and one 
brewery that I remember of. 


Two glasses of beer were sold for a nickel and a cheroot cigar given in the 
bargain. Whisky sold for 20 cents a gallon and a barrel of whisky could be 

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bought for $5. There was no tax on it for revenue until the Civil war began. 
Corn, from which it was made, was very cheap — 8 and 10 cents per bushel., 
When our first prohibitory law was passed we supposed it would stop the traffic, 
but litigation followed and a saloon keeper at Colesburg defended himself for 
five years, sold liquor all the time and finally beat the county at an expense of 
about eight hundred dollars, which the county had to pay. But in recent years 
the conflict has been decided in favor of temperance and there is npt a saloon in 
the county. While the early advocates of temperance had a majority against 
them they are entitled to credit for the tenacity with which they hung to the 
cause. The first Iowa Legislature, although democratic, passed a law that a 
dram shop was a nuisance and could be abated as such, but the officer of the law, 
being in favor of the sale of liquor, the law was not enforced. 


Our schools were not of the most desirable class, but, under the existing 
circumstances, they were the best that could be secured. Where there were 
enough children in a settlement a school was organized and, as our school laws 
were about in accord with the conditions under which the settler labored, our 
schools were very primitive affairs. Each school .was independent, controlled 
by three directors and the teachers' wages were raised by subscription. The 
teachers were examined by one of the directors if he was competent to discharge 
that duty, if not, some person was selected by the board who was competent to 
examine the teacher in the three Rs, namely : Reading, writing and arithmetic. 
This was the standard ; and a teacher was considered competent to teach the young 
ideas how to shoot if versed in the three branches. Very little was taught in 
orthography — simply spelling the word, naming each letter and pronouncing 
each syllable as you spelled the word. The instructions in reading were given 
by the teachers and the main rule was to read a subject as though you were 
talking to one or more persons, according to the subject you were trying to 
read. The New Testament was the standard book for the first reading class, 
which was read twice each day — morning and evening. Arithmetic was taught 
mentally, until you had learned the tables of addition, subtraction, multiplication 
and division. Then the scholar was given a slate and pencil, taught to work out 
his problems in figures, and exhibit the same to the teacher. Blackboards had 
not been adopted, but we heard that they were used in the East. 

Writing was taught by the teacher making the characters in a copy book and 
the scholar made the best imitation he could by looking at the letters. One 
of the rules for writing was to keep the feather end of the penstock pointing 
squarely over your shoulder. Our pens were made of goose quills. That was 
one of the arts a teacher was examined in — the cutting, shaping and making a 
suitable pen out of a goose quill. Steel pens were not used by the scholars until 
they had learned to write with a quill pen. Our school day was not only from 
9 o'clock until 4 P. M., but in the winter time was from daylight until dark, 
and in the summer time the school closed in the evening in time for the scholars 
to get home by sundown. Those who lived farthest from the school were dis- 
missed first and others afterwards, according to the distance they had to go. 

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The teacher had a list of rules governing the school. These rules were read 
to the pupils every Monday morning and upon violation of them a light punish- 
ment was inflicted for each offense under each rule. When a pupil had broken 
three rules or one rule three times he was then punished by a severe whipping, 
generally with the consent of the parents, who advocated the doctrine that the 
more severe the punishment the better the scholar was made. Our teachers some- 
times had what was called a lookout. This was one of the scholars, who stood on 
the end of one of the seats and watched the rest of the pupils. When he saw any 
violation of the rules, or whispering, he threw a ruler at the scholar, calling 
him or her by name. This scholar then had to take the ruler to the teacher, who 
would give the culprit several sharp raps on the palm of the hand with it. 
This scholar would then mount the seat and watch for another victim ; and at 
the least offense, the ruler was thrown and that fellow would then go up and 
get his ration. This process kept on until the school board put a stop to it, 
for the lookout would often throw the ruler at some one who was not whispering 
in order to get back to his seat. This ruler was made of black walnut, about 
two feet long alid two inches wide and three-fourths of an inch thick, beveled 
on one side. The fellow that was on the lookout was not particular whether 
he hit you on the head with the ruler or where he struck you and when the 
ruler was thrown every scholar on that seat would jump, thinking he was the 
one wanted. 

Teachers were sometimes hired for a stipulated sum of money and their 
board, which was secured by the teacher boarding around among the scholars, 
a week at each home. This was not very pleasant for the teacher. If the 
parents liked the teacher he was supplied with the best they had, but if they 
did not like him as a teacher he was generally given the poorest bed to sleep in, 
with very little covering. A teacher boarding around had for his supper one 
evening buttermilk, and corn bread that had been baked several days, and after 
partaking of the repast he thought he could sleep on what he had eaten. The 
next morning, about the time he was getting up, he heard quite a hammering 
and pounding out in the kitchen and then the voice of the old lady broke in on 
the morning air: -'My gracious, girls, you will break that skillet. Why, what 
are you doing V 9 "Why, mother, we are breaking up the corn board so we can 
soak it in the buttermilk for breakfast.' ' The teacher was taken with a violent 
headache and had to take a walk in the fresh morning air. 


There was another amusement that was carried on by the larger boys and 
usually occurred at Christmas time. This was called "barring the teacher out ,? 
of the schoolhouse ; with the object of making him treat the scholars to candy or 
apples. If the teacher missed any days except the Fourth of July he had to 
make them up and, in order to do this, sometimes would teach on Christmas and 
New Year's. If they desired to teach on those days it was a custom to treat the 
scholars. The door of the schoolhouse was generally barred up on Christmas 
by the larger boys and the teacher was denied admittance unless he produced 

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the candy or apples. The smaller scholars were taken in at a window, which was 
fixed for the occasion, and guarded by a strong force. When the teacher would 
try the door and ask for admittance every scholar would have his book studying 
as though everything was in its regular order. If he said he could not procure 
the candy and apples that day or if he had them with him, which was generally 
> the case, the door would be unbarred and thrown open and at noon time became 
a gala time for two hours, being Christmas day, and everything would pass 
smoothly. But if the teacher failed to treat, there was a general melee as to 
who should have possession. Sometimes this was carried to* the extent of break- 
ing up the school. The school board in the settlement one year hired the Presby- 
terian minister who was stationed in the neighborhood. He thought he would 
play the boys a sharp trick, so he dismissed school the day before Christmas 
and gave a vacation until after New Year's Day. But when he came to the 
school house on the morning of the 2d of January, he found the door fastened 
and all the scholars in the schoolroom in their proper places, studying their 
lessons, with one of the older boys filling the place of teacher. , He looked in at 
the window, and making a few congratulatory remarks to the scholars went 
away. In about an hour he returned and asked all of those who wished to come 
out and go to his home and he would teach them there until he could gain pos- 
session of the schoolhouse. Some of the smaller children desiring to go, the 
window was raised in order to let them pass out. While they were passing out 
the teacher attempted to get into the schoolhouse and succeeded in getting one 
leg and his head in. The window was then pulled down on his shoulders and 
he was held a prisoner. In a few moments his clothes were loosened by un- 
buttoning them. He was rolled back out of the window and his clothes 
were stuffed full of snow. He finally begged for mercy and was let up. He 
started for his home without his hat and with his clothes filled with about all 
the snow they would hold. 


The first school taught in the Dickson Settlement was in the year 1845, the 
teacher being a lady. There were eleven scholars, and as the wages were $12 for 
three months, in order to have a school a young man who had taken up land, 
paid $1 to make up the deficiency. This made the sum $1 per scholar for three 
months, or $4 per month for the teacher's wages and she boarded herself. This 
would look like starvation wages to a teacher of this day and age, and so it 
would be. 

Our schoolhouse, I remember, was a crude affair. It was 12 by 14 feet, 
built of logs and daubed with mud. The floor was split basswood logs laid 
with the flat side up. Seats were made of the same material, with legs about 
two feet long, so that your feet did not touch the floor. Imagine the position 
for a boy to sit all day on one of those benches, with his feet and legs hanging 
down. The writing desk was made by placing one-half of a split basswood log 
against the wall in the crack between the logs, of which the schoolhouse was 
built. This was kept in place by two legs that rested on the floor. The roof 
was held in place by poles about six inches in diameter, one pole upon each 
row of shingles, which were split from a straight grained log, about three feet 

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long. There was a fireplace in one end of the schoolroom and a piece of carpet 
was used for a door shutter. 

The opportunities at that time for children to get a start along educational 
lines were, to say the least, very limited, and just so up to manhood. As soon 
as a boy was old enough, he w r as put to work on the farm during the summer 
and when winter came he took an ax and went to the timber, to* help get out 
rails and stakes with which to make and repair fences the following spring. 

Thus our schools were sadly neglected, not because it was the desire of our 
parents, but the people were poor and often parents were unable to provide suit- 
able shoes and clothing for their children in w r hich to attend school. But a 
few years relieved that condition of affairs and schools were placed on a solid 
basis under our laws. Schoolhouses sprang up very quickly over our county 
and the foundation was firmly laid, from which has grown our present school 
system, by which every child within the county can receive a fair education. 
The foregoing schoolhouse herein described stood on the northeast quarter of 
the northeast quarter of Section 23, Colony Township, No. 90, Range 3 west, 
fifth principal meridian. 

As there is no historical or other record of our schools, I have written the 
foregoing to show the primitive condition of them, the manner in which they 
were conducted and the energy of the early settlers in establishing them. 


We also had spelling school once a week during the fall and winter. This 
was generally conducted in the evening and was often attended by our parents. 
Two captains were selected and they generally threw up a penny for the first 
choice among the scholars; then the captains chose alternately until all the 
spellers were taken, which made a fair division. The words were then pro- 
nounced by the teacher, first to one side and then to the other. When a word 
was missed by one side the other had a chance to spell the word. The side that 
missed the least number of words was declared the winner. Time and again 
the whole school would stand up and when a word was misspelled the person sat 
down and did not spell again at this contest. The school would get down to 
from two to four spellers and the last to miss a word was considered the 


There was another school called a singing school, which was conducted in 
the evening. Here the young people were taught the art of singing by note. 
The singing books were somewhat different from those used today. Each note 
was represented by a different character so that the position on the staff did 
not make any difference. The note was known by its^shape. The first books 
only had four notes, but as civilization advanced, we obtained books that had 
the full complement. Half and quarter notes had different marks by which 
they were "known. The person who could sing the loudest was considered the 
best singer, provided he had the opportunity to go home with the best looking 
girl. The screeching at one of those singing schools would set all the dogs and 
wolves in the neighborhood to howling. 

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Sunday schools were among the things of interest with the early settlers. 
Their organization was similar to the present day only we did not have the books 
and papers to distribute among the scholars that are now enjoyed. The older 
children, who could read in the New Testament, were required to commit to 
memory one or more verses from the Bible and recite them on the following 
Sabbath. The smaller scholars, who could not read, were arranged in classes 
and the teacher read to them from the sacred Word some story contained therein 
and explained the story as it was read to them. Our first Sunday school was 
conducted without any books, papers or pamphlets whatever. The New Testar 
ment was the only book or written matter of any kind used in the school. 

The next thing of interest was the introduction of a Sunday school library, 
which was sent us from the Home Missionary Society, and contained 100 vol- 
umes of suitable reading for both old and young. This gave our Sunday 
school a forward movement, as reading matter of any kind was very scarce in 
this new settlement and it was also instrumental in leading the thoughts of our 
people to a higher aim in life. Each scholar took a book from the library to 
his home, returning it the next Sabbath and taking another book. This process 
gave each person an opportunity to obtain and read every book in the collec- 
tion. Colporteurs passed through the country, distributing religious books of 
different kinds. If one was able to pay a small sum of money for the books 
it was accepted, and if not the distributor gave you a New Testament and left 
small printed pamphlets, that were called tracts, containing religious reading 
and instruction. 


An amusing story was told by one of the colporteurs who called at a certain 
home that was comparatively new. He found the woman and children destitute 
of money, with which to buy books, and he said to the woman of the house as he 
went out to his wagon, "I will leave you some tracts." The woman replied, 
"Yes, and I will be very glad if you will leave them with the heel tracks toward 
the house, for the children and me are alone today and I do not wish to enter- 
tain company. ' ' 

Thus, through the kindness of religious men and the missionary society, we 
were supplied with reading matter which would have been impossible for us to 
obtain, through lack of ready money. Consequently, we would have been com- 
pelled to do without them. As our settlement grew and became more able to 
give, our schools prospered accordingly. 


Debating societies were well patronized both by old and young. The society 
would meet once a week in winter evenings at the schoolhouse and, after a 
division of the house on a question proposed at a previous meeting, it was dis- 
cussed both pro and con. The side that propounded a preponderance of argu- 
ment was declared by the judges the winner. Many questions, both state and 
national, that were before the people, were discussed at these debating societies 

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and were the means of changing the votes of many persons who had attended 
them and obtained a knowledge of the question at issue before the people ; they 
could cast their ballot intelligently. It was in one of these societies in Illinois 
that President Lincoln shone as a star and developed the oratorial powers which 
he possessed in his early life. No doubt this early training was of great, assist- 
ance to him in his arguments, not only in courts of law but also in his political 
life, when discussing questions of national character, of which his argument at 
Preeport, Illinois, in the year 1858, upon the slavery question, stands without 
a rival on the pages of American history. The question of temperance was 
argued in these societies and thus the principle was early instilled into the 
minds of the younger people of the county. Delaware County has always voted 
for prohibition at all the elections held where the liquor question was at issue. 
Although starting along educational lines in a very primitive way the early 
settler laid a foundation upon which a gigantic structure has arisen, for educa- 
tion, temperance and reformation. 


Our first temples in which the worship of God was conducted were in the 
groves near some settler's cabin, a stump being used for a Bible stand. As we 
had no resident minister we were visited about three or four times a year by 
what was called a circuit rider, who came on horseback carrying all his accouter- 
ments with him. These were placed in a couple of leather pouches, called 
saddlebags, and fastened to the back part of the saddle, which hung down on 
the sides of the horse. The contents usually were a change of clothing, a Bible, 
a hymn book and a collection of leaflets of religious reading, which he distributed 
among the people. Upon his visits he performed marriage ceremonies, baptism 
of children and preached funeral sermons, if any one had died since his last 
visit. As we did not have hymn books, the minister would line the hymn that 
was to be sung by reading two lines of the first verse of the hymn, in which the 
congregation joined with the minister in singing. Then the next two lines were 
read by the minister and they were sung by all ; again, the next two lines, and 
so on until the hymn was sung from start to finish. 


Camp meetings were frequently held by the church people. There would be 
some four or five of these meetings during the summer and autumn, when the 
people came from their homes prepared to spend about two weeks. Some had 
tents, others covered wagons, in which they slept. The cooking was done by a 
camp fire near by. The camp grounds were lighted in the evenings by building 
a scaffold about five feet high, on which about one foot of dirt was thrown. 
A fire was placed on this dirt and kept burning and in this manner the grounds 
were lighted ; lanterns and candles furnished the additional light needed. The 
meetings were generally attended by two different classes of people. There was 
very often a rowdy element that was a source of annoyance to the quietly dis- 
posed people which sometimes became very troublesome. The people were 
sometimes assembled by the blowing of a tin horn for the worship hour. Some 

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rowdy would manage to steal the horn and about the time the congregation had 
gotten well located in their tents and wagons for the night, the horn would be 
blown vigorously and arouse them from their slumbers. Many other pranks, too 
numerous to mention, were imposed upon the worshiping people. I will refer 
the reader to the autobiography of Peter Cartwright, who has very elaborately 
written of the acts of this rowdy element during his services in the Rock 
River Conference. 


After a few years, resident preachers were established among our people, 
but we did not have any church building. Our log schoolhouses were pressed 
into service and our religious meetings were held in them and sometimes they 
were held in private homes. There was an appointment where a minister was 
to hold service in a private house in our settlement, the hour being 10 o'clock 
in the morning. The people had assembled and the hour for worship was draw- 
ing near. The man at whose home the service was to be held saw a wolf chasing 
his sheep in the pasture near by. He took down his gun, went out into the 
pasture and succeeded in killing the wolf. Just as he came back to the house, 
dragging the dead wolf, and with gun on shoulder, the preacher rode up and 
thus the good man was caught in a dilemma on Sunday morning. After shaking 
hands with the minister, he remarked that he had been trying for two weeks 
to get a shot at that wolf and, seeing a good opportunity that Sunday morning, 
he could not resist the temptation, for if he did not kill the wolf it would kill 

his sheep. The minister replied : ' ' Brother D , work of necessity must be 

done, and if there are any more wolves show up, we will kill them if it is Sunday. ' ' 

The first religious service that the writer remembers attending was held under 
a shanty covered with brush and leaves. A large stump near the. shanty was 
used as a Bible stand. Logs, about iy 2 feet in diameter, were used for seats. 
The preacher, a large and powerful man, preached an old-fashioned hell-fire-and- 
brimstone sermon that caused the children, who were old enough to understand, 
to refrain from doing anything wrong for fear the devil would carry them off. 


The love of God for humanity was not mentioned in his sermon; neither 
w T ere the familiar quotations from the lips of the Savior, such as * * Suffer little 
children to come unto Me and forbid them not, for of such is the Kingdom of 
Heaven/ ' " Except ye become as little children ye cannot enter into the 
Kingdom of Heaven.' ' The only inducement held out to us, which our young 
minds grasped, was that we would have to be good boys and girls in order to 
escape hell fire. The love of the Divine Teacher was not taken into considera- 
tion. And yet Christianity, education, temperance and reform seemed to travel 
hand in hand. Starting out among the early settlers in a very small beginning, 
the guiding hand of God seemed to crown their feeble efforts with success ; for 
the schoolhouses and churches within our county are strong evidences of the 
fact today. 

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The pay of the ministers was quite an object. Often they took the larger 
share of their stipend in such products as the settlers had, as little money was in 
circulation among the people and they were willing to take the inconveniences of 
a new country along with the rest. As our county grew in population the 
different church organizations became established among our people. Even 
Mormonism was preached among the settlers after the votaries of that sect 
were driven from Nauvoo, Illinois. Sabbath desecration was never practiced 
among the people. We generally had a Sunday school and class meeting, 
and some member would lead the meetings in the absence of a minister ; hence 
the young people received religious instruction that became the foundation of 
character in after life. 


Political parties were run on the. lines of a free vote and a fair count, our 
county being principally democratic. The republican party had not been born. 
The old whig party was in existence as late as 1860. Previous to 1856 the two 
principal parties were whig and democratic, with the latter in power. Occa- 
sionally a whig candidate would be elected. Elections in that day were not as 
well guarded as they now are. Reports on the votes from back townships in the 
county and back counties in the state were very often meddled with before the 
returns were all handed in. Sometimes more votes were returned than there 
were people living in the precincts. The offices not being being very remunera- 
tive were not looked after very closely and a defeated candidate did not care 
to spend much time in a campaign or contest. 

The campaign of 1860 was one of the most exciting ever witnessed in this 
county, not so much on local, as on national affairs. The paramount question of 
the non-extension of slavery had been espoused by the republican party, which 
had been defeated in 1856. The election of James Buchanan to the presidency 
of the United States had given the southern democracy an opportunity to get 
hold of the property of the United States. Our army was placed mostly in the 
southern states and our munitions of war were sent south, so that when the war 
actually began in the spring of 1861 we were almost destitute of anything with 
which to defend ourselves. The slavery question had been agitated among the 
Northern people and had been thoroughly discussed by our statesmen, as well 
as the victory of the republican party, in the election of Abraham Lincoln to 
the presidency. In 1860 there were five candidates for the presidency of the 
United States. This was the first victory for the young republican party, with 
its platform so well defined on the slavery question. The Southern Confederacy 
was organized. The southern members of Congress withdrew, to meet at 
Montgomery, Alabama, and there assembled, defied the authority of the general 
Government. War was then declared against the United States and the great 
rebellion came on. Delaware County was not lacking in patriotism. After the 
firing on Port Sumter, which was the beginning of hostilities, her young men 
answered to the first call for troops, and men and means were furnished by our 
citizens to every call made by the President, and their watchword was, the 
Union of these states must be preserved at all hazards ! 

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Not only our county but the whole country from East to West and North to 
South was awakened to the fact that our political difficulties could not be settled 
but by the arbitrament of war. Argument had lost its force, compromise had 
failed, and as a last resort the call to arms had come and our county was in a 
turmoil. The appeal of orators, the beating of drums, the booming of guns 
were heard in every town, village and hamlet within its border. The young 
men of Delaware County responded to the call to arms, shouting the Battle Cry 
of Freedom and singing one of the familiar songs of that day, "We Are Com- 
ing, Father Abraham, Six Hundred Thousand More"; and for nearly two long, 
weary years the people had misgivings as to the result of the great struggle, as 
first one side would gain a victory and then the other. Also, foreign nations, 
looking to the cotton trade of the southern states, were debating the question 
of recognizing the southern Confederacy as an independent nation and com- 
pelling us to raise the blockade of the southern ports. The opening of the Mis- 
sissippi River in July, 1863, by the northern forces, seemed to put a quietus 
on foreign interference and the situation viewed from a foreign standpoint was 
decidedly in favor of the United States. Thus in this gigantic struggle we had 
enemies without as well as armed foes within. During the four years of hos- 
tilities, the army and navy were the embodiment of the Republic. All eyes, 
both at home and from foreign shores, were trained upon the advance or the 
retreat of the United States armies. If we were successful and gained a victory, 
our stocks and bonds advanced in price. When the northern army suffered a 
defeat, the stocks and bonds of every description went down in price. Congress 
of the United States paid little attention to any legislation that was not a war 
measure, as our existence as a nation depended on the victory of our army 
which, after a four years' struggle, was victorious, and the angel of peace spread 
his wings over our devastated country. Peace was declared, the army disbanded 
and the soldier boys of Delaware County, like those of other places that had 
survived the death dealing contest, returned to their homes. While to some, it 
would seem, the home coming soldier's heart would be leaping with joy over 
his safe return to his home and friends, yet with many of them this was not 
the case. There were many changes .in the old homestead since he went away. 
The Death Angel had left a vacant chair at the family board, the familiar faces 
that sat with him at the table were not all there. Then the thought of comrade, 
brother, friend that he left in the Southland to molder away into that silent, 
voiceless, dreamless dust, from which there is no waking until the trump of God 
shall arouse him from his slumbers; the toilsome march, the siege, the conflict 
and the scenes of carnage and blood ; the burial place of comrades and the whole 
panorama of his military life seems to pass before him in a moment of time 
and with tears dimming his eyes, he excuses himself by saying his appetite is 
gone. Hence, with many the home coming was as sad as the departure for the 
field of strife. The great struggle required nearly every able-bodied man sub- 
ject to military duty to enlist in the cause of his country; consequently, the 
women in many instances took their places both in the shops and on the farms, 
doing the work of the men in the fields. 

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While the husband, father or brother was absent, the noble women of Dela- 
ware County were organized into aid societies. They held their meetings at 
each others' homes and there made various articles of convenience, stockings, 
handkerchiefs, pin and needle cushions, and also forwarded to the hospitals 
many useful articles of general use for the sick and wounded, confined in those 
places. And as they scraped the lint and rolled the bandages, they did not 
stop to think whose wounds those bandages would bind up, nor did they know 
what soldier might be benefited by them. But the hospital and other supplies 
were sent forward for the benefit of any person who might need them. Xo 
women were more patriotic or more self-sacrificing than the noble women of 
Delaware County in the effort to alleviate the suffering of the boys in blue. 

As the history of the many daring deeds and brilliant achievements of the 
boys in blue have been written up in the history of our state and nation, I will 
refer the reader to them. Although much has been written and the stories of 
those dark and gloomy days have been told by fathers to sons, there yet remains 
an untold history that would fill many a volume were it all written out. Many 
of the soldiers who went from Delaware County were sons of the early settlers. 
They were not only skilled in the use of firearms but were more used to an out- 
door life. To be deprived of the comforts of civil life and to endure the hard- 
ships and hunger incident to army life, they were better prepared to stand the 
privations to which they were subjected than they would have been had their 
boyhood days been spent in luxury. They were physically prepared for the 
conflict by the manner of life in which they had grown to manhood. History 
cannot tell, language cannot describe, nor words picture the mental suffering 
endured by the fathers, mothers, wives, sisters and sweethearts of the boys in 
blue, while the dark clouds of grim visaged war hung over our country. The 
mails were w r atched and waited for. If one person got a letter the rest of the 
anxious inquirers were informed of its contents. The telegrams announce a 
great battle has been fought; a week or ten days intervene before tne papers 
can give a detailed report as to w T ho has fallen in the conflict. The anxious 
wife and mother lives between hope and despair, not knowing what the news 
may be as to the safety of her loved ones, but in anxiety and grief waits pa- 
tiently, trusting in God that all is well. 


The volunteer soldiers at the close of the war returned to their homes, taking 
up the duties of life and citizenship where they had laid them down. They 
dropped into civil life without a ripple upon the surface and took an active 
part in the duties of rebuilding both our state and nation. 

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Delhi Township was one of the first to be accorded political importance, 
having been organized March 24, 1847, and is congressional township 88, range 
4. It lies in the second tier from the south and is bounded on the north by* 
Oneida, on the east by North Fork, on the south by Union and on the west by 
Milo. The locality has contributed largely to the county's early history, which 
makes it of special interest not only to the people living within its confines, 
but to the county generally. 

The land here is highly cultivated and the homes of the husbandmen are 
of the best. The same may be said of all improvements, that go to make the 
surroundings comfortable and a happy, contented people. The land is traversed 
by the Maquoketa, its tributaries and Plum Creek, which afford ample drain- 
age and water. This section of the county is well adapted to general farming 
and stock-raising. 

The first settler, John W. Penn, came as early as the spring of 1838. He 
was a Virginian by birth, and in 1833, left the Old Dominion for the almost 
unknown west, stopping at Dubuque. Coming to Delaware County, he took 
up a claim in this township, on section 9, in a beautiful grove, which afterward 
became generally known and designated as Penn's Grove. In 1846, Mr. Penn 
married the widow of Drury R. Dance. The latter was treasurer of the county 
and in February, 1845, before the expiration of his term of office, was foully 
murdered. Penn was one of the prominent figures in Delaware's history, was 
one of her first county collectors, served ten years as sheriff and held other 
positions of. trust. 

John Corbin and wife came from Ohio over the trackless prairies to Delaware 
County in 1839, and settled in Delhi Township. At the time of his locating 
here, there were no actual settlements in this part of the county. He was an 
active, industrious man, and was highly respected. He died in 1883 and his 
widow survived him many years. A son, Doran S. Corbin, was born in his 
father's log cabin in 1850, and his farm, adjoining the Village of Delhi, was one 
of the finest in the county. John W. Corbin, another son of John Corbin, was 
born in January, 1841. His is credited as the third birth in the county. He 
served in the Civil war, married Augusta Plash in 1866, and served the county 
as sheriff from 1875 to 1877. 

William H. Baker was a native of New York. His parents came to Delaware 
County in a very early day. The father was an able lawyer and died at his 
son's house in Delhi, in 1856. 

Rheinard Kahmer left his adopted state of Illinois in 1839 and settled in 
Delhi Township when it was but a wilderness. At the age of forty-five years 


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he enlisted in the Civil war as a member of the Twenty-first Iowa Infantry. 
He lived to see the county grow and prosper for over a half century. 

Charles W. Hobbs was one of the early and chief factors in the settlement 
and organization of Delaware County. He settled near Gilbert D. Dillon's, in 
North Pork Township, in 1840, and in the following year he removed to Penn's 
•Grove. This pioneer was born in Queen Annes County, Maryland, in 1805. 
From October, 1836, to October, 1837, he served as clerk in St. Louis and in 
the latter year went to Dubuque. Leaving Penn's Grove in the spring of 1841, 
he removed to Delhi Township and built a cabin on his land, just outside of 
the confines of Delhi. The stone chimney of this primitive home remains stand- 
ing as a landmark of the first habitation in that locality. In the year 1857 
Mr. Hobbs left Delhi for Osage, where he served two and a half years as re- 
ceiver of the land office. The office was then abolished and he returned home. 
He was the first clerk of the District Court of Delaware County and also clerk 
of the Commissioners ' Court, which position he held for seven years. Mr. Hobbs 
was also recorder of deeds one term, took the United States census for the 
county in 1860, was justice of the peace several years and also postmaster at 

Benjamin F. Moffatt settled on Plum Creek, east of Delhi, near Schwartz' 
place in 1840. 

George and John Cutler built their cabins on land located between Moffatt's 
and Penn's Grove, and near them Moses Pennock settled at this time, which 
was the year 1840. 

The Lindsay family, formerly of Eads J Grove, also located in this com- 
munity at this period. 

In 1841 Simeon Phillips and his son, Fayette Phillips, settled near the 

George Pease, with his family, consisting of wife, two sons and two daugh- 
ters, came to Delaware County in 1845 and entered a quarter section of land 
near Delhi but lived near Bailey *s Ford. In August, Mrs. Pease died and was 
buried close beside the road, about a half mile east of Bailey's Ford. Soon 
after his wife's death Mr. Pease returned to the State of New York. 

Charles F. Fleming was an early settler here. He was a native of Sweden, 
"a '49er" of the goldfields of California, and coming to this township, at one 
time was the possessor of over two thousand acres of land. When he first lo- 
cated here he built a steam grist mill on the banks of Silver Lake and afterward 
purchased the Rocky Nook Mill property on the Maquoketa. 

Leonard Norris was among the earliest of the hardy land-seekers who came 
to this county in 1843, when but few white people had ventured into what was 
thought a wild and cheerless Eldorado. With his young wife he settled on 
section 14, entering the land and building a cabin thereon. This was his home 
for many years. 

Isaac Smith moved from Ohio to Delaware County in 1847, coming overland 
by wagon and carrying such household and other effects as could be conveniently 
carried by wagon. He settled in what was known as the Bay neighborhood in 
Delhi and Union townships. He was a member of the celebrated "Gray Beards/' 
of the Thirty-seventh Iowa Infantry. His son, Perry L. Smith, came with 
them, and in 1856 removed to Delhi, where he clerked in the dry-goods estab- 

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lishment of Elisha Brady five years. In 1861 he enlisted in the Fourteenth 
Iowa Infantry and served until the close of the war. 

H. 0. Hull, a native of Illinois, came to Delaware County about 1849 and 
entered land in Delhi Township. At the time there were only a couple of small 
buildings where Delhi now stands. A son, Charles N. Hull, who became a prom- 
inent live stock dealer at Hopkinton, was born in Delhi Township in 1850. 

Jeremiah B. Boggs came to Delaware County in 1850 and settled in this 
township. He was married to Catherine A. Black in 1861, served as deputy 
sheriff in 1857 and 1858, was elected sheriff in 1861, county judge in 1865 and 
auditor in 1869. 

Junius A. Griffin was born in New Hampshire and came to this county 
in 1851 with his father, who entered land on section 15. 

George Tubbs was one of the pioneers of Delhi Township. He was a native 
of New York State, where he married Amy Swift, who came with him to the 
prairies of Iowa in 1851 and settled in this township. For many years they 
lived on. section 16. 

Samuel Allison, Sr., who lived for many years on section 26, came to this 
township from Ohio in 1852. He soon thereafter returned to Ohio, where he 
married Rachel Bell, and then took up his residence here. He became one of 
the large landowners of this section. 

Ethan S. Cowles was born in Massachusetts. He came to Delaware County 
in 1852. He soon thereafter went to Illinois and married Phebe Eddy in 1854. 
They settled in Delhi but in 1856 removed to Richland Township, where he 
entered land and was appointed the Campton postmaster in 1857. In 1877 Mr. 
Cowles became sheriff of the county and again took up his residence in Delhi, 
then the county seat. 

Andrew Stone, one of the early settlers of this township, immigrated from 
the State of New York in the spring of 1854 and settled on section 9, Delhi 
Township, where he resided one year. He then removed to the Village of Delhi 
and served as justice of the peace, township trustee, director of the poor house 
and in other official capacities. 

Benjamin Thorpe, Sr., was a native of Connecticut. He removed to New 
York and from there immigrated to Iowa, settling in this township in 1855. In 
the following year he became a merchant in Delhi. 

J. B. Swinburne was born in England and came to the United States in 
1852, first settling in Illinois. In 1855 he located in Delhi and in 1859 went 
into the printing office of the Delaware County Journal, then under the editor- 
ship of J. L. McCreery. In later years he worked on the Dubuque Times and 
the Delaware County Union at Manchester. He took charge of the Delaware 
County Recorder at Delhi in 1872, and in the fall of that year bought the 
Recorder, changing its name to the Delhi Monitor. He is still a resident of 
Delhi and was elected mayor of the village at the time of its second incorpora- 
tion in 1909. 

One of the pioneers of Delaware County was George Wattson, who came 
from Michigan in 1856 and settled near Delhi. 

Elisha M. White, a New Yorker by birth, settled in this township in 1856. 
The following year he married Betsy Tubbs, daughter of George Tubbs. 

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The acquisition of the land on which Delhi stands was by entry from the 
Government by the county, details of which have been given in a former chap- 
ter, together with a relation of the difficulties encountered by the Commission- 
ers J Court in raising sufficient funds to pay the price of the land — the sum 
of $200. However, after Delhi had been chosen the seat of government, Joel 
Bailey, county surveyor, in March, 1842, assisted by Charles W. Hobbs and 
Payette Phillips, chainmen, and John W. Penn, stakeman, surveyed and platted 
the town site, but the plat for reasons heretofore mentioned, was not recorded 
until March 31, 1846. The land selected lies on section 17, Delhi Township, 
and the town was named Delhi by order of the Commissioners ' Court. 

As will be seen elsewhere in this volume, the first building erected in Delhi 
was a log cabin-like structure, built by the settlers for a bourthouse, on the 
southeast corner of the quarter section. This was the only house on the town 
site until the county secured title to the land on which it was situated. Close 
by, however, but on a contiguous quarter section, was the cabin of Charles W. 
Hobbs. No other improvements were made in the proposed town until 1846, 
when the county was enabled to sell lots and give good titles thereto, but in that 
year several lots were sold, upon which log structures were erected. The first 
to be put up was a cabin by Levi Ellis, and the second by John W. Clark. The 
latter 's crude habitation was built near the "Big Spring/' which was the first 
and only cabin in the town until 1851. William Phillips built a log structure 
in the place about this time. Along about 1847, Arial K. Eaton, who became 
one of the prominent lawyers and business men of Delhi, built another near the 
southwest corner of the town. It might be here stated that the town lots were 
offered at $5 each, but not many of them were sold even at that price until 
1851, when a new spirit seemed to have taken possession of the place and its 
advancement was accelerated. Probably the incentive to this new departure 
might have been attributed to the earnest and enterprising efforts of Frederick 
B. Doolittle and others, who took up their residence here at this time, or a 
little later. 

One of the most active leaders in the affairs of Delaware County for over 
a half century was F. B. Doolittle, a native of New York State, who left the 
scenes of his boyhood for the forests of Michigan. In the fall of 1849 he set 
out and came to Delhi, Delaware County, and after viewing the country, con- 
cluded to settle here. He then went back to Michigan, made arrangements for 
a permanent settlement and returned in the spring of 1850 with about three 
hundred dollars. The first summer he worked on farms at 50 cents a day 
and in the meantime made preparations and later started the Silver Lake 
Nursery. He introduced many valuable varieties of fruit, inspired settlers to 
cultivate all the hardy kinds and published a pamphlet on fruit culture, which 
was copied extensively in horticultural and agricultural reports. He remained 
in the nursery business some fifteen years, giving employment to a large num- 
ber of men, and then located in Delhi, where he found a field in real-estate 
dealings and continued in that vocation until he acquired for himself at one 
time over two thousand acres of land. Judge Doolittle built one of the finest 
residences in the county, on the banks of Silver Lake, and was a prominent 

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figure among the men who organized a company to build a railroad to Delhi. 
He did effectual work in organizing the Davenport & St. Paul Railroad Com- 
pany, also the Delaware County Construction Company, for the purpose of 
building the Davenport & St. Paul Railroad through Delaware County — a dis- 
tance of thirty miles. He was elected treasurer of the company and general 
manager to manage its business. He was the founder and laid out the Town 
of Delaware in this county and induced the Davenport & St. Paul Railroad to 
make its crossing at that place. He was elected judge of Delaware County in 
April, 1855, to fill a vacancy and afterward was reelected for the full term. 
He was the first United States revenue collector in Delaware County and held 
the office five years. He died a short time ago. 

One of the first industries established in Delhi was a blacksmith shop by 
one Mitchell, who located in the place in 1849. 

Daniel Baker built the old Iowa House in 1851, on a lot donated for the 
purpose by Frederick B. Doolittle, who had, in connection with William Price, 
helped to hew the timber for the log courthouse and taken his pay in town 
lots at $5 each. 

The "Blue Store' ' was opened by Thomas Helm, on a lot donated by P. B. 
Doolittle, and several otlter buildings were erected that year, even though some 
of the lots had advanced to the high (?) price of $25. For several years there- 
after the town grew and by 1856 it was an active, thriving, industrious trad- 
ing point In the meantime, in 1853, the new courthouse had been completed. 
The Harding Hotel was also built that year and for two years thereafter a 
steady advance was in evidence on every hand. G. W. Ashburn became land- 
lord of the Harding House, and he had all that he could do to provide a place 
to sleep for his many guests. But the swerving of the Dubuque & Pacific 
(Illinois Central) Railroad three miles north from town and the financial dis- 
tress of 1857 dealt such serious blows to the prosperity of Delhi, that it never 
recovered from the results, although it secured railroad facilities in the 'build- 
ing of the Davenport & St. Paul Railroad through the place in 1872. But the 
effect thereof was of no lasting benefit. 


Upon petition of a number of the citizens of Delhi, Judge Benson, of the 
County Court, in December, 1854, ordered that an election be held January 15, 
1855, to decide the question as to whether or not the town should be incor- 
porated, and appointed William F. 'Tanner, William Phillips and George Shel- 
don judges; C. W. Hobbs and S. F. Parker, clerks of the election. Thirty- 
seven votes were cast for the measure and none against. The court then ap- 
pointed January 27, 1855, as the day on which the citizens were to select by 
their vote five persons to prepare a charter for the government of the town. 
On that day Arial K. Eaton, James Wright, W. K. Griffin, Daniel Baker and 
S. F. Parker were elected. The charter as prepared was by order of the court 
submitted to a vote of the electorate February 28th, and was accepted by 
unanimous vote of twenty-eight. The charter is herewith given verbatum, be- 
cause of the unusual history connected with it. F^w towns have permitted 
their charters to lapse through nonuse of the privileges therein granted. 

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"See. 1st. — Be it ordained and established by the People of the Town of 
Delhi Delaware County State of Iowa with the sanction of the majority of the 
votes of a public Election held in said Town for that purpos 

"That the South East quarter of section seventeen in Township 88, North 
of Range four West of fifth pr. mr. in Delaware Co. State of Iowa, be, and the 
same is hereby declared a Town Corporate by the name and style of the, Town 
of Delhi. And its Inhabitants are hereby created a body corporate and politic 
by said name, and by that name shall have perpetual succession and shall have 
and use a common seat which they may alter and change at pleasure. 

"Sec. 2d. — When any tract of land adjoining the Town of Delhi shall have 
been, or shall hereafter be laid out into town lots and duly recorded, the same 
may by a majority of the Votes cast at any regularly notified meeting be annexed 
to said town and form a part of it. 

"Sec. 3. — Said Charter shall take effect and the said Town shall become 
duly incorporated on the first day of March A. D. 1855. 

"Sec. 4th. — The inhabitants of said town by the name and stile afforesaid 
shall have power to sue and be sued, plead and be impleaded, answer and be 
answered and to defend and be defended in all courts in law and equity and in 
all actions whatsoever, to purchaise receive and hold property Real Personal 
& Mixed for the use of said town and to sell lease improve and protect the same 

"Sec. 5th. — There shall be a local Legislature or board of Trustees to con- 
sist of a President and Five Trustees who shall be elected on the second Monday 
of March 1855 and each year there after who shall hold their office for One 
year and untill their successors are duly Elected & qualified 

"There shall be elected at the same time and place One Treasurer One 
Recorder and One Assessor who shall hold their office for the tirm of one year 
and untill their successors are Elected and qualified. The Treasurer shall give 
bonds to be approved by the president. And all Officers herein specified before 
entiring upon the duties of his station shall qualify by giving bonds (when 
required so to do). And takeing the useual Oath of Office 

"Sec. 6. — If at any time the board t)f trustees shall think it necessary to 
change this Charter, they shall give public Notice of said proposed alteration, 
then said alteration shall become a part of this charter. Alterations to this 
charter may allso be submited to the people, upon the petition of one half of 
the Voters in the town and the concurance of three of the trustees, and desided 
as above specified 

"Sec. 7. — The board of trustees is hereby invested with power to divide 
said town into wards, and change the same from time to time as them may 
deam advisable And fix the number of trustees to which each ward shall be 
entitled to 

"Sec. 8. — A majority of the board shall constitute a quoram, And said 
board shall be the Judge of the Election & qualifications of its member, Determin 
the rutes of its procedings and cause a record to be kept & preserved of the 

"Sec. 9. — The President shall preside at all meeting of the Board of trus- 
tees, when present and shall have no Vote except when there is a tie, when he; 

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shall have the Casting Vote, in the absence or inability of the President to act 
the Board shall appoint one of their number President pro tern, who shall dis- 
charge the duties & exercise the powers of the president during the Absence or 
Inability of that Officer to act. It shall be the duties of the President to sejC 
that the laws & ordinances are faithfully Executed Sign all Warrants for the 
collection of taxes draw all orders on the Treasurer, Certify all necessary pro- 
ceding under the Seal of said town of which he shall be the keeper 

"Sec. 10. — The board shall hold a meeting within ten days after their elec- 
tion at which time when so conveined they may appoint such other officers as 
they shall deam necessary, prescribe by Ordinance their duties, terms of office ' 
and Compensation and require from them the proper bonds to approved by 
the president 

"Sec. 11. — Ordinances passed by the board shall be signed by the presiding 
officer & attested by the recorder and shall be posted up in three or more public 
places in the town or published Once in some News paper, published in said 
town at least 10 days prior to taking effect, they shall also be recorded in a 
book kept for that purpos and attested by the Presiding officers & recorder 

"Sec. 12. — It is the duty of the Recorder to keep a true record of all the 
official proceedings of the board, which record shall be at all times subject to 
the inspection of the public and shall perform all such duties as may be re- 
quired of him by Ordinance 

"Sec. 13. — It is the duty of the Treasurer to receive all Moneys payable to 
the Corporation, and to disburse the same on Orders drawn by the President 
sealed with his seal, and Attested by the Recorder and to keep a true account 
of All receipts and disbursements and hold the same at all times ready for the 
inspection of the Board. And shall make a statement of the finances of the 
corporation in the Month of February each year, which shall be plaised on 
Record. And a copy of the same posted in three public places in sad Corpora- 
tion at least one week prior to the Anual Election. And perform all other 
duties that may be required of him by Ordinance. 

"Sec. 14. — The board of trustees is here-by invested with authority to make 
and establish such by laws and Ordinances as are necessary and proper for the 
good regulations Safety health & cleanliness of the town and the citizens thereof 
to leavy and collect taxes on all property within the limits of the corporation 
which by the laws of the state is not for all purposes exemp from taxation, 
which tax must not exceed One pr cent per annum on the assessed Valuation 
thereof And its collection of State & County taxes, to establish a grade and 
regulate and improve the side walks Alleys & Streets, to. change the grade, 
Make compensation to any person injured thereby, to provide drains sewers 
public Wells and such other hydraulic aparatus as they may deam necessary 
for the convenience of the town, and keep the same in repair to regulate Mar- 
kets, but not in such a maner as to prevent any person from selling the produce 
of his own farm in such a manner and quantity as he may deem proper, to 
licence and regulate or prohibit All shows or public exhibitions (if the lawes of 
the state are thereby not interf eared with) To provide against fires breaches 
of the peace gambling disorderly And indecent houses and conduct, and to 
make any other Ordinance, suitable and proper poliece regulations 

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"Sec. 15. — The said board of trustees are further authorised And em- 
powerd to require the property holders of aney street or part of a street to 
pave the same or side walks thereof Each in front of his own property when 
the owners of two thirds of the lots in such street or part of a street petition 
the board there for 

"Sec. 16. — No money shall be drawn from the treasurey Except by Order 
of the board of trustees, Signed by the President sealed with the seal of his 
office and attested by the Recorder 

"Sec. 17. — The board of Directors shall hold their first regular Meeting 
on the third Monday of March A D 1855, and every three months there after 
to wit the 3 Monday of June, September and December in each year. And 
may Hold specil Meeting whenever a majority of the Board may deem it 

"We the Comt. Elected to prepair a charter or Articles of Incorporation 
for the Town of Delhi in Delaware Co Iowa would Very Respt. Submit the 
above Charter or articles of Incorporation for the Consideration of the People 
of said Town, done at Delhi Feb 14 1855. 

"D. Baker Arial K. Eaton 

"Saml. F. Parker E. K. Griffin . 

James Wright/ ' 

On the second Monday in March following, was the day set for the election 
of municipal officers, but there is nothing definite recorded as to the names of 
the members selected on that occasion. From traditionary sources it appears 
that A. K. Eaton was elected mayor. But from the returns now a part of the 
archives of the Corporation of Delhi, of an election held in Delhi for municipal 
officers on the 7th day of March, 1856, it would naturally be gathered that 
that was the first election held for such officers in Delhi. John II. Peters, John 
Porter and Peter Case were the judges of this election, and Richard Cummings 
and Willard G. Campbell, clerks. Daniel Baker was elected mayor ; Z. A. Well- 
man, recorder ; John D. Smith, assessor ; William Price, treasurer ; E. K, Griffin, 
George Sheldon, George W. Ashburn and Andrew Stone, trustees. There were 
forty-three votes cast, and the names of those voting are here given: Samuel 

F. Parker, D. E. Coon, John Porter, J. H. Peters, R. Cummings, E. K. Griffin, 

G. W. Ashburn, Willard G. Campbell, Truman Mason, Peter Case, Charles 
Hale, William Phillips, William Vousburgh, James Reck, J. C. Jones, Mr. 
Gool, William Elliott, R. Morton, Benjamin Kellogg, William Wason,' J. JJ. 
Brayton, Z. A. Wellman, T. P. Hall, Jacob Phillips, Erastus Morse, Franklin 
Jefford, B. McCormick, James T. Crosier, Harrison Ashburn, William 0. Glas- 
ner, M. Noble, D. Baker, William C. Garrett, A. E. House, William Goodhue, 
Charles Harding, George B. Mort, A. C. Taylor, J. C. Goodhue, Patrick O'Doud, 
F. II. Williams, John D. Smith and Jacob Galyean. 

A short return to the early business interests of Delhi finds a^ place here, 
that some not mentioned shall not be omitted. In 1856, William Sylvester, 
Elisha Brady and one Skerry built a sawmill near the northwest corner of the 
lake. The building was of stone, and after answering its laudable purpose of 
turning out solid food for the settlers, it fell from grace, so to speak, in 1862, 
and was converted into a distillery by George Maxwell, who operated it until 

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1866J when J. H. Peters took charge of the industry. In 1867 the old building 
was abandoned and consigned to merited oblivion. 

A farmers' club was organized in 1866, by Washington Graham, Samuel 
Allison, Jr., William Ball, Daniel Smith, John Porter and others, and those 
named were the officers. Also in 1871, a literary and library association came 
into being, the leading spirits of which were Dr. Albert Boomer, Mrs. J. H. 
Peters, Thomas A. Twiss, J. M. Noble and Mrs. D. Louise Ingalls. Quite a 
sum of money was raised for books, but none purchased. 


The main purpose in the first instance in having the town incorporated was 
to afford the citizens authority to» make such laws as to protect them from the 
running at large of stock, which had become a nuisance and a menace to prop- 
erty. This object was attained but its benefits soon were lost sight of and there 
is no record, under the powers of the decree of incorporation, of another elec- 
tion having been held, so that Delhi drifted back into its former state and 
remained under the jurisdiction of the township until the year 1909, when a 
petition signed by thirty-three electors, was filed in the District Court, asking 
that Delhi be made an incorporated town. The prayer of the petition was 
granted and the court appointed F. E. Stimson, E. R. Stone, Thomas Simmons, 
E. B. Porter and A. Sherman commissioners to declare a time and place for 
holding an election, to determine the sense of the electorate as to whether or 
not they desired incorporation. The election for the purpose was held on the 
2d day of March, 1909, at which time sixty-nine votes were cast for the purpose, 
and only six against. The action of the commissioners was approved by the 
court and they were ordered to call an election for town officers, to be holden 
April 5, 1909. at which time J. W. Swinburne was elected mayor ; E. B. Porter, 
clerk; F. E. Stimson, assessor; and D. F. Jones, F. A. Doolittle, A. Sherman, 
C. C. White and C. H. Furman, councilmen. 

About the year 1900 Delaware County transferred the courthouse property 
at Delhi, consisting of a fine tract of land, the courthouse and a two-story brick 
office building, to J. M. Holbrook Post, Q. A. R. The latter conveyed the office 
building to Delhi Township, and the park and courthouse to the Town of Delhi, 
retaining the right, however, to hold for itself, during the life of the post, the 
courthouse building for headquarters. In the office building the town officials 
held their first meetings. 


The first postoffice in Delaware County was established at Delhi, on March 
14, 1844, and Charles W. Hobbs was the choice of the people for postmaster. 
But at this time he was clerk of the United States Territorial Court, which 
made him ineligible. However, the next best selection for the position was 
made by the department, in sending to Mrs. Mary E. A. Hobbs, wife of the 
pioneer official, a commission as postmistress; this was dated March 14, 1844. 
William (Uncle Billy) Smith, who early settled at Bads' Grove, was the first 
mail carrier. He "toted" the mail, sometimes afoot and then a-horseback, once 
a week between Dubuque and Delhi. The names of Mrs. Hobbs' successors 

Vol. 1—15 

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follow: R. A. Fagg, January 22, 1847; C. W. Hobbs, May 14, 1847; J. E. 
Anderson, December 20, 1849; Zina A. Wellman, April 19, 1850; William 
Price, April 14, 1853; William H. Gilles, November 19, 1857; Elisha Brady, 
March 30, 1861; C. II. Cross, February 5, 1866; A. L. Gleason, October 12, 
1870; A. D. Barnes, January 4, 1886; A. E. House, April 19, 1886; Lida E. 
Corbin, June 29, 1893; R. H. Bowman, June 9, 1897; R. J. Van Antwerp, 
December 13, 1900; Edmund H. Fleming, January 22, 1907. 


The first school in Delhi was held in the old log courthouse, commencing in 
the summer of 1846, under the direction of Roxana Brown, teacher. School 
continued to be taught in this crude structure, that for the first few years of 
its existence had no roof, as the county was too poor to build one, until in 
1852, when a schoolhouse was erected by Contractor Perry Hook. The school 
was graded and had for its teachers Orlando Nash, principal, and Sarah Davis. 

The first schoolhouse, built in 1852, was kept in use for its original purpose 
until 1868, when it was sold to the Methodist Society for $250 and converted 
into a church. A new brick school building was then put up, at a cost of $4,000, 
in which school opened in the fall of 1868, with George S. Bidwell, principal, 
and Emily Bidwell, his wife, assistant. Two large wings were added to the 
structure in 1873 and cost about seven thousand dollars, making at the time 
one of the largest and best buildings in the county for educational purposes ; 
there were six rooms. The original part was three stories and had an orna- 
mental cupola; the wings had two stories. On the 10th day of August, 1914, 
this fine property caught fire and nothing was left standing but the bare walla 
The loss was $15,000; insurance about eleven thousand dollars. While waiting 
for the electorate to vote upon the proposition of issuing $15,000 in bonds to 
build a new schoolhouse, the children are being taught in various halls and 
rooms in the village. 


The first attempt at banking at Delhi was when the Delhi Savings Bank was 
incorporated, January 24, 1899. The men who invested their capital in stock 
and gave the concern its present splendid financial standing were Thomas 
Simons, A. E. House, E. R. Stone, G. W. Klockentager, J. W. Swinburne, R. H. 
Bowman, G. O. White, E. C. Perkins, O. A. Holdridge, J. W. Hartman, John 
Porter, Arthur A. House, E. H. Blanchard, W. H. Baker, Curtis Miller, Peter 
Lux, David F. Jones, L. Schnittjer, James M. Phillips, G. B. Davis, G. H. 
Fuller, A. Bowman, Allen L. Boomer and John R. White, Jr. 

The capitalization was $10,000, and the first officials: Thomas Simons, 
president: E. R. Stone, vice president; and G. W. Klockentager, cashier. The 
institution began doing business temporarily in a little frame building, now 
occupied by C. L. Jackson's harness establishment. Within a few months it 
moved into a new, one-story brick structure, which was built for the purpose 
and stands on the main thoroughfare of the village. A. E. House succeeded to 
the presidency in 1900 and remained in that position two years, when E. R. 

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i 'i a:i::i:ii'ii, 
UI.C1 18 i 

Built in 1868. Destroyed by fire August, 1914. 


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Stone succeeded him. At the same time, in 1902, J. W. Swinburne was made 
vice president. Previous to this, however, in January, 1901, the present cashier, 
F. E. Stimson, was elected to that office, and in January, 1912, Jesse P. Sloan 
was made his assistant. In the year 1909 the capital stock was increased to 
$20,000 and in its last statement the following interesting figures appear: 
Capital stock, $20,000 ; surplus and undivided profits, $11,000 ; deposits, $147,000. 


The people of Delhi and vicinity enjoyed the spiritual comforts, preaching 
of the gospel and other religious exercises as early as the spring of 1847, when 
Reverend Briar, a Methodist circuit rider, appeared before a gathering of the 
settlers at the humble home of C. W. Hobbs. The first Methodist Society was 
organized in Delhi in 1852, and the Rev. George Clifford was stationed here in 
1854. In 1855 Reverend Clifford, with Elder Farnsworth, a Baptist clergyman, 
held a series of very successful revival meetings and among the converts were 
two men who afterward entered the Methodist ministry — Revs. S. Knickerbocker 
and William Glassner. 

It was during this year, at inT^rvals, the old schoolhouse, built in 1852, was 
used by the Methodist Society for meetings and in 1868, when the building was 
abandoned by the school authorities, the Methodists bought it for the sum of 
$250. Dr. Albert Boomer, E. Brady and Daniel Pulver were then appointed a 
building committee to superintend the repairing and refitting of the old school- 
house and were instructed to make the first payment of $50, and pledge the 
individual notes of the trustees for the balance. The trustees were Doctor 
Boomer, Elisha Brady, C. W. Hobbs, Daniel Pulver and George H. Fuller. The 
Sabbath-school was organized in the fall of 1868. 

The present church building was erected in 1883, with funds raised under 
the efforts of Doctor Boomer at the time Reverend Holm was pastor. This 
building was remodeled in the year 1913 and again underwent regeneration in 
February, 1914, when John S. Westfall was the pastor. There were then 194 
members and the attendance at Sabbath-school was 140. The church, as first 
built, cost about twenty-five hundred dollars. To this should be added $3,500 
paid out in alterations made later. 

It was under the administration of Rev. W. S. Skinner that the first improve- 
ments to the church building began. He is now on the retired list and a resi- 
dent of Delhi. It was Reverend Skinner who organized a Brotherhood Class, 
which now has a membership of fifty, presided over by this most estimable 
superannuate. Reverend Westfall still presides over the destinies of this charge. 

The Baptists organized a society in this vicinity May 8, 1853, and held their 
meetings in the old log schoolhouse. Elder C. D. Farnsworth was the moderator, 
and R. S. Perry, clerk. On May 14th, Ozias Kellogg and Ephraim Cumminga 
were elected deacons. On the 28th of the month delegates from Cascade, Coles- 
burg and "Yankee Settlement" met in the log courthouse, with John Bates as 
moderator, and organized what is known as a recognition council, which unani- 
mously agreed to recognize as a sister church the one just organized at Delhi. 
On the 29th the recognition ceremony was preached by Elder John Bates. A 
house of worship was not erected until the fall of 1868. The cornerstone was 

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laid August 18th of that year, but the dedicatory services did not take place 
until in June, 1873, upon which occasion the Rev. J. Y. Johnston delivered the 
sermon. This building cost about thirty-five hundred dollars. 

Believers in the tenets and precepts of the Catholic faith enjoyed the ob- 
servances of mass in the early '60s at this place. The first building occupied 
by the members of St. John's Church was the old schoolhouse, formerly owned 
by the Methodist Episcopal Society. This was continued in use until late in 
1914, when a beautiful new edifice was erected under the direction of Father 
Rooney, pastor of the Manchester Church, at a cost of $10,000. 


J. M. Holbrook Post, No. 342, Grand Army of the Republic, was organized at 
Delhi, July 18, 1884, by Erastus Smith, Thomas Simons, Ward White, George 
A. Puller, S. M. Nutting, J. C. Crawford, P. B. Littlejohn, John W. Snell, 
William Thompson, A. E. Carter, William Biddle, A. J. Lett, John Wood, 
C. M. Griffin, G. W. Ellison, William Lutes, H. L. Doxsee, Peter L. Wragg, 
Horace Dutton, Matthew Lorig, William Haigh, George D. Smith, John Napur 
and 0. A. Wilson. 

For some time the headquarters was in Odd Fellows Hall, until the building 
was destroyed by fire, when the veterans about a year afterwards were com- 
fortably installed in permanent headquarters in the old courthouse donated 
them by the board of supervisors. Only five members of the old post now remain 
in good standing. These are Thomas Simons, J. W. Corbin, Peter Wragg, 
Ward White, and Peter Jakelin. For the past ten years t Thomas Simons has 
been the post commander. 

The Woman's Relief Corps, a faitnful, loyal and helpful auxiliary, now 
has a membership of about forty-five. Mrs. Barnes is the president. This 
society is known as J. M. Holbrook W. R. C, No 101, organized March 4, 1887, 
by Mesdames Emma Smith, Addie Fuller, Ann Smith, Louisa M. House, Eliza- 
beth Wattson, Marian Simons, Nancy A. White, America Green, Fannie Crozier, 
May Holcomb, Alzina Stone and Adelia Nutting and Misses Louisa M. House, 
Addie M. House and Elphia Wood. 

Delhi Camp, No. 27, Sons of Veterans, was established December 26, 1908. 
Thomas Simons was the first commander. This camp is not now and has not 
been for some time active. 


In 1911 Thomas Simons and his patriotic wife, Marian A., presented to the 
post and Evergreen Cemetery Association, a soldiers ' monument, which cost 
about nine hundred dollars. It is of Vermont granite and stands from the 
ground up, I6V2 feet. The heroic figure of a soldier of the Civil war, stands 
at parade rest. This beautiful memorial to the soldier dead was dedicated May 
30, 1911. Upon that occasion Capt. John F. Merry was orator of the day. The 
donor made a presentation speech of about fifteen minutes' duration and Abbie 
Talmadge, a little lady six years of age, daughter of Orin and Alice Tal- 
madge, pulled the cord which unveiled the stone to a large and admiring con- 

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All that remains of the Charles W. Hobbs 

Cabin, Delhi. 


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course of people. Thomas Simons, who so generously gave of his means, that 
the names and heroic deeds of his comrades should be perpetuated, is still living 
at his beautiful cottage home in Delhi. He came from Dubuque to Delaware 
County in 1859 and located on an eighty-acre farm in section 23, Delhi Town- 
ship, which he had purchased the preceding year. He retired from the farm 
to Delhi in 1883. Mr. Simons was a veteran of the Civil war and served his 
country faithfully and well as a member of Company K, Twenty-first Iowa 

Delhi Lodge, No. 46, I. 0. 0. F., was organized April 6, 1853. The charter 

members were John S. Dimmitt, A. D. Anders, Pratt, K. Skinner, 

Sylvester J. Dunham, W. F. Tanner, William Rice, J. P. Hook and Floyd H. 
Williams. The last four mentioned were the first officers. The official list was 
further made up by the addition of H. T. Crozier, Daniel Baker, Peter Case 
and Norman Haight. 

In 1877 the lodge finished a two-story building for its purposes and also 
as a business place, which cost its members about three thousand dollars. 

Silver Lake Lodge, No. 214, Daughters of Rebekah, was organized October 
19, 1893, by Ward White, Mrs. E. M. Griffin, J. J. King, E. B. King, E. R. 
Stone, J. B. Sijiith, Christina Smith, Mrs. M. A: Simons, A. Jamison, L. M. 
Jamison, A. J. and Lydia I. Lett, E. B. and Cora N. Porter, L. S. and Alzina 
Stone, R. D. Barker, C. M. White, Thomas Simons, Louise White, Mrs. Eliza 
Burton and Mrs. James B. Clark. 

The organization of Delhi Camp, No. 7709, Modern Woodmen of America, 
took place February 26, 1901. The names of the charter members follow: 
Elmer N. Akers, Charles T. Armstrong, Asyonis Bensley, Fred Brownell, Alfred 

E. Bing, John G. Daker, Francis J. Gertel, John W. Hartman, Henry B. Hersey, 
Will L. Boardman, Perry Haight, Elmer E. Holdridge, F. M. Clifton, Oscar 
A. Holdridge, Charles A. Howard, George W. Keith, Hugh L. Keith, William 
Kleespies, Henry E. Lewis, Jay L. Lillibridge, W. Z. Phillips, Robert M. Wilson, 
Charles Lutes, Martin Lutes, Burdett Miller, Edward McMullen, Albert E. 
Peterson, James Smith, Frank E. Stimson, Hiram N. Willcox, Charles R. Sut- 
ton and John M. Root. 

The lodge building was destroyed by fire about 1889, when another build- 
ing, a two-story frame, was built by the lodge. This is the third structure for 
lodge purposes erected by the local body of Odd Fellows. 

Delhi Lodge, No. 94, Modern Brotherhood of America, was organized Octo- 
ber 13, 1897, by Edwin H. King, Elmer H. Blanchard, John W. Swinburne, 
Peter Y. Michaels, Rinehart Erisman, Fred Brownell, Byron A. Stone, William 

F. Neal, Charles T. Armstrong, Ira Curtis Miller, Albert Meister, George M. 
Himmel, Linas W. Jamison, Oren Jamison, Mertello J. Mast, Melville 0." 

Delhi now has about four hundred inhabitants. Since the destructive fire 
of a quarter century ago, brick buildings have taken the place of small frame 
affairs in the business center, and as a trading point the place is more thsnx 
holding its own. The plot of ground in the heart of the town, in the center 
of which is the old courthouse, is beautifully shaded by trees planted in the 
days of the county's infancy, and around its four long sides a substantial cement 
walk is laid, the work being done at the instance and expense of Mrs. H. C. 

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Doolittle, widow of Judge F. B. Doolittle, that pioneer farmer, horticulturist, 
county and town builder and public official. On a neat tablet of granite, stand- 
ing at the main entrance to Memorial Park (courthouse yard) and erected by 
Mrs. Doolittle, in 1913, is this inscription: "Walk around park built by Mrs. 
H. C. Doolittle, as a memorial to her husband, Judge F. B. Doolittle, a resident 
of Delhi 62 years.' * 


This is one of the forgotten villages of Delaware County, that in its day cut 
some figure in the vicinity of its location. Hartwick was laid out on section 30, 
by John W. Clark, in December, 1858. He had built a sawmill in 1849, with 
the timbers of an unfinished mill started by Leverett Rexford, in 1847, on 
Spring Branch. In 1853, Mr. Clark put up and operated a flouring mill on 
the Maquoketa, and furnished the settlers for many miles around with bread- 
stuffs and lumber. Previous to laying out the town he had opened a general 
store and also kept tavern. 

A blacksmith shop was started in Hartwick by John Whitman, in 1855, 
who located in that year, and a couple of years later a shoe cobbler opened a 
little shop ; his name is lost to local history. 

Samuel Stansbury started a brickyard about 1857 and Jacob Williams 
had a paint shop about this time, all of which indicates Hartwick as being a 
busy point and of some importance. By the year 1858, however, Hartwick had 
reached the zenith of its career. The founder, John W. Clark, met business 
reverses and left the county. Whitman also packed his belongings and forsook 
the place for one of a more promising future. Others soon followed. The Clark 
farm, now having another owner, was leased to the county in 1861 for a "poor 
farm. ,, Williams enlisted in the Civil war, deserted, was arrested by A. S. 
Blair, deputy provost marshal, and was punished. The Clark mill, like all 
his property, went into the hands of others and Hartwick, losing prestige, 
became extinct. 

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This township was organized March 24, 1847, and the Commissioners ' Court 
* ' Ordered, That the clerks of commissioners be required to issue election notices 
for elections to be held on the first Monday in April, and that the necessary 
township officers required by law now in force be elected/ ' And it is presumed 
the mandate was followed, but no record exists, giving the results. 

North Fork Township is bounded on the east by Dubuque County, on the 
north by Bremen, west by Delhi and south by South Fork townships. This 
is a good farming community. The land is rolling, and it is well watered on 
the east by the north branch of the Maquoketa and on the west by Plum Creek. 
Grain and grasses find the soil congenial and generous and the German farmer, 
who predominates here, is prosperous. Modern residences, large barns, well- 
fenced fields dotted with live stock tell their own story of thrift and abundance. 

Lucius Kibbee found Delaware County appealing to his desire for a new 
location and as early as 1837, he settled on section 24, on the north bank of 
the Maquoketa, where Rockwell was afterward located. Mr. Kibbee improved 
his claim and lived there several years, after which he removed to Dubuque. 

Gilbert D. Dillon's name appears several times in this history, as he was 
active in bringing order out of chaos in the early stages of the county's exist- 
ence. Mr. Dillon settled near Kibbee 's in the spring of 1839 and, it is said, he 
built the first frame house in the county. The presumption favors the belief 
that he was the first justice of the peace in Delaware County and one of the 
first bankers in the state, having been cashier, in 1837, of the Miner's Bank, of 
Dubuque, which had been established that year. 

Jacob Schwartz was a pioneer of the county, coming in the early spring of 
1839. He settled on the banks of Plum Creek, on or near section 20, and was 
early identified as one of the leading men of his section of the community. The 
first election precinct in the county was established at his house and named 
Schwartz precinct, and he was appointed by the commissioners of Dubuque 
County one of the judges of election. 

Roland Aubrey, a Kentuckian by birth, came to Delaware County from 
Wisconsin in August, 1839, chose a tract of land near the center of the town- 
ship and built a cabin thereon. He also put up some hay and then returned 
to Wisconsin, from whence he brought his family in the fall and established a 
home in North Fork Township. Mr. Aubrey was a man of splendid physique, 
well fitted for the hardships incident to pioneering. He also had a cheerful, 
jovial disposition, which gave him a warm place in the hearts of his neighbors 
and acquaintances. 

Either in 1839 or 1840 Seth and Jefferson Lowe came to the township and 
located in the Kibbee neighborhood. 


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About the year 1840, Drury R. Dance and Oliver Olmstead settled in the 
township. About 1842 Olmstead built a sawmill on the Maquoketa and in 1846 
a grist mill, with one run of stones. In the meantime he kept a tavern in the 
old Kibbee cabin. 

Drury R. Dance opened a farm near the Schwartz place and at once took 
a prominent part in organizing the county. He was elected to the office of 
county treasurer and was the incumbent of that office at the time of his death, 
which was one of the early tragedies of this community. In the month of Feb- 
ruary, 1845, Mr. Dance went into the woods to look after his hogs. He failed 
to return home that night and his wife the next morning, being distraught with 
anxiety, alarmed the neighbors who, in making a search, found Dance's body 
some distance from the house, guarded by his faithful dog. The man had been 
shot to his death and Jefferson Lowe, falling under suspicion, was arrested and 
charged with the crime. The accused was taken before Justice Leverett Rex- 
ford, at Bailey's Ford, who committed him to await the action of the grand 
jury. He was incarcerated in the Dubuque jail, Delaware County having none. 
At the trial Lowe was acquitted. 

Oliver A. Olmstead located near Dillon's in the year 1840. 
James Cavanaugh arrived in the neighborhood early in the '40s and located 
near Dillon's. He was a blacksmith — probably the first in the county. Be- 
coming offended at H. A. Carter, he "jumped" forty acres of timber land 
on Carter's claim. The matter was taken into the Clayton County courts by 
Cavanaugh, as Carter's neighbors, who had taken up his side of the controversy 
as to the matter of ownership, destroyed practically all of the timber. Cav- 
anaugh obtained judgment of $100 against Carter and others for damages he 
had sustained. 

Elisha Bell settled on section 27, this township, in 1849 with his family. 
There were very few people in North Fork Township when he came here. 

Harrison Ashburn was born in Tennessee in 1832. He immigrated from 
Illinois to Iowa in 1850 and settled in North Fork Township. He began farm- 
ing on section 27 in 1865. His father, George W. Ashburn, was among the most 
prominent early settlers of the county. He was a hotel keeper at Delhi for a 
number of years. Harrison Ashburn was married to Frances J. Reeder in 
1855. Twenty years before his death, which occurred in 1904, Mr. Ashburn 
retired from the farm and purchased a home in Earlville, where he lived the 
remainder of his days. 

A. B. Wheeless settled on section 34 in 1851, with his family. Mr. Wheeless 
was a veteran of the Mexican war and served under Gen. Zachary Taylor, later 
president of the United States. During the past year Mr. Wheeless was killed 
in an automobile accident. 

James H. Evans, born in England, immigrated to the United States in 1848, 
and in 1851 settled in North Fork Township when there was not a dozen fam- 
ilies in the locality and not a house could be seen on the prairie. He entered 
land, built a log house and prepared to live in regular pioneer style. At the 
age of eighteen he enlisted in the Union army and rendered two years' splendid 
service to his adopted country. 

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John Gibbs, Sr., arrived in the United States from England in 1852 and 
that same year settled in North Pork Township. In 1875 he acquired land on 
section 12, established there a permanent home and became a large landowner. 

Edwin Potham was reared on a farm in England, came to the United States 
in 1850, and to North Pork Township in 1854. 

E. Healey, born in Canada, settled in Massachusetts in 1846. In 1854 he 
purchased and located on a tract of land in sections 4 and 6 and during a busy 
and prosperous life accumulated several hundred acres. For many years he 
was engaged in the implement business at Earlville. 

Robert Nicholson settled early in this township. He left Ireland for this 
country in 1841 and for some years lived in Pennsylvania and New Jersey. In 
the spring of 1855 he came to North Pork Township and settled on section 8, 
where he lived many years. He was respected by his neighbors and long served 
as justice of the peace. 

One of the early settlers here was Henry Arnold, who came from New York 
and settled on section 21 in 1857. 


The Town of Rockville, embracing 46 32/100 acres, situated on the west bank 
of the North Pork of the Maquoketa River, in the center of section 24, was laid 
out in the year 1845, by Oliver Olmstead, proprietor. The survey and plat, 
made by William Caldwell, was recorded Pebruary 14, 1846. Next to Delhi, 
this is the oldest town in Delaware County and for a while was one of its most 
important trading and mill points. 

The first one to establish himself here was Lucius Kibbee, who came in the 
year 1837. The second settler in this locality was Gilbert D. Dillon, who located 
in 1839. 

About the year 1842, Oliver A. Olmstead built a sawmill on the Maquoketa 
and three or four years later put up a grist mill with one run of stones, for 
the grinding of corn. Both mills were kept busy a number of years supplying 
the settlers with lumber and corn meal, both being in great demand. 

Philip Hogan built an excellent flouring mill in this neighborhood in 1848 
and with the Olmstead mills, purchased by him in 1847, had a lively trade and 
brought much general business to Rockville. 

Along about 1843 James Cavanaugh, a blacksmith, located in Rockville, and 
set up the second smithy in the county. This was the same Cavanaugh who 
€l jumped' ' part of H. A. Carter's claim in South Pork, already mentioned. 

A log schoolhouse was built about a mile east of the Olmstead cabin and 
on the edge of Dubuque County in 1843, where the children of the Kibbee 
settlement attended. John Keeler taught here in the winter of 1843-44. The 
building was used for school purposes several years and then, in 1853, a brick 
school was erected. 

The postoflSce was established in 1846, with Oliver A. Olmstead as post- 
master. His successors were Philip B. Hogan and J. M. Custer. The office 
was discontinued in 1862 but reestablished in 1873, when George Ruddlesden 
was the appointee. Next came Frederick Mueller and he was followed by 
Charles P. Georgen. 

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George Brown, brother of Daniel Brown, who early settled at Eads' Grove, 
built a hotel about 1847. But prior to this period, Olmstead kept open house 
for the traveler, or stranger, in the old log house built by Kibbee. One Froom 
put up a tavern some years later opposite the Brown hostelry and the next 
building erected as a hotel was opened by George W. Ashburn. It is very 
probable, but not certain, that Oliver Olmstead was the first merchant, so-called, 
in Rockville. It is said he kept a small stock of staple articles for sale at his 
mill and, it is presumed, the postoffice was also at the mill. 

About the year 1845 J. M. Custer "kept store' ' in a little log cabin erected 
by him. Soon thereafter Calvin Sawyer had a well stocked store and enjoyed a 
wide and lucrative patronage several years. 

Charles W. Hobbs, who built the first residence in sight of Delhi, removed 
from the county seat to Rockville in 1850 and opened up a general line of mer- 
chandise to the trade. He had the best store in the town, was widely and popu- 
larly known, whereby he built up a handsome business. 

Rockville was located on the main road from Dubuque westward and en- 
joyed the privilege of being a station of the Western Stage Company. With 
this facility the town had many visitors from various parts of Delaware and 
Dubuque counties, who added largely to the volume of trade and the various 
amusements of the day. But when the Town of Dyersville was started, a few 
miles north, in 1851, and Delhi showed evidence of growth and prosperity, 
Rockville began to show signs of a decline, which condition was accentuated 
and confirmed when the Dubuque & Pacific (Illinois Central) was finished to 
Dyersville and in operation. This was the straw that broke the back of Rock- 
ville and from that time on the village grew less and less in population, until 
now it is but a negligible quantity. 

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This township was early settled. It was organized March 24, 1847, being 
township 90, range 3. Its name originated in the colony of settlers attracted 
to its fertile fields and beautiful surroundings. 

Colony Township lies in the extreme northeast corner of the county, with 
Clayton County on the north and Dubuque County on the east. Elk Township 
is to the west of it and Bremen on the south. 

The German element largely predominates here. Being adepts in hus- 
bandry, their holdings cannot be surpassed anywhere in the state. Large, 
modern homes, huge barns, neatly-kept and highly cultivated fields all attest 
the industry, thrift and progress of this people. The production of corn, oats, 
wheat,- cattle and dairy products add yearly to the ever increasing wealth of 
the people. In the central and southern parts of the township there is an area 
more than usually level and the soil is very fertile. It is adapted to a great 
range of crops, and ranks with the best known anywhere in the great fertile 
Northwest. Bear Creek has its origin in a number of small branches, draining 
the central part of the township and flowing southward. The northeastern part 
of Colony is drained by branches of Turkey River. Rich pastures with abun- 
dance of water make stock-raising profitable in this locality. 

The first person known to have built a cabin in this township was Henry 
Teegardner, a trapper and Indian trader, who was here about 1838. It is not 
known to a certainty that he ever brought his family to this western home but 
he did reside for several years just over the line in Dubuque County. 

The first actual settler in this township was Silas Gilmore, who located in 
the north part of the township early in the spring of 1839. In May, 1839, 
David Moreland, William McMillen, William McQuilkin, Benjamin Reckner, 
with their families, and P. C. Bolsinger arrived in this township from Penn- 
sylvana and located in its northern part near Gilmore 's claim and where Coles- 
burg was afterward laid out. Bolsinger shortly after went back to Pennsyl- 
vania but returned and permanently settled, becoming one of the pioneer 
merchants. The settlement was named the " Colony* ' and this is probably the 
origin of the name given the township. 

Missouri Dickson and family came in July, 1839, and settled at White Oak 
Grove about four miles southeast of the Morelands' claim. Samuel Dickson 
came about the same time. The Dicksons had many adventures as hunters and 
trappers, one of which is illustrative, as told by a neighbor: "A short distance 
from the mouth of the Volga, there is a tributary known as Bear Creek, which 
receives its name from the following hunting incident. Missouri Dickson and 
his brother, Samuel, having started a large bear in the timber of Turkey River, 
late in the fall of 1839, followed its footprints in the snow until they reached 


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the vicinity of this stream, when they separated, Missouri following the trail, 
and his brother making a circuit, in the hope of heading off the retreat of the 
animal. Soon after they had parted, Missouri came up with the bear, which 
had curled down to sleep beneath an overhanging rock. He fired his rifle and 
wounded the bear, when it immediately turned upon him and he fled in the 
direction of the creek. Dickson was wont to tell his adventure thus: 'Pur half 
a mile or so, there wuz suthin' more 'n daylight at ween us, an' if Sam hadn't 
afired just as I wuz hoovin' it across the crik, there 'd abeen one old bear hunter 
a considerably spiled.' " 

History has it that the first religious services in Delaware County were 
held in 1839 by Simeon Clark, a Methodist preacher from Dubuque County. 
He was called Preacher Clark by the settlers and held forth at their homes. 
He was an earnest exhorter and the first sermons he preached were in a little 
cabin, probably occupied by Silas Gilmore, Albert Baker and Thomas Cole, 
who were keeping " batch.' ' This cabin was the first that was built in the 

The Moreland colony started to increase in the year 1840. Among others 
who came that year were Leonard Wiltse and family, John Melugin and family, 
Drake Nelson, Matthew Springer, Amasa Wiltse and William and James Mont- 

During the year 1841 there came in Jared and Ezra Hubbard, Horace Pierce, 
Allen Fargo, Robert Torrence, William and John Burnham, Amos Williams, 
Patrick Hogan and others, who settled near the Moreland colony. 

Archibald Montgomery came in May, 1842, with his family. At the time 
of his death in 1875 he owned 1,200 acres of land. John D. Klaus immigrated 
from Germany in 1837 and came to this county in August, 1842, at which time 
he entered 120 acres of land in Colony Township, to which he added several 
hundred acres as time went on. 

Lawrence McNamee was early a member of the colony in this township, 
coming from the State of New York in September, 1842, when he located on 
section 4, which was his home the greater part of his life. Mr. McNamee was 
among the first county commissioners, was elected to local offices of responsi- 
bility and was always looked upon as a man of the highest integrity and in- 

Liberty Cole settled in Colony Township in 1842. 

In the spring of 1843 John Piatt and family came from Pennsylvania, also 
William Smith from the same state. They settled in the east part of the 

In 1844 William Gillam and family immigrated from "Hard Scrabble," 
Wisconsin, and settled in the Landis and Dickson settlement. Jacob Smith, a 
single man, came with them. 

Joseph Grimes was an early settler of Colony Township, locating near the 
present Town of Colesburg in 1844. The following spring he removed across 
the line into Clayton County, where he built a sawmill on Elk Creek and oper- 
ated it three years. He returned to his farm adjoining Colesburg and became 
a prominent citizen of the county. He was a representative in the Lower House 
in 1858 and 1859 and a member of the Senate from 1868 to 1872. He also 
held local offices. 

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George Griffith, unmarried, located here in 1845. That same year a man 
by the name of Gamble, with two children, also located in the neighborhood. 
In 1846 and 1847 there was a large increase in the population of the township. 

Herman H. Klaus was a settler in this township as early as 1845. In May 
of that year he settled on a farm, a part of which he entered at Government 
price. Eventually he became the possessor of about seven hundred acres, most 
of which was improved. Mr. Klaus was a leader in the Methodist church, a 
steward for twenty-eight years and local preacher twenty -six years. 

Hezekiah Hubbard was born in Connecticut in 1813. He married Sarah 
Clark, of Bennington, Vermont, in 1835. With his family he immigrated to 
Iowa in 1846 and entered 120 acres of land in this township. He was a good 
farmer and citizen. Leaving Middlesex County, in Connecticut, with his brother 
in 1841, Jared Hubbard traveled by water and rail to York, Pennsylvania, and 
from thence by stage to Pittsburg. The Ohio and Mississippi rivers were his 
means of transportation to St. Charles, Missouri. From there he proceeded 
to Galena and from Galena on foot to the colony, arriving in May of the year 
mentioned. He first stopped with David Moreland and, while there built a barn 
for the pioneer, the first one erected in the county. Eventually Jared Hubbard 
became a jeweler of Colesburg. 

One of the earliest and most prominent settlers of Colony Township was 
Thomas Cole. He was a native of England, immigrated to this country in 1832 
and settled in New York. He arrived in Delaware County in 1847 and entered 
land in Cfolony Township. In 1849 Mr. Cole returned to New York, where he 
married Hannah Wilson, who was also a native of England. When he first 
came to Colony there was only a log cabin in Colesburg. The following year 
two more were built. He engaged in the mercantile business here in 1849, 

Wellington Wiltse, James Cole, Albert Baker, A. J. Blackman and James 
Rutherford settled in the township soon after the colony had been set up. 

William H. Graves was born in New Hampshire and became a Delaware 
County settler in 1848, locating in Colony Township. 

George W. Ray came to the township in 1848. He at once built a home and 
before many years had a farm of 160 acres under a high state of cultivation. 

John C. Wood was born in England in 1845. His father came to this 
country in 1848 and entered a tract of laud in section 16, Colony Township, 
where he built a cabin, to which he welcomed his wife and son, John C. Wood, 
and other relatives, on the 7th day of June, 1849. John C. Wood became quite 
prominent in the county. He died at Earlville in September, 1914. 

Charles Simons was a native of the State of New York, settled in Delaware 
County in 1849 and in 1857 married Jane Dickson, daughter of Missouri Dick- 
son, the first child born in Colony Township, the date of her birth being Decem- 
ber 14, 1839. In 1868 Mr. Simons moved on section 24, which was a part of 
his wife's heritage from her father. 

Henry Bush and his wife Elizabeth came here from Pennsylvania in 1851, 
and finally located on section 6, this township. John B. Bush, a son, came with 
the family. In 1869 he went to Colesburg, where he operated a steam sawmill 
until 1875. The following year he commenced the drug business at Colesburg. 

Jacob Landis, Sr., came to Delaware County from Pennsylvania in the fall 
of 1840 with Jacob Moreland, who was his neighbor in the Keystone State. 

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Landis entered' 120 acres of land 2y 2 miles southeast of Colesburg and two 
eighty-acre tracts in the same neighborhood. He put up a log house covered 
with "shakes" and in the following spring went back to Pennsylvania, from 
whence he brought his family, consisting of Rachel, his wife, two girls, Margaret 
and Eliza, and three boys, Joshua, who died at the age of six years; Jacob, 
living in Colesburg, in his eighty -sixth year; and Abram, also a resident of 
Colesburg, now seventy-seven'years of age. Israel Hubbard and family, Jordan 
Hubbard, a brother, and John Melugin were here at that time and settled 
southeast of Colesburg. Robert Torrence "also located southeast of town about 
this time. 

James Dickson, a native of Scotland, immigrated to the United States in 
1849 and first settled in Indiana. He immigrated from that state to Iowa in 
1851 and settled on section 1, in this township, near Colesburg. Robert Dick- 
son also came from Scotland and in 1851 arrived in Delaware County and set- 
tled near Colesburg. His parents followed him in 1853 and remained members 
of his household until their deaths. 

Thomas J. Conner settled near Colesburg in 1852. 

Daniel Partridge was an active and industrious farmer, who arrived in this 
county from the State of Michigan in 1853 and settled on section 5. 

Chester Coonrod came to Delaware County from McHenry County, Illinois, 
in 1856, and settled at Colesburg, in Colony Township, where he resided some 
time. He moved from there to Coffin's Grove Township. He remained one of 
the industrious and influential farmers of the county for many years. 

David Roberts was born in Utica, New York, and found his way to Delaware 
County in the '50s, locating in Colony Township, where his son, George E. 
Roberts, was born on the 19th day of August, 1857. The elder Roberts estab- 
lished the pottery at Colesburg. This son is now director of the United States 
Mint, with headquarters at Washington, and is an authority on financial ques- 
tions. He spent some years in Iowa as a journalist, wrote articles dealing with 
the money question that gained national recognition, and while secretary of 
the treasury, Lyman J. Gage appointed him director of the mint. He was 
reappointed in 1903 by Theodore Roosevelt and resigned the position in 1907, 
to accept the presidency of the Commercial National Bank, of Chicago. Three 
years later President Taft offered him the directorship of the mint and for the 
third time he is now occupying that responsible office. 

The first Methodist camp meeting in the county was held at the " Colony " 
in the summer of 1844. 

The first school was taught in the summer of 1840, in a log cabin built for 
the purpose on a spot three-quarters of a mile north of David Moreland's house. 
Before this cabin was " chinked,' ' Preacher Clark held services within its 
primitive walls ( ?). As soon as completed the first school in Delaware County 
was held in this crude structure, having been opened in the fall of 1840 by 
Mrs. McCleland. Two months afterward the building burned to the ground 
and teacher and pupils removed to the home of James Cole, where the term 
was completed. The building was replaced by another, which stood on the 
edge of Colesburg. The Moreland, Mallory, McNamee, Wiltse and Landis chil- 
dren were enrolled here in 1842, and Maria Phillips was the teacher. The 

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young lady became the wife of Silas (Jilmore, who kept "batch" in a log 
cabin, V/± miles from Colesburg. 

The first school established in the Dickson settlement was taught by Abbie 
Hall in 1844. in a small log building designed for a smoke house, which stood 
on the farm of her brother, Thomas Hall. In the year just mentioned the set- 
tlers built a hewed log schoolhouse on the farm 'of John Piatt, Sr., and in 1845 
a select school was taught there (subscription) by John Humphrey. 

In the year 1847 there were two schools in full running order. District 
No. 1 had thirty-six pupils and No. 2, forty-one. In 1848 there were three 
schools, all supported by subscription, and the teachers "boarded round/' 

Lawrence McNamee and John Piatt, Sr., were the first persons elected jus- 
tices of the peace in Colony Township. 

Jacob Landis built and operated a sawmill, on a branch of the Little Turkey, 
about two and one-half miles southeast of Moreland 's in 1843. 


The Town of "Coles Burgh," now Colesburg, was laid out by Hiram 
Cole and Lawrence McNamee, August 10, 1848, and is one of the oldest trading 
points in the county. It is situate on the northeast quarter and part of the 
northwest quarter of section 4. 

Lawrence McNamee, who located here in 1842, purchased the forty-acre 
claim of Wellington Wiltse, on section 4, for which he gave #1,000. Joining 
with Hiram Cole, whose land adjoined his, these two men became the founders 
of this old town. South of Colesburg the Town of Colony was laid out in 1851, 
by David Moreland, but the two places were so close together they are now 
considered as one and that is Colesburg. 

The first building erected on the site of Colesburg was built by Hiram Cole 
in 1846, in which he opened the second store in the place. But David Bierer 
was the first merchant in the place, opening a small general store in 1843, which 
is said to have been the first in the county. 

The postoffice here was established in 1846 and named Colony. David More- 
land was the first postmaster and received his commission August 15, 1846. 
On the 3d day of April, 1849, the name was changed to Colesburg. The names 
of Moreland's successors in this office follow: Perry Perkins, April 3, 1849 ^ 
Thomas Cole, January 20, 1852; J. B. Moreland, April 6, 1853; H. T. Wright, 
April 20, 1860; J. M. Potts, December 5, 1866; S. G. Knee, March 23, 1869; 
George F. Potts, December 1, 1884; James Chapman, May 25, 1889; George F. 
Potts, June 28, 1893; Joseph Chapman, June 1, 1897; Emma J. Chapman, 
December 7, 1905. 

Jacob B. Moreland put up a building in Colony (now Colesburg) in 1851 r 
and opened up a general line of merchandise. He became prominent in the 

Richard Wilson located in Colesburg in 1851 and at once engaged in busi- 
ness as a tinsmith and hardware dealer. 

P. C. Bolsinger was an energetic business man and made a success as a 
nerchant at Colesburg. He opened a general store in 1852 and in 1860 erected 

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a large stone building to accommodate a large stock of goods and his numerous 

One of the earliest merchants was Hiram Cole, who began business in a log 
cabin that stood on or near the site of the Bolsinger stone business building. 

Col. Samuel G. Knee was born in Pennsylvania in 1834. He came to Dela- 
ware County in 1855 and worked at the carpenter trade until the beginning of 
the war, when he enlisted, in 1861, in the Twelfth Iowa Infantry. He was 
promoted second lieutenant in 1863 and before the expiration of the year was 
made captain. In 1865 he reached the rank of major and in 1866, lieutenant- 
colonel. After the war he engaged in the mercantile business at Colesburg and 
was postmaster there. 

The mill still running in Colesburg was built in 1857 by Bolsinger & More- 
land. The mill had steam power and was operated by the builders until 1867, 
when James Caskey and James Cole purchased the property. Cole later sold 
his interests to Michael Stegner, who died in 1874 and Caskey became sole 
owner. It was known as a two-run mill and had a capacity of fifty barrels of 
flour a day. Nothing but feed and corn meal is now the product of this old 
industrial concern. 

The Colesburg pottery, still in operation, was built by David Roberts in 
1857. The building was destroyed two years later, but restored when E. Jones 
became the owner. It was afterwards purchased by the firm of Stegner & 
Stillinger, vho sold to F. A. Grimes and R. C. Currie. The excellent potter's 
clay found in this vicinity furnishes material for the manufacture of various 
earthen vessels, principally flower pots, milk jars, jugs, etc., which are still 
made at this factory. Here also is made a good quality of building brick. 
Colesburg also has a creamery that has been in operation all of twenty-five 
years. Prior to this Dr. R. Stedman opened a cheese factory in 1873 and run 
it about four years. 


Colesburg was incorporated as a town and the first election was held for 
municipal officers March 17, 1893. Joseph Grimes received the majority of 
votes cast for mayor ; W. C. Kircheek, clerk ; B. V. Burt, F. A. Grimes, George 
Walker, T. S. Davidson, P. C. Knee, A. W. Rea, council ; A. B. Landers, treasurer. 


The first school in Delaware County was taught by Mrs. McCleland at 
Colesburg in 1840, in a little log cabin. The building burned down and was 
replaced by a hewed log structure, in which the pupils were taught by Maria 
Phillips. In 1853 a one-story brick school building was erected and is- still 
standing. This soon became too small and a two-story brick building was put 
up, in which four teachers instruct the pupils. The school is graded. This 
building and the little one close by would not accommodate the children of the 
community, so that in the fall of 1914 a new one was erected. It is a two-story 
brick structure, with basement, and has all modern improvements and con- 
veniences. Its cost was about eleven thousand dollars. 

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Built about 1853. 

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This bank is the outgrowth of a private banking concern, established by 
A. W. Rea, in a little frame building two doors north of the present building 
about the year 1891, and operated until 1907. Articles of incorporation were 
issued for the Farmers Savings Bank, January 12, 1907, to F. A. Grimes, John 
W. Bush, M. W. Lovett, F. W. Klaus, J. S. Merton, Robert A. Gull, George 
Flynn, W. H. P. Bristol, C. H. Jacobs, P. D. Peck, G. A. Dodge, James Knee, 
F. S. Vorwald and H. Brockmeyer. It was capitalized at $10,000, and the 
first officials were: President, F. A. Grimes; vice president, John V. Bush; 
cashier, P. D. Peck ; assistant cashier, J. V. Bush. On December 3, 1910, F. A. 
Grimes was succeeded in the presidency by M. W. Lovett and A. W. Rea was 
made vice president. Mr. Rea died in April, 1914, and his office was filled by 
P. D. Peck. Mr. Peck had resigned the cashiership March 1, 1914, and William 
Hammond, of Clayton County, was elected to the office. At the same time J. R. 
Grimes was elected assistant cashier. 

The capital stock of the Farmers Bank was increased to $18,000. May 25, 
1912, and that same year the directors erected a two-story brick home, which 
was occupied in January, 1913. The present officials are: President, M. W. 
Lovett; vice president, P. D. Peck; cashier, William Hammond; assistant 
cashier, J. R. Grimes. Capital stock, $18,000; deposits, $138,000. 


This church was organized in the schoolhouse near where Colesburg now 
stands, in the fall of 1842, by Rev. Barney White, assisted by Rev. Simeon 
Clark. Thomas Cole was the first class-leader, and John Nagle and Missouri 
Dickson, stewards. The first board of trustees was George Gilmore, Henry 
Klaus, William Bragg, Hezekiah Hubbard and Perry Perkins. In 1849 Rev. 
John L. Kelly was pastor. The church building was erected in 1849 and dedi- 
cated in the fall of that year by Rev. George B. Bowman. Rev. George Larkin 
became pastor at this time. 

Among the first members, in addition to those already mentioned, who 
joined the church in the '50s and '60s, were : William Admire, Dora A. Lang, 
Emily McNamee, M. C. Nichols, R. T. Jewell, Esther Gilmore, Ellen Gilmore, 
L. A. Huffsmith, Laura Simpson, Cynthia M. Fosler, Melissa A. Mills, Mehitable 
Conrad, Emma A. Walker, Martha A. Annis, Orline Smith, Cynthia B. Smith, 
Eliza Walker, Mrs. J. Martin, Mrs. Steward, Miss Warnock, Isabella Rea, Maria 
Carrier, Charles Boardman. 

The succeeding' pastors to Reverend Larkin were the following: George L. 
Garrison, C. L. McNamee, Reverend Hillman, C. W. Copeland, W. G. Moore, 
N. H. Sparling, William Young, J. A. Ward, C. W. Burgess, S. Goodsell, C. P. 
McLean, L. U. McKee, E. Will, T. N. Cook, J. H. Thompson, James Hankins, 

E. L. McNamee, G. S. Roberts, T. W. Potter, J. F. Webster, C. F. Paine, B. D. 
Alden, G. W. Dunham, Herbert M. Chambers, C. W. Rogers, I. R. Sanford, 

F. C. Witzigman, J. C. Erb, Reverend McBride, F. P. Cassady, R. F. Webster, 
George A. Harvey and Oliver J. Feller, the present pastor. v 

The membership is now fifty, and the attendance at Sabbath-school, sixty. 

Vol. 1—16 

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This church was organized December 5, 1846, by Rev. James Hill, at the 
cabin home of James Cole. The members were J. A. Reed, John W. Potts, Mrs. 
Eliza Potts, David Malvin, Catherine Malvin, Samuel Malvin, Sarah Malvin 
and Mary Black. The first pastor was Rev. James Hill, who remained until 
1847, when he was succeeded by Rev. E. H. Turner. A church was built on 
Main Street, in 1849, and in November of that year was dedicated. Reverend 
Turner retired from the pastorate in 1854 and was succeeded by Rev. M. Graves, 
whose successors were Reverends Parvin, Matthews and Amos Jones. At the 
present time the church is without a pastor. 

The Catholic people held masa here as early as 1855, and during the pastorate 
of Rev. Michael Lynch a church building was erected, in 1857. The present 
one was built in 1877, under the pastorate of Bernard Cole. This church is 
now attended by a priest from Elkport. 

A Cumberland Presbyterian Church was organized in 1859 and a building 
erected the same year. Rev. P; H. Crides was the pastor. This society went 
out of existence all of thirty years ago and the church building is now used for 
other purposes. 


Colony Lodge, No. 50, I. 0. 0. P., was organized August 17, 1853, with the 
following charter members: S. T. Dickson, Jacob B. Moreland, George W. 
Bush, John W. Strader, and Alonzo H. Mallory. The first officials were : J. B. 
Moreland, N. G. ; John W. Strader, V. G. ; George W. Bush, Sec. ; Samuel T. 
Dickson, Treas. ; John.R. Jones, I. G. ; A. H. Mallory, 0. G. 

Colesburg Lodge, Daughters of Rebekah, No. 428, was organized October 
20, 1899, with the following members: George and Ellen Knee, Robert and 
Belle Currie, Frank A. and Emma J. Grimes, A. M. and May Rea, E. W. and 
Cora Knee, M. L. Westcott, M. C. Smock, Joseph and Emma J. Chapman, H. W. 
and Nancy Graves, G. T. and V. M. Barnhart, G. A. and E. V. Dodge, H. and 
Blanche Wilson, J. II. Knee, Mrs. R. Lockridge, J. R. Beddon, Mrs. Mont Bed- 
don, Isa Franks, Jane Blaker, John Currie, Delia Currie, Ida Bolsinger. The 
lodge" now has a membership of about one hundred. 


Constellation Lodge, No. 67, A. F. & A. M., was organized August 22, 1855. 
The charter members were Israel Otis, J. A. Hooker, A. H. Eaton, P. C. Bol- 
singer, L. Shepard, D. G. Kindell, J. W. Clark, J. Wright and J. McWilliams. 
Israel Otis was installed W. M. ; J. W. Hooker, S. W. ; A. H. Eaton, J. W. 

Minnehaha Lodge, No. 344, Order Eastern Star, was organized on the 19th 
day of October, 1903, by Mesdames Ida Bolsinger, Lou Bush, Belle Currie, 
Effie Jacobs, Ida Knee, Lucia Lockridge, Mollie Landis, Len Moreland, Mary 
Rea, May Rea, Mate Walker, Blanche Wilson, J. K. P. Bolsinger, J. A. Bush, 
R. C. Currie, C. H. Jacobs, C. F. Knee, W. E. Lockridge, A. L. Landis, A. W. 
Rea, A. M. Rea, W: S. Shaffer, George W. W T alker, F. C. Wilson and Mi* 
Belle Landis. 

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S. G. Knee Post, No. 517, G. A. R., was organized August 25, 1896, by the 
following veterans of the Civil war: George F. Potts, George H. Walker, W. 
S. Adams, Frank Thayer, James Knee, A. W. Rea, George T. Barnhart. James 
McMahon, August Imscher, J. K. P. Bolsinger, Eli Wingston, George W. Mc- 
Kinney, John S. Merton. 

There are also organizations here of the Modern Brotherhood of America, 
Modern Woodmen of America and Gleaners. 

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On the 2d day of January, 1849, North Fork Township was divided and a 
new township created, which was named South Fork. It is civil township 87 
north, range 3 west, and is bounded on the north by North Fork Township, on 
the south by Jones County, on the west by Union Township, and on the east 
by Dubuque County. 

For agricultural purposes none better lies out of doors. All of its timber 
is found on the western border, along the banks of the south fork of the 
Maquoketa, which affords ample water and drainage. . Corn, wheat, rye, oats, 
potatoes, grasses, etc., grow to luxuriance here and the raising of cattle for the 
market and dairying is a very profitable industry of the community. 

Theodore Marks was elected first clerk of South Fork Township and, strange 
to say, his old minute book is still intact and a part of the township records. 
The following extract from that historically valuable old book may be of some 
interest : 

"June 4, 1849. This day the trustees met pursuant to notice of May 28. 
Present, the whole band and proceeded to business. Samuel Whitaker and 
Barnabas Dighton were appointed supervisors and duly qualified. The town- 
ship was then divided into road districts. Samuel P. Whitaker, supervisor of 
No. 1 ; Charles Ruff, No. 2 ; Barnabas Dighton, No. 3. 

"Theodore Marks, 

"Town Clerk. 1 ' 

From this primitive record the reader learns that the following named per- 
sons, among others, were residents of the township in the '508. Of course, a 
number came before : James Barnes, Peter Heinan, Jacob Lanier, Ira G. Green, 
Simeon Eller, Leroy Jackson, Allen A. Wilson, George Rutherford, Daniel Liv- 
ingston, Archibald Tate, William Morgan, Ebenezer Culver, William Carpenter, 
A. A. Wilson, James L. Getten, Jacob Diffenderfer, Sylvester Meade, James 
Hardesty, Thomas Mathers, Christian Myers, George Connery, James Hardy, 
James P. Farmer, Joseph Porter, W. P. Cunningham, Thomas Boy, John Mc- 
Quig, G. R. Browder, John M. Holmes, Franklin Lewis, Edmund Davis, Isaac 
Smith, Lewis Matthew, Peter H. Warner, William Holt, I. C. McVey, Jerome 
T. Davis, A. Nash, G. J. Bentley, William Ireland, John Livingston, H. P. 
Fletcher, Joseph Cool, T. H. Bowen, Thomas Cearns, Ashford Smith, E. Bald- 
win, William A. Roberts, J. Cadwell, James Harper, Andrew A. Lowe, William 
Spence, M. Byington, R. M. Brooks, A. Kirkwood and W. H. Finley. 

The first settlers in this township were James and Hugh Livingston and 
Hugh Rose, who were of a party of emigrants from the Selkirk Colony in 
Northern Canada. They settled at "Scotch Grove,' ' in Jones County, in 1837, 
and were here joined by Hugh Livingston. The three named adventurers came 


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that year to Delaware County and located a short distance below the present 
town site of Hopkinton. The Livingstons entered land, improved farms and 
became men of influence in the church and the community generally. They 
settled on sections 19 and 30 and made the second claim in the county. In the 
winter of 1846-7, Hugh Livingston, accompanied by a nephew, went to Cascade 
with his team, and reaching the forks of the road the young men separated. 
However, when Hugh's team reached home he was not in the wagon. The 
family at once became alarmed and instituting a search, found him by the road 
side quite dead; he had frozen to death. 

The next to take up a habitation in South Fork were the Nicholsons, Thomas, 
his wife and sons, William and Montgomery Nicholson, who came in the spring 
of 1838 and located near the Maquoketa River, on land which is now a part of 
Hopkinton. Here they built a cabin and broke a small piece of prairie. In the 
month of March the elder Nicholson was laid low with a mortal malady and 

Leroy Jackson was the third settler in this community. He was a man who 
had spent his boyhood days on the Kentucky frontier and left that state in 
1833. He had served in the Black Hawk war and in the year above mentioned 
settled in Dubuque, from whence he frequently traversed the prairies of this 
section of country on hunting expeditions, being an experienced trapper and 
hunter. While on one of these ventures, in the spring of 1840, he came to the 
Nicholson cabin. There he learned of Nicholson's death and also of the loneli- 
ness and dissatisfaction of the widow. The latter, being willing to dispose of 
her possessions and leave the country, Jackson bought her claim, thirty-five 
acres of which were partially improved ; and chattels, consisting of 160 bushels 
of wheat, 400 bushels of corn, two yoke of oxen, three cows, three young cattle,, 
two barrels of strained honey, taken from bee trees which were then plentiful 
in the timber; a few hogs, a quantity of hay and other articles. The consid- 
eration was $800, which Jackson practically paid in full. The same fall he 
moved on to his purchase and eventually became one of the leading men in 
Delaware County. Leroy Jackson, after buying the Nicholson claim and chat- 
tels, returned to Dubuque and in the fall brought his family, household goods 
and farming utensils to the new home in the wilderness. Henry A. Carter was 
also a member of the party, having been persuaded by Jackson to join him in 
the settlement. That winter (1840-1) Jackson built a hewed log cabin for 
Carter, who took possession of it in March, 1841. Soon after his family was 
established a daughter, Sarah B., was born, the first birth in the community. 
In 1844, Mrs. Carter passed away, and this was the second death. The second 
birth was that of a son to Leroy Jackson, and the newcomer was named 
Henry C. Jackson. In 1844, both these pioneers, Jackson and Carter, erected 
sawmills: the first named on Plum Creek and the latter on the Maquoketa. 
Six years later they laid out the Town of Hopkinton. 

A word or two in relation to the efforts of Carter and Jackson in building 
up a new country and from whence they came. Leroy Jackson was born in 
Kentucky in 1804 and lived there until he was twenty-two years of age. The 
year 1828 found him in Iowa. His chief employment was as an Indian trader. 
It is said he built the first brick house in Dubuque and kept the first hotel 
there. When he first came to Delaware County on a hunting trip, he found 

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about four hundred Indians here. The year of his permanent settlement already 
has been stated. Mr. Jackson took an active part in organizing the county and 
was its first sheriff. He then for a number of years kept a hotel at Hopkinton ; 
raised a large family of children and accumulated several hundred acres of land. 

H. A. Carter was born in Massachusetts in 1806. When twenty-eight years 
of age he moved to St. Louis and two years later to Dubuque, where he met 
Leroy Jackson. With his old friend he laid out the Town of Hopkinton and in 
1850 moved to Cedar Rapids. Three years later Mr. Carter was back in Hop- 
kinton, employing his time as a merchant. He built the first mill in Hopkin- 
ton ; also built the first bridge across the Maquoketa at that place. He became 
an extensive hop grower and is credited with shipping the first bale of the 
product from Iowa. Further, and greatly to his renown, Mr. Carter was the 
originator (having first proposed it), of Lenox College. No more energetic, 
forceful and valuable men have identified themselves with the early history of 
Delaware County. 

Duncan McCullom settled in the southeast part of the county near the Liv- 
ingstons in 1840. 

Theodore Marks came here and entered a tract of land* about three miles 
northeast of Leroy Jackson's in 1841. He was first clerk of the township after 
its organization in 1849. 

S. M. Slausen was a settler in South Fork Township as early as 1851. He 
occupied his time in farming for five years and then moved to Hopkinton. 

Elliott M. Chapman, a native of New Hampshire, settled in South Fork 
Township in 1853. He owned a fine tract of land, was active in the affairs of 
his township and for several years served as trustee. 

James Harper was one of the prominent men of South Fork Township. 
He was a native of Pennsylvania and settled in South Fork Township in 1854, 
on land which he had purchased. 

Norman Luke left his native State of New York in 1857 and located in South 
Fork Township, where he engaged in farming. In 1877. he went into the livery 
business at Hopkinton. Luke quarry near the town is well known in that section. 


The Town of Hopkinton was laid out on the southeast quarter of section 13 
in 1851 and the plat recorded December 29, 1851. The owners of the land 
were Henry A. Carter and Leroy Jackson. 


William H. Martin settled on Plum Creek in July, 1843, with his family 
and engaged in farming. His father, William Martin, died here in 1876 and 
that same year William H. became a resident of Hopkinton and was elected 
mayor in 1877. 

William B. Morgan was born in New York State in 1830 and when fifteen 
years of age removed with his parents to this county and settled near Hopkin- 
ton. He learned carpentering and worked at his trade until 1861, when he 
enlisted in the Civil war. He returned to Hopkinton and in 1863 entered the 
mercantile business. He was the first deputy sheriff appointed and to complete 
the first jury panel he was compelled to summon every voter in the county. 

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Isaac Smith moved on to a farm six miles west of Hopkinton in 1846. In 
1855 he moved into the village when there were only two houses in existence 
there* He paid his attention to farming and also worked at carpentry. Mr. 
Smith was a member of Company P, Thirty-seventh Iowa, the famous "Gray* 
Beards," and served the county faithfully and well for four years as sheriff. 

James Hardy w$s born in the State of Virginia in 1816. When thirty 
years of age he came from the State of Illinois to this county and located in 
North Fork Township in 1846. He removed to Hopkinton in 1860. Mr. Hardy 
was one of Delaware County's best citizens. He served on the first grand jury 
impaneled in the county and was a member of the Methodist Episcopal church 
almost a lifetime. He held several township offices. 

The Littlefields came to South Pork Township in an early day and P. M. 
Littlefield was born here in 1853. Hugh Livingston was also a son of a pioneer. 
He was born in the township in 1844 and became a druggist at Hopkinton. 

F. W. Doolittle was born at Delhi, the son of Frederick B. Doolittle, July 8, 
1855, and became a member of the banking firm of Doolittle & Son at Hopkinton. 

One of the first blacksmiths in Hopkinton was L. C. Tapping, who came 
from Pennsylvania in 1856. His blacksmith shop was kept running until about 
1873, when he built the Central House and became its proprietor. 

Among the early residents of Hopkinton was Peter H. Warner, who located 
in the village in April, 1856. He served a clerkship in a general store until 
his arrival in Hopkinton, when he went into business for himself. He was 
postmaster at the village eight years and held other positions in the township 
of trust and responsibility. Mr. Warner established the first drug, dental, 
photographic and jewelry business at Hopkinton, and called the first meeting 
held in the interests of the Davenport & Northwestern Railway Company. 

Gorham K. Nash was born in the State of Maine. He came to Delaware 
County in the spring of 1856 and about two years thereafter located at Hop- 
kinton. His father, Amaziah Nash, located in Hopkinton in 1859 and engaged 
in the wagon making business until his death in 1866. Gorham K. is now a 
respected resident of Hopkinton. He served in Company K, Twenty-first Iowa 

Alexander Kirkwood first saw the light of day in bonny Scotland, immi- 
grated to the United States in 1829 and lived for some years in New York 
and Philadelphia, where he was engaged in piano making. He arrived in 
Delaware County in 1856 and located in Hopkinton, where he engaged in the 
furniture and undertaking business. Mr. Kirkwood served his adopted country 
in the Civil war. 

William Flude was a prominent figure in the educational field of music. 
He was a native of England and came to the United. States in 1857, locating 
in Hopkinton as professor of music in the Bowen Collegiate Institute, now 
known as Lenox College. 

Robert G. Crawford was a pioneer merchant of Hopkinton. He was a native 
of Pennsylvania and came to Delaware County in 1859 with his father, who 
bore the same name, and located at Hopkinton, where he engaged in the hard- 
ware business. 

There was quite an influx of people seeking homes in this beautiful new 
country in 1856. About this time appeared Rev. W. L. Roberts, a clergyman 

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of the Reformed Presbyterian Church, located here, preached the Gospel to 
the scattered settlers and was a strong force in persuading a number of his 
religious faith to become residents of Hopkinton and the nearby farms. 

J. H. Campbell was one of the early merchants. There were also Barker 
& Campbell, general merchandise; A. Kirkwood, undertaker and furniture. 
Other early merchants were C. E. Merriam & Company, Jo Bernard, P. 0. 
Joseph; Williamson & McBride, drugs; H. Livingston, drugs; J. G. Wallace, 
hardware; restaurant, Charles Abbott; millinery, Misses M. & N. Dawson; 
harness, C. F. Shimeal.. P. H. Warner was a notary public here in the '60s, 
so was M. Harmon; C. E. Reeve had a meat market, James McArthur flour 
store, G. H. Crawford, W. P. Gerry and J. H. Williamson early blacksmiths; 
John Dunlap, wagon maker ; livery stables, N. Loop and Lough & King ; lumber, 
P. D. Smith. 

The firm of Campbell & Williamson built an elevator in 1873 In 1863 the 
elevator at Sand Springs was moved to Hopkinton by John Stevenson. 

Dr. W. H. Finley was one of the first physicians to take up the practice 
in Delaware County, coming to Hopkinton in 1859 and opening an office. 

The Davenport & St. Paul Railroad, now the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. 
Paul, was completed and running trains through Hopkinton in 1872. The first 
station master was A. F. Stickney. The advent of railroad transportation fa- 
cilities gave Hopkinton a spur to advance and the town took on new life and 
added importance. About a year ago a beautiful new depot was erected, to 
replace the old one. 

James H. Bowen, who came here in 1855, saw the land was adapted to the 
raising of broom corn, which led him to induce Samuel Dickerson to join him 
in the manufacture of brooms on the Bowen land near Hopkinton. A crop 
of broom corn was raised in 1856, which was worked into brooms in an estab- 
lishment, having necessary machinery, built by Bowen & Dickerson. Shortly 
after others took up the industry and followed it several years. 

Disputes and tragedies were frequent even in the days of pioneering. It is 
said, in this relation, that on December 2, 1864, Morris Martin and George 
Crozier, of this township, quarreled and fought over a small quantity of oats. 
In the encounter Martin stabbed Crozier, one of the wounds being in the heart, 
from which the man died. Martin spent five years in the penitentiary in partial 
expiation of his crime. 

Another crime was committed here while Hopkinton was yet in its infancy. 
Edward Kennedy, who lived a few miles west of town, was shot while preparing 
his evening meal, by John Duncan. Kennedy, an old man, was found the next 
morning lying dead on his kitchen floor. Duncan was arrested on suspicion and 
remanded for trial. 

Theodore Marks was the first township clerk and later became justice of 
the peace. He was a unique character in some respects, as his township record 
and the following marriage certificate will attest: 


"I hereby certify that on the 20th day of February, A. D., 1851, at the 
house of William Dighton, in Delhi Township, Delaware County, Iowa, in the 

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presence of the above named William Dighton and his wife, his father, two 
brothers, two sisters, one brother-in-law, one sister-in-law, three step-children, 
several of his own children, nephews and nieces, friends and acquaintances, 
neighbors, etc., I joined in the holy bonds of matrimony Mr. Anthony McGarvey, 
of Scott County, Iowa, aged 24 years, and Miss Mary Ann Morgan, step- 
daughter to the above mentioned William Dighton, of this county, aged 18 

" Given under my hand this 20th day of February, A. D. 1851. 

"Theodore Marks, 

* k Justice of the Peace, South Fork Township, Delaware County, Iowa. 

44 P. S. — The streams being up very high, everybody could not attend. The 
undersigned had to travel sixteen miles extra to get home. T. M." 

Bowen Collegiate Institute was founded in the year 1865 by certain of the 
citizens of Hopkinton, and was named in commemoration of C. T. Bowen, of 
Chicago, who liberally contributed to its initiatory funds. The institution was 
subsequently named Lenox College, and its interesting history, written by Presi- 
dent Reed, will be found on other pages of this volume. 

F. E. Williamson established the present brickyard about twenty years ago 
and it is now in his hands. 

Archibald Tate established a brickyard almost on the same site as the pres- 
ent one, fifty years ago. The college, churches and many old buildings were of 
brick got there. 


Hopkinton 's growth was gradual and substantial. The town was a good 
trading point and by the year 1874 there were about three hundred and fifty 
people within its borders. A number of enterprising men were engaged in 
different lines of business, good schools were in operation, the institute was on 
a sure footing, church edifices were to be seen and the commercial, educational 
and religious aspect was pleasant and satisfactory. Transportation facilities 
had been greatly enhanced and the prospects were so flattering that the leading 
men of the community felt the time had arrived for independence from town- 
ship government. This led to a successful movement for incorporation. 

At an election in Lathrop 's Hall, March 3, 1874, the question of incorpora- 
tion was submitted to the electorate. The poll showed that 132 votes were cast 
and that 02 votes were in favor of separating the village organization from the 
township. To perfect the incorporation and carry out the will of the majority, 
as expressed at the polls, an election was held for town officers, at Lathrop Hall, 
M&rch 26, 1874, and the following persons were chosen: Mayor, Isaac Smith; 
clerk, John A. M. Hall; trustees, Charles Lathrop, James McArthur, H. A. 
Carter, James T. Williamson, G. H. Crawford, all of whom qualified on the 
28th day of the month, having met that day and organized the municipal gov- 

The first real business of the newly made council was to pass an ordinance 
to create the offices of marshal, treasurer and street commissioner. 

The next municipal election was held March 1, 1875. J. G. Diffenderfer 
was returned for mayor; D. A. Barnes, clerk; J. G. Diffenderfer, street corn- 

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missioner; M. R. Harding, assessor; J, P. Cramer, marshal; P. H. Warner, 
P. P. Westcott, E. W. Harvey, Charles Lathrop, James Williamson, trustees. 
Since its incorporation in 1874 until the present the following persons in addi- 
tion to those above named have held the office of mayor of Hopkinton : 

F. M. Earhart, 1880-81; J. H. Campbell, 1882; N. J. Dunham, 1883; S. P. 
Carter, 1884-86; C. E. Merriam, 1887; J. H. Campbell, 1888; John Chrystal, 
1889-90; C, E. Reeve, 1891-92; S. P. Carter, 1893-95; G. Merriam, 1896; F. A. 
Williamson, 1897; G. Merriam, 1898-1900; F. R. Tesar, 1901; S. P. Carter^ 
1902-04; T. C. Reeve, 1905-09; F. A. Irish, 1910-11; D. C. Oehler, 1912-13; 
J. J. Kirkwood, 1914. 


At a special election held on the 15th day of April, 1901, the question of 
erecting and maintaining a system of waterworks was placed before the tax- 
payers of Hopkinton, and 160 votes were cast on the proposition; 116 for, and 
43 against, of the male votes. The women, who were graciously (?) accorded 
the right of suffrage on the subject, cast 153 ballots; 97 for, 51 against; 5, 

The election plainly indicated that a majority of Hopkinton people desired 
plenty of water, not only because their principles were in favor of it as the 
best and most refreshing beverage for man, but also the added reason that the 
town demanded more and better protection against the destructive element of 
fire. Therefore, lots were purchased for a power and pumping station, secured 
of S. P. Carter for the sum of $250, and located on Public Square Addition. A 
contract was let to the Des Moines Bridge & Iron Works Company of Des 
Moines, for $6,970. An 8-inch well was drilled in 1902, and a splendid supply 
of good water obtained. In April, 1903, council passed an ordinance empower- 
ing that body to issue $5,000 in waterworks bonds and a contract was awarded 
J. F. Williamson for the construction . of a steel tower, on the hill north of 
town, for $2,000. This the town leased from Mr. Williamson for twenty years, 
at an annual rental of 7 per cent of the cost, with privilege to buy at cost and 
interest. The improvement was completed in the year 1904 and Hopkinton not 
only owns its water system, but has a property worth all and more than it cost, 
which was about eight thousand dollars. W. S. Beels was the first superintendent 
and E. A. Kirkw T ood, engineer. 


Peter Milroy secured a franchise for an electric light and power plant in 
1892 and furnished both the town and private consumers with electricity. The 
franchise was renewed in 1912. The plant is installed in the old grist mill, on 
the south side of the Maquoketa. In 1912, William Milroy, a son, the present 
owner and manager, inaugurated a continuous service. In November, 1912, 
the merchants, at their own expense, bought and set up eighteen 5-globe elec- 
troliers, on First and Locust streets, and donated them to the town. 


The postoffice was established here in 1852, and Archibald Tate, pioneer 
brickmaker of Delaware County, received his commission as postmaster on the 

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28th day of June, 1852. The names of his successors follow : George R. Brow- 
der, December 10, 1853; H. A. Saunders, December 19, 1854; P. H. Warner, 
June 27, 1856; R. S. Taylor, March 29, 1861 ; Merritt Harmon, August 16, 1864; 
William E. Brown, August 20, 1866 ; P. H. Warner, December 18, 1867 ; C. E. 
Merriam, August 11, 1869; P. F. Westcott, December 14, 1885; C. A. Craw- 
ford, April 9, 1889 ; A. K. Cramer, July 3, 1893 ; F. B. Tibbitts, May 8, 1897. 


The first schoolhouse built in this district was a log cabin, situated at the 
edge of a small strip of woods, called Scotch Grove, about midway of the town 
and the settlement where the Scotch people located. The settlers hauled the 
logs in the winter of 1849 and themselves put up the rude temple of learning. 
Miss Beard, a Vermont teacher, opened this school in May and a Mr. Wilson 
taught the following term. The log schoolhouse was sold in 1855 and in that 
year school was taught in the village, an old wagon shop being used for the 
purpose. With money obtained from the sale of the log building and other 
sums obtained by subscription, a small brick school building was erected, one 
of the first brick structures in the county, on a lot donated by Leroy Jackson. 
Another Vermont " school m'am" first presided here — a Miss Eaton. 

In March, 1865, the independent district was organized by the election of 
Henry A. Carter, president of the board of directors; J. G. Diffenderfer, vice 
president; Edmund Davis, treasurer; A. Nash, secretary; C. A. Ball, G. H. 
Crawford and G. Merriam. On March 13th, the board voted a tax of 5 mills 
for school purposes and at the next meeting appointed G. Merriam, Leroy Jack- 
son and A. Nash a committee with instructions to build another schoolhouse 
and have it completed by October 1, 1865. Instead of building, however, the 
committee purchased the old Presbyterian Church for $500, and arranged it 
for school purposes. This church building stood on a lot adjoining the little 
red schoolhouse and was used for the higher grades. Both these schoolhouses 
were removed in 1875, and at an expense of $7,000, a brick building was erected 
on the two lots, to which was added an adjoining half-acre of ground. This 
building contains five rooms and is the high school, having five teachers. Some 
time ago another brick building was put up for the primary classes, and has 
three rooms and two teachers. 


Lenox College, located at Hopkinton, Delaware County, Iowa, is one of the 
oldest educational institutions in the state. 

As early as 1854, the late Henry A. Carter cherished the hope of establish- 
ing a college at Hopkinton. Mr. Carter had been born and raised in Massa- 
chusetts and was possessed of that high appreciation of education and culture 
that has always characterized our New England population. His object was to 
provide the facilities for higher Christian education without the inconvenience 
and expense of sending the children to eastern colleges. This object was 
approved by many others and there finally resulted the organization of a joint 
stock company to erect a building to be used for educational purposes. The 

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The Old Mill. 

Lenox College. 

Main Street, Looking West. 

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THE NEW y.- y'} '"■ 

ON8 | 

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date of the formation of this joint stock company is not recorded, but it met 
later on September 6, 1855. 

In March, 1856, a building committee was appointed to proceed to the erec- 
tion of the college building. This was the first Presbyterian College in Iowa. 
It was located at Hopkinton, Delaware County, in the northeastern section of 
the state, among a noble and sturdy class of Scotch-Irish. 

In June, 1856, the name of Bowen Collegiate Institute was adopted in honor 
of C. T. Bowen, of Chicago, who was a liberal contributor to the building fund, 
and in the following month the institution was incorporated. 

In September, 1856, the members of the first board of trustees were elected 
and in October of the same year the first articles of incorporation were filed, 
the institution therefore being, from the beginning, entitled to all the rights and 
privileges of a college. The names of the members of the first board of trustees 
were: Henry A. Carter, president; W. P. Cunningham, secretary; Leroy Jack- 
son, treasurer ; James Kilpatrick, H. R. Hackson, Asa C. Bowen, Edmund Davis, 
I. Littlefield, Christian Myers, W. A. Roberts, William Robinson, William Holt, 
Jacob Diffenderfer, William Morrison, J. B. Whittaker, and Jerome Davis. 

In the autumn of 1856, the foundation of the center of the main building 
was laid and the roof put on in 1857. This was a two-story brick structure 
40x60, containing eight rooms built in the center of a four-acre plot of ground 
donated by Mr. H. A. Carter. The campus was afterwards enlarged by an- 
other donation by Mr. Carter's son, Samuel P. It is a beautiful piece of ground, 
sloping in all directions from the main building, with a slight, ridge running 
through the center from north to south. It is artistically set with groups and 
rows and groves of sturdy oaks and spreading elms and graceful, symmetrical, 
hard maples. The " fifties' ' were early days for Iowa and it required much 
patience and perseverance on the part of those who were managing the enter- 
prise as well as much sacrifice in giving, by these and many more before the 
building was completed and ready for occupation. 

Finally by means of a public entertainment and a festival sufficient money 
was raised to prepare the inside of the building for occupation and on Sep- 
tember 1, 1859, the first term of the institute began "with about forty scholars." 
At last victory crowned the efforts of those noble men and women. Their 
hopes were realized. As the rural schools in those early days were inefficient 
and the high school of the present day was unknown the attendance at the 
institute was very good from the beginning and increased its enrollment rap- 
idly. From the records we learn that during the first four terms 196 different 
students were enrolled. "The largest number of students in any single term 
before the Civil war was 120/ ' 

The control of the institution was tendered the Old School Presbyterian 
Synod of Iowa, North, in 1860, and that body the following year took a limited 
supervision. In 1863 two of the principal stockholders, H. A. Carter and 
Leroy Jackson, obtained a sheriff's deed for the property of the corporation, 
after the trustees concluded that they were unable to meet the obligations that 
were contracted in building. These two men presented the entire college 
property to the synod. A deed was signed February 9, 1864, by Henry A. 
Carter and Mary Carter, conveying the same to the synod with the condition 
that in case the property should not be used for educational purposes it was 

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to revert to the Town of Hopkinton. At the time that the property was trans- 
ferred to the synod in 1864 the name was changed from Bowen Collegiate Insti- 
tute to Lenox Collegiate Institute in honor of James Lenox of New York City, 
a liberal contributor to the endowment fund. 

The first president of the. institution was the Rev. Jerome Allen, Ph. D., 
who occupied the chair from 1859 to 1863 and for two years additional acted 
as financial agent and teacher of natural science and English literature. Doctor 
Allen was tme of the foremost educators of his day. He was the author of a 
number of books and established the department of pedagogy in the university 
of the City of New York and was the dean of that department from 1889 to 
the time of his death, which occurred in his home in Brooklyn, May 26, 1894. 

Next came the soldier president, the Rev. J. W. McKean, A. M., 1863-1864. 
One morning a recruiting officer attended chapel service and after a strong 
and noble Appeal by President McKean for the young men to obey the call of 
President Lincoln to enlist in the army of the Union, he informed the students 
that a recruiting officer was present and all who wished to enlist should arise. 
All arose and enlisted but one and he was too young. The faculty and girl 
students were in tears and President McKean closed the tender scene by saying, 
4 * Well, boys, if all of you are going, I am going too." President McKean 
resigned May 6, 1864, and entered the army as captain of a company in which 
all but two of the students enlisted. The work of the institute was suspended 
till the fall term. July 9, 1864, Captain McKean died in the army at Memphis, 
Tenn. A fine monument on the college campus commemorates his name and 
the names of others who gave their lives for the preservation of the Union. 
This monument at a cost of over fifteen hundred dollars was dedicated November 
17, 1865, which makes it the oldest monument in Iowa and probably in the entire 
United States erected by public subscription in honor of the soldiers of the Civil 
war. "In all, ninety-two students of this school enlisted during the war, a larger 
proportion than from any other school in this state.' ' 

For a brief period, from July 8, 1864, to the close of the fall term of the 
same year, the Rev. James D. Mason was president. During the remaining 
portion of that year till the spring term of 1865 Dr. Jerome Allen acted as 
president though the Reverend Doctor Mason did not formally resign till 
October, 1865. Mr. Mason was a genial gentleman who was prominently iden- 
tified with Presbyterianism in Iowa. He died in Davenport, Iow r a, January 8, 
1890, at the age of seventy -seven. 

In September, 1866, the Rev. Samuel Hodge, D. D., who for one year had 
been professor of languages, was chosen president and filled that office with 
becoming dignity and increasing power till 1882. 

December 5, 1870, a committee was appointed to take the necessary steps to 
incorporate as a college having the right to confer degrees, etc., but the articles 
of incorporation were not filed for record till October 11, 1873. As found 
stated in these, the object of the corporation is to " maintain an institution of 
learning for the education of both sexes; the grade of which is to be at least 
high enough to prepare the one for the sophomore class in the best colleges 
of the United States, and the other for the second year of the best ladies' 
seminary in the country. But the school may be raised to any higher grade 

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whatever. " In accordance with this provision, its grade has from time to 
time been made higher. 

In 1875 the original building was enlarged by a wing 55x30 feet. This 
additional room was made necessary by the increased attendance of students, 
the number for one term reaching 200. This convenient improvement in the 
size of the building is due, for the most part, to the liberality of the citizens 
of Hopkinton and vicinity. The -times were hard and money was scarce. 
Every effort had been exhausted to secure enough funds to complete this 
wing and still the amount was not sufficient. Mr. Carter had hauled brick on 
to a piece of ground adjoining the campus where he had planned to erect a 
cottage and spend the rest of his days. It was at this juncture that Mr. and 
Mrs. Carter decided to give their brick for the new wing, and not in connection 
with the erecting of the original building as is sometimes stated. The brick 
were removed and built into the wing which has served the institution for 
nearly thirty-five years. So Mr. and Mrs. Carter never had their brick cot- 
tage and the land on which it was to have been erected was afterwards given 
to the college for an extension of the campus by their son who fell heir to it 
as noted above. 

In 1882 the trustees departed from the prevailing custom and elected 
as president a layman in the person of James A. Ritchey, Ph. 1)., who was 
an experienced educator and for six years labored with marked success. In 
1883 the curriculum of the college was revised and greatly extended and pro- 
vided for three regular courses of study as well as for many electives. Thus 
the institution was made equal to the best average college in the state. This 
year the Helen Finley bequest of $5,000 was made as an addition to the perma- 
nent funds. During this year also occurred the death of H. A. Carter 
who was the first president of the board of trustees and a life-long friend and 
generous supporter of the college. 

In 1884 the articles of incorporation were so amended as to change the name 
of Lenox Collegiate Institute to Lenox College, and to provide for the election 
of the members of the board of trustees in classes, of whom five of the fifteen 
were to be chosen annually. During the same year extensive repairs were 
made in the college building. All the rooms on the first floor were refurnished 
and the rooms on the second floor were remodeled. Two commodious halls 
for the literary societies were provided, and the chapel was repaired and 

In 1884 the quarter centennial of the college was celebrated. An unusually 
large number of people were present at that commencement season. Every 
year in the life of the college seemed to have sent back former students to 
represent it. The Old Students' Association, organized in 1883, made its first 
public appearance, effected this general reunion, and contributed much to the 
social and literary interest of the occasion. This association was composed of 
former non-graduate students. The organization was suggested by Mrs. Lucy 
Cooley Finley, first preceptress in the school. The first officers were: F. B. 
Dickey, president; Christina M. Kirkwood, secretary. 

During the summer of 1888 the board of trustees chose the Rev. Alexander 
G. Wilson, D. D., as president, who brought not only dignity but also capabil- 
ity acquired by a long training in professional and presidential positions in 

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Paron's College and Lake Forest University. In 1889 the foundation of Clarke 
Hall, a girls' dormitory, was laid and in the fall of 1890 the building was 
ready for use. Clarke Hall was erected by the combined efforts of the board 
of trustees, former students and alumni. The largest share of the money 
used in the erection of the building was left by Charles Coverse Clarke, a 
former student, who wished to do something for the college where he had re- 
ceived his training. Doctor Wilson's distinguished gifts, his noble Christian 
character, and executive powers combined to make him a model president, and 
it was a great loss when he resigned to accept a professorship in the recently 
established theological seminary in Omaha where he remained till his death. 

In the spring of 1894 the Rev. Hugh Robinson, A. M., a son of Lenox Col- 
lege, and a brilliant preacher, was chosen president and remained for two years 
in that office. During the presidency of Reverend Mr. Robinson considerable 
field work was done which resulted in increased enrollment. At the commence- 
ment of 1895 the friends who gathered on the campus to enjoy the exercises of 
the day contributed $2,500 toward the erection of a new building to be used 
for the library, gymnasium, and literary society halls. James McKean, M. D., 
'80, of Chenung Mai, Laos, a Presbyterian foreign missionary, had the honor of 
making the first gift which was $100. Operations on the new building were 
suspended at the close of the summer of 1895. In the spring of 1896 the 
Reverend Mr. Robinson resigned to take charge of a church. 

Next came Andrew G. Wilson, A. M., who was chfcsen president in the spring 
of 1896. He too is an alumnus, '80, and in 1884 began to teach natural science 
in Lenox College. He is the peer of any teacher in his department. His scien- 
tific knowledge is extensive and his quiet but forceful manner qualified him for 
the position he held till the spring of 1902. In 1897, though the times were 
hard, the people of Hopkinton and vicinity loyally and nobly responded with 
$5,000 for permanent endowment. It was during President Wilson's time that 
the new building used for library and gymnasium was completed. Due to the 
generous gift of Judge F. B. Doolittle of Delhi, Iowa, the building was named 
Doolittle Memorial Hall in honor of his son, F. W. Doolittle, of sacred memory. 
In 1901 Mr. Wilson resigned but remained at his post of duty till the close of 
the winter term, 1901-2. 

In February, 1902, the Rev. Francis William Grossman, D. D., accepted the 
presidency. During his incumbency considerable progress was made in many 
directions. As to material improvements: a steam plant was installed in 
Clarke Hall and another in the main building which has capacity sufficient for 
four times the present necessity; new Christian association rooms were pro- 
vided; the chapel, music rooms, stairways, halls, laboratories, literary society 
halls, and Clarke Hall were completely remodeled at a cost of about ten thou- 
sand dollars ; the library had an addition 6f 2,300 new bound volumes and 350 
volumes of standard magazines ; a conditional offer of $25,000 from Mr. Andrew 
Carnegie toward a permanent endowment was secured. 

Progress in the curriculum was also made. The courses were revised and 
extended and there was a decided increase in the requirements both for admis- 
sion and graduation. 

In July, 1906, Doctor Grossman resigned and in August of the same year Rev. 
E. E. Reed, D. D., was elected as his successor. Doctor Reed had been presi- 

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dent of Buena Vista for six years where he had met with marked success in 
building up that young institution. 

Doctor Reed set himself about securing subscriptions to meet the condi- 
tions of Mr. Carnegie's offer of $25,000, which had been made sixteen months 
before and towards which only a small amount had been subscribed. Many 
thought the undertaking could not be carried to a successful issue. The new 
president thought it could ^nd accepted the presidency with this belief. He 
began by setting a time limit on the subscriptions at January 1, 1909 — allowing 
thus a little over two years in which to complete the work. It was not an 
easy 1 task by any means and yet the full amount was finally secured 3^2 months 
ahead of the time limit and was carried $8,000 beyond the required amount 
by the end of the time limit. 

A second campaign was soon started for $65,000, of which $25,Q00 was to 
be an endowment for the agricultural department. It was afterwards advanced 
to $75,000. A long and serious illness of the president laid him aside from 
his work for some nine months. In the meantime, Mr. Archibald Livingston, a 
citizen near Hopkinton, died, leaving a legacy estimated to be worth $30,000 to 
Lenox College on condition that $25,000 more be raised for the college. This 
$55,000 was all to go to the agricultural and domestic science departments of 
the college. As some progress had already been made in securing subscriptions 
conditioned on raising $75,000, the canvass was continued along this line. It 
was a strenuous campaign, following so closely on the former $100,000 cam- 
paign, but as time passed it was pushed with constantly increasing vigor. 
During the last fifty days an average of $1,000 a day was added and $15,000 
the last day, which ended in $11,000 more than the required amount. 

The academic course has. been advanced during the present administration 
from a three-year to a four-year course and in other ways the educational 
standards of the college have been raised. Departments of agriculture and 
domestic science have been added. The former was advocated by President 
Reed in his inaugural address. At that time an agricultural department was 
a new thing for a college that was devoting itself to classical and general 
scientific work. These departments have been put on a strong footing and the 
studies taken are given regular college credit. 

The library has been considerably more than doubled in number of volumes 
and in efficiency has been augmented much more than the increase in volumes 
would indicate. Over twelve hundred dollars has been put into six-foot cement 
walks over and along the campus. One block east of the campus ten acres 
have been purchased, five of which. are used for athletics and five acres for the 
agricultural department. 

In connection with the first campaign Mr. and Mrs. C. O. Torrey, of Man- 
chester, gave the college a property owned by them, two blocks north of the 
college. It consists of a large residence, that was being occupied by the presi- 
dent's family, and is now the "President's Home," and also twenty-five acres 
of land. On this land experiments are being conducted for the benefit of 
the agricultural department. 

The membership of the faculty has been almost doubled and the salaries 
have been materially increased. The annual expense budget has been almost 

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The assets of the college have been advanced from $65,370 to $250,916. Be- 
sides this, some twelve wills have been written in which Lenox is made a 
beneficiary. The college is yet to realize on most of these wills. This alone 
will add considerably to the present assets even though no other money was 
secured for the college in the meantime. 


" Psalm singers " were the first settlers in the neighborhood of the present 
Town of Hopkinton. Hugh Livingston had emigrated from Scotland to the 
Selkirk Settlement, on the Red River of the North, but soon had come south- 
ward, first with ox carts, then upon the waters of the Mississippi River to 
Dubuque, where he settled in 1835. The rough and wicked life in the pros- 
perous mining town did not please his pious wife, who feared for the souls of 
her children, amidst such temptations, and she told her husband that she would 
rather live among the Indians and brave the dangers of the wilderness than 
continue among such wicked white men. Thus, when James Livingston, the 
brother of Hugh, and Hugh Rose came from the Selkirk Settlement in 1837, 
all left Dubuque and settled a short distance below the present site of Hopkinton. 
And thus the psalms of David were the first songs used at family worship in the 
neighborhood of Hopkinton. 

The first Reformed Presbyterian family came to Hopkinton 4i with faint 
hopes of seeing a congregation of Reformed Presbyterians growing up around 
them." It was the family of James Kilpatrick, who came to Hopkinton in the 
fall of 1853, and of whose influence upon the growth of Hopkinton we spoke 
before. Mr. Kilpatrick immediately bought land for himself and for his two 
brothers-in-law, J. B. Whitaker and Dr. H. P. Cunningham, who followed him 
in the early spring of 1854. These faithful covenanters not only brought their 
family altars with them, but thought of the observance of the divine ordinances 
as soon as they were settled. Thus Rev. James Neill preached several times 
to them during the years 1854 and 1855, and Mr. Kilpatrick 's log cabin served 
as the church. Other Reformed Presbyterian families began to move in during 
1855, of which we will name the families of Joseph, Miller, Milroy, Gilmore and 
McConnell, and the desire to have a congregation organized was expressed. The 
people entered into correspondence with Rev. William L. Roberts, D. D., who, 
after a visit to Hopkinton in the spring of 1855, consented to take charge of the 
congregation to be organized. With rejoicing hearts the people asked Illinois 
Presbytery, in whose bounds the congregation was to be started, for an organi- 
zation. The request was granted at a meeting of the Presbytery held in St. 
Louis, October 9, 1855, and a commission was appointed for the purpose. 

This commission, consisting of Reverends McDonald and Cannon, and Elder 
David Willson, appeared to organize the congregation April 10, 1856. Sixteen 
families, numbering about forty-five persons, were organized into Maquoketa 
Congregation of the Reformed Presbyterian Church of North America. J. B. 
Whitaker and Robert Gilmore were chosen elders, while James Kilpatrick was 
elected deacon, and a hearty and unanimous call to become the pastor was made 
out for Rev. William L. Roberts, D. D., who had been preaching for the people 
with much acceptance, in the schoolhouse of the Scotch Settlement and other 
conveniently located buildings. 

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Thus the Reformed Presbyterian Congregation was organized, and pastor, 
elders and members began active work immediately. The congregation was 
divided into three prayer meetings (societies) and Doctor Roberts preached two 
sermons every Sabbath, using Mr. Kilpatrick's house as a church. Later services 
were held in what is known as the "red brick* ' schoolhouse, and still later in the 
large room over Farmer's wagon shop; but in the summer Doctor Roberts 
preached in the grove. The audiences, especially in the afternoons were very 
large, because Doctor Roberts was an excellent orator. 

During the years 1856, 1857 and 1858 the membership of the congregation 
rapidly increased. We find added to the roll the narroes of James Greer, Novem- 
ber 19, 1856 ; James Stevenson, Alex Marshall, William Coleman, James Orr, 
Peter Guthrie, William Wright, William Morrison, James Wood, William and 
Xancy Stevenson (now Mrs. Cormany), all in July, 1857; and of the Douglas 
and McGlade families, Alex and John Johnson, Hugh Ewart and the brothers 
Chrystal, all in November, 1858. 

The congregation, thus increasing, desired a church building, and in the 
fall of 1858 the work on the timber for the new church was begun. Mr. 
Robertson made the plan ; Mr. Humphreys did the main work on the foundation ; 
the brothers Fuller superintended the carpenter work ; and all the members of 
the church worked together in peace and brotherly love. Thus in September, 
1860, the church was finished. This served the congregation forty-one years 
and stands today well preserved, a memorial of the consecration and zeal of our 
fathers. In August, 1860, had occurred the installation of Doctor Roberts as 
pastor, which, through peculiar circumstances, had been delayed since 1856. 
The remaining years of his pastorate were years of quiet work and prosperity 
and the utmost harmony prevailed between pastor and people, so that it was a 
hard blow to the congregation when Doctor Roberts was suddenly called to his 
rest, December 7, 1864. 

After the death of Doctor Roberts the pulpit was regularly supplied by the 
other ministers of the Reformed Presbyterian Church in Iowa^ as well as by 
candidates, among whom were Rev. Robert Johnson, JosiaLh Dodds, R. B. 
Cannon and others. In the summer of 1866 a unanimous and hearty call was 
extended to David Hackston Coulter, who was installed as regular pastor April 
18, 1867. He resigned the pastorate October 14, 1874, that he might become 
pastor of the congregation in Newark, New Jersey. However, he returned to 
Hopkinton, October 30, 1875, to accept the chair of natural science in Lenox 
College. He later went to Winchester, Kansas, where he accepted a pastorate. 

On June 15, 1875, Richard Cameron Wylie was installed as pastor. He 
resigned October 3, 1882. During his pastorate, April 15, 1878, the name of 
the society was changed from Maquoketa Congregation to Hopkinton Congrega- 
tion of the Reformed Presbyterian Church. The church was then without a 
pastor for a few years, when on the 23d of September, 1886, Thomas Houston 
Acheson assumed charge, but resigned October 16, 1895. Then for 4i/> 
years the congregation was without a pastor, or until Rev. Louis Meyer was 
installed, June 21, 1900. After he left the charge the congregation was again 
without a regular pastor until Reverend Foster assumed charge and remained 
some four or five years. The present pastor, Rev. George S. Coleman, assumed 
charge in February, 1913. 

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On the 1st of January, 1901, the congregation unanimously decided to build 
a new church and the work was immediately begun, when the German Lutheran 
Congregation bought the old church building. The cornerstone of the new 
church was laid July 25, 1901, and on the 1st of January, 1902, just one year 
after it was decided to erect a building, the church was completed and occupied. 
The church is built of pressed brick with cut stone trimmings. The main audi- 
ence room is square; the pews are circular, and the floor is bowl-shaped. The 
windows are of stained glass. The total cost of the building was about ten 
thousand dollars. 


Under authority of the Cedar Rapids Presbytery, Rev. A. F. Kerr, on the 
5th day of October, 1855, organized the First Presbyterian Church, of Hopkinton. 
with the following members : John Williamson and wife, Mrs. Sarah B. William- 
son, Mrs. Mary A. Hardy, Mrs. Clarinda Davis, Mrs. Sarah Livingston, Mrs. 
Isabella Livingston, Mrs. Porthura Livingston, T. N. Williamson and wife. John 
Williamson was elected ruling elder and served one year, when Robert Wilson, 
E. T. Williamson, Henry Bridge and A. A. Lord were added to the list. Later 
elders were Professor Flude, director of music at Lenox College; Amasiah 
Nash, senior and junior ; and G. K. Nash. Up to 1905 there had been only four 
clerks: Phineas Allyn, A. A. Lord, C. H. Ricketts and W. R. Williamson. On 
May 8, 1856, the church was incorporated. Among the early trustees may be 
mentioned J. T. Williamson, J. H. Campbell, P. D. Smith, B. F. Marshall 
William Doolittle, William Taylor, A. G. Wilson, F. Deshaw and Merritt Har- 
mon. The first regular pastor was Rev. Merritt Harmon. 

Just when the first house of worship was erected is not definitely known 
by any one now living in the vicinity. But Dubuque and Davenport, the 
pioneer towns of Iowa, were only straggling villages. The structure was built 
of brick, had two entrances, facing the south, and the shingles were made from 
oak trees donated by Mrs. Isabella Livingston, a charter member. They were 
" rived out" by A. A. Lord and Isaac Smith. John Williamson borrowed the 
necessary money to meet building expenses, and in order to do so, placed a 
mortgage on his farm. His faith and loyalty were superb. This building 
stood on or near the site of the present high school building and was superseded 
in 1868 by a more commodious one. 

The church now standing, an ornament to the town and a splendid monu- 
ment to the memory of its projectors and supporters, was finished in 1905 and 
dedicated on Sunday, June 11th. The morning sermon was delivered by Reverend 
Doctor Robinson, of Dubuque; afternoon, by Reverend Doctor Ruston; and 
evening, by Reverend Doctor Fahs, of Independence. After the impressive 
exercises the presiding pastor announced that the church was free from debt 

The First Presbyterian Church building is architectually all that could be 
desired. It stands at the head of Locust Street, a majestic pile, constructed of 
red pressed brick, with Bedford stone trimmings. The foundation stone came 
from the Loop quarry near town. Many beautiful memorial windows adorn 
the edifice and the interior finish and decorations are in keeping with a rich 
and harmonious general design. The illumination is by electricity and the 
seating capacity is 700. 

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The following named clergymen have been pastors of this church as suc- 
cessors to Rev. Merritt Harmon : Jerome Allen, first president of Lenox College ; 
Reverend Doctor Mason, a few months; Samuel Hodge; M. Stevenson, an 
evangelist, a brief period; Henry Cullen; H. Gill, "who could conduct the 
college, sing in the choir and, withal, preach a sermon of more than average 
merit ;" Alexander Scott, two years; J. M. Smith; Charles Fish, one year; 
Doctor Mcintosh, who came in 1895 and was pastor in 1905, at the time of 
the dedication. Others who preached at various times were Revs. Hugh Robin- 
son, W. J. Bollman and Doctor Coulter. The present pastor is W. H. Ensign. 


The annual conference held at McGregor in September, 1862, organized the 
Hopkinton Circuit, and for the first year included the following appointments: 
Hopkinton, Buck Creek, Plum Creek and Mount Pleasant. At the expiration 
of the conference year, Mount Pleasant was discontinued as an appointment 
and merged with Plum Creek. With this exception the charge remained in the 
same formation until the close of the year 1863-4, under the pastoral care of 
Rev. C. M. Sessions. In 1864, Sand Springs was added as an appointment, 
which had hitherto been without pastoral labors, with Rev. Major Whitman, 
pastor. This year the charge also embraced Earlville and Delhi. During the 
year 1865-6 it embraced Hopkinton, Sand Springs, Plum Creek and Grove Creek. 

During Reverend Whitman's charge two substantial churches were built, 
one at Hopkinton and the other at Sand Springs. The old Rockville Church 
was removed to Plum Creek, rebuilt and dedicated as Centenary Methodist 
Episcopal Church. 

This charge was arranged in its present form, September 30, 1866, at con- 
ference held at Decorah, with Rev. B. C. Barnes, pastor. The church at 
Hopkinton was erected at a cost of $3,200 and dedicated September 10, 1865, 
by Rev. A. J. Kynett, J. T. Davis and James Hardy, laymen, and members 
of the board of trustees. The church at Sand Springs was also dedicated by 
Reverend Kynett, in January, 1866, at which time the indebtedness was 
provided for. The Centenary Church was rebuilt at a cost of $1,000, and 
dedicated by Rev. H. H. Houghton in 1866. In 1875 the societies of Grove and 
Buck Creeks united and built a church about midway of their localities, at a 
cost of $2,000. 

The Methodist Church was rebuilt in 1904 and rededicated on October 13th 
of that year, free of debt. The cost of improvements was $3,500. The present 
pastor is Rev. L. A. Bradford, having succeeded Rev. G. J. Chalice. 


The Farmers Exchange Bank was established as a private concern in Hopkin- 
ton, Iowa, March 1, 1877, by Prank M. Earhart, with a capital stock of $10,000. 
The first deposit was made by A. P. Stickney, after which we find the names of 
C. S. Barker, J. H. Campbell, P. D. Smith, J. T. Williamson, P. P. Westcott, 
C. L. Flint, Philip Cormany, J. J. Wallace, William Plude and Milroy & John- 
son. The above represented the open accounts at the close of the first two 
months' business. 

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In June, 1878, Prank Thompson entered the bank as bookkeeper and was 
succeeded in January, 1881, by F. W. Doolittle. 

May 12, 1884, Mr. Earhart sold the bank to F. B. Doolittle, of Delhi, and 
F. W. Doolittle. The name was changed to Doolittle & Son, Bankers, with 
F. B. Doolittle, president; F. W. Doolittle, cashier; and Frank E. Williamson, 
bookkeeper. In February, 1890, F. E. Williamson was advanced to the office 
of assistant cashier and was succeeded as bookkeeper by Byron G. Doolittle (now 
cashier of the First State Bank, Tekonsha, Michigan), who in turn was suc- 
ceeded in September, 1891, by E. R. Place. During the sickness of F. W. 
Doolittle, in the spring of 1892, F. E. Williamson Was advanced to the office 
of cashier and C. E. Merriam entered the bank as an employe. F. W. Doolittle 
died July 9, 1892. August 1, 1892, owing to the death of the cashier, a new 
copartnership was formed, consisting of F. B. Doolittle, Mrs. Mary R. Doolittle, 
Frank E. Williamson and C. E. Merriam, who continued the business under 
the name of The Hopkinton Bank, with F. B. Doolittle, president; F. E. Wil- 
liamson, vice president; C. E. Merriam, cashier; and E. R. Place, bookkeeper. 
The latter resigned his position in June, 1898, and J. D. McAllister (now 
manager of the Farmers Supply Company, Hopkinton), was soon afterwards 
installed as bookkeeper. 

February 1, 1900, the bank was incorporated under the state laws as the 
Hopkinton State Bank, with a capital stock of $40,000. Officers and directors: 
F. B. Doolittle, president ; F. E. Williamson, vice president ; C. E. Merriam, 
cashier ; Mary R. Doolittle, R. G. Brooks, M. L. McGlade and W. H. Thompson. 
January 28, 1901, F. C. Reeve entered the employ of the bank as bookkeeper 
to succeed J. D. McAllister, resigned. C. E. Merriam died December 19, 1902, 
and on the 27th of the same month, F. C. Reeve was elected cashier; R. G. 
Crawford, director, and Mary R. Doolittle, secretary of the board of directors, 
to succeed C. E. Merriam, deceased. C. H. Ricketts has been the bookkeeper 
since January 3, 1903. May 2, 1904, Dr. C. Edward Merriam was elected 
director to succeed W. H. Thompson, retired. Director M. L. McGlade died 
August 14, 1906, and F. C. Reeve was elected to fill the vacancy December 
24th of the same year. 

December 28, 1909, Ben F. Williamson was elected teller, and on the 7th of 
October, 1911, was elected director to succeed R. G. Brooks. January 25, 1912, 
Ben F. Williamson died and was succeeded by Clarence L. Hill. November 
19, 1902, F. B. Doolittle, president, died, and was succeeded by F. E. William- 
son. A son, Dr. John C. Doolittle, of Des Moines, succeeded Judge Doolittle 
as director and Mary R. Doolittle was elected vice president. 

The bank began operations on the south side of Main Street, in a small frame 
building, and moved from there into the present home, a one-story brick on 
the corner of Main and Locust streets. In 1912 an addition was built to the 
north part, where the bank installed a modern, burglar and fire proof vault and 
other appurtenances. 

The present officials of the Hopkinton State Bank are: F. E. Williamson, 
president; Mary R. Doolittle, vice president; F. C. Reeve, cashier. Capital 
$40,000 ; surplus and undivided profits, $32,000 ; deposits, $306,000. 

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One of the strong and influential financial institutions of Delaware County 
is the Farmers State Bank. It was incorporated February 22, 1906, by H. M. 
Johnson, S. P. Thorpe, W. T. Kehoe, L. Schnitzger, H. B. Schneir, Ed Hucker, 
R. J. McNeil, W. S. Johnson, D. H. C. Johnston. The capitalization was 
$25,000, and the first officers selected were: H. M. Johnson, president; S. P. 
Thorpe, vice president; A. W. McDonald, cashier. The bank began doing 
business in the Bernhard Building, a one-story frame, still standing on Main 
Street. In 1908, a handsome home was completed for the bank and occupied 
in May of that year. 

At a regular meeting of the directors, in January, 1910, W. S. Johnson 
succeeded to the presidency, and at the same time S. M. Hucker followed S. P. 
Thorpe as vice president. John Turnis took the latter office in 1913. 

The official list now appears as follows: W. S. Johnson, president; John 

Turnis, vice president; A. W. McDonald, cashier. Directors: R. J. McNeil, 

Ralph Milroy, W. S. Johnson, A. W. McDonald, James F. Delay, James Kehoe, 

John Turnis, J. W. Milroy, Frank King. Capital, $25,000; surplus, $7,000; 

' deposits, $115,000. 


Rising Sun Lodge, A. F. & A. M., No. 187, was organized at Worthington, 
January 8, 1866. The lodge was removed to Hopkinton in 1874 and reinsti- 
tuted with the following named officers : A. B. Wheeler, W. M. ; T. N. William- 
son, S. W. ; C. Cook, J. W. ; H. N. Hendee, secretary; C. P. McCarty, S. D. ; I. G 
Quackenbush, J. D. ; Aaron Richardson, tyler; J. T. Davis, treasurer. The 
members in 1868 were H. W. Raymond, R. B. Dando, F. Coates, J. B. Bailey, 
D. M. Hazard, F. M. Nultimeyer, R. B. Lockwood, E. H. Bush, A. White, Henry 
Murphy, Simon Boyer, Samuel Pitman, William Stearwalt, J. F. Jackson, 
John Gould, James Campbell, B. F. Alberty, John Lyd, I. G. Quackenbtish, 
Adam Lasher, Ebenezer Fletcher, E. Turner, J. K. Shiffler, Bedford Lockwood, 
Henry Arnold, A. B. Wheeless, Thomas Wood, T. M. Williamson, Eli Ruddles- 
den, Evan Lyd, George McDonald, William Neville, William Carpenter and 
others. The membership now is seventy-eight. 

Sunbeam Chapter, Order Eastern Star, was organized March 2, 1905, with 
the following charter members and officers: W. M., Mrs. C. E. Reeve; W. P., 
W. S. Beels; A. M., Mrs. R. G. Crawford; secretary, Miss Emma Richardson; 
treasurer, Mrs. J. S. McConnell; conductress, Mrs. T. B. Tibbitts; assistant 
conductress, Mrs. J. J. Kirkwood ; Adah, Miss Alice Crawford ; Ruth, Mrs. L. F. 
Cummings; Esther, Mrs. P. R. Wheeless; Martha, Mrs. J. D. Morgan; Electa, 
Mrs. F. E. Williamson; warder, Mrs. J. S. Deshaw; sentinel, G. H. Deshaw; 
chaplain, Mrs. A. B. Wheeless ; marshal, Mrs. W. A. Place ; organist, Mrs. Boll- 
man. Other charter members were: Mesdames A. Richardson, M. C. Merriam, 
C. Outhaus, Harry Wilson, W. A. Lang, J. Baker, — Nichols, Ola Snyder, John 
Lawson, C. C. Hoag, J. C. Matthews, Mr. and Mrs. T. B. Armstrong and Mr. 
and Mrs. John Hilsenbeck. 

Sunset Lodge, No. 525. Independent Order Odd Fellows, was organized 
October 21. 1892, with the following named charter members: Parley Gavitt, 

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Jacob Piatt, Lewis Wheeler, S. P. Carter, Dr. S. F. Bentley, T. S. Dewald. 
They were also the first officials. The membership of the lodge now is thirty- 

Amon Lodge, No. 115, Daughters of Rebekah, was organized in September, 
1902. The lodge now has a membership of about sixty. 


Sand Spring is one of the primitive towns of Delaware County that cut 
some figure in its day as a trading point, but with the passing of time and 
events and the control of man, its prestige long since has taken wings and but 
little is left of the place to speak of. Be that as it may, however, the village 
was laid out by Surveyor George Welch in January, 1858, for the owners, T. H. 
Bowen and L. H. Langworthy. Mr. Bowen had located a large tract of land 
here and in the vicinity and in 1856 the Southwestern (Milwaukee) Railroad 
Company had made this point a station on its line and built a depot. 

The first building in Sand Spring, a log cabin, was put up by Asa C. Bowen 
in 1852 and he was one of the first to locate in this vicinity. 

In the year 1858 an important event occurred, in the arrival of a number' 
of families belonging to the " Exodus Colony/ ' formed in Massachusetts. They 
were preceded by Reverend Bolles, who was delegated by the association to 
arrange for the reception of the families in their prairie settlement. Mr. Bolles 
was pleased with the Sand Spring country and purchased of the Bowens 1,000 
acres of land, in which was included a forty acre tract, which had already been 
surveyed into lots. This was called the " Colony' ' Addition to Sand Spring. 
Here Reverend Bolles erected a large frame house, containing sixteen rooms, as 
a temporary gathering place or home for members of the association and was 
called the " Colony House.' ' But few, however, of the many families expected 
left their eastern homes for the West. Those who did brave the many unknown 
perils of the homeseeker were the Olmsteads, L. A. Hubbard, Otis Battles, 
A. J. Douglas, William McCausland, with families, and a Mr. Pease. 

Reverend Bolles was an earnest, eloquent preacher, a good man, who ful- 
filled the duties imposed upon him in purchasing the " Colony' ' land and 
making arrangements for the "Exodists." That the primary scheme of 
colonizing Massachusetts families on Delaware County land was a failure was 
no fault of his. This worthy clergyman preached the first sermon in Sand 
Spring in 1858, at a frame building erected for a hotel. Other sermons by him 
were delivered in the homes of the people. That summer a large meeting was 
held by him at the home of Charles Crocker. About this time Reverends Whit- 
more, of the Methodist persuasion, and James Kay, Baptist, preached to people 
in and around Sand Spring. 

A school was opened here in the summer of 1858 by Miss Lucy Battles, 
daughter of Otis Battles. Later, in 1868, a commodious and substantial school 
building was erected. E. P. Couser was principal of the graded school. 

The Methodists had organized a society and, in 1865, erected a house of 
worship. A similar building was put up by the Baptists in 1868. 

The Southwestern, now under the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul System, 
failed to reach Sand Spring in the fall of 1858. This was irksome to those who 

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had contributed to the building of the road, as they needed and greatly desired 
railroad communication with the outer world. The spring of 1859 came and 
still the rails were three miles distant. This led the farmers and business men, 
and even their women folks, to pitch in and help the track layers finish their 
work into the village. It is said that Mrs. Asa C. Bowen, Mrs. Karst and other 
helpful pioneer matrons, assisted in carrying and placing the ties. 

When the Davenport & St. Paul (Milwaukee) Railroad reached Hopkinton 
a mortal blow was given the growth and aspirations of Sand Spring. The 
township had voted a tax of 5 per cent to assist in building the road. The 
payment of this tax was successfully resisted by the taxpayers of Sand Spring 
by way of an injunction, which was made perpetual by the Supreme Court of 
the state. 

The postoffice at Sand Spring was established in 1858, and T. H. Bowen 
was commissioned postmaster on the 19th day of June, 1858. The names of 
his successors follow: William Cline, April 16, I860; E. H. Sellers, January 30, 
1861 ; Robert Elliott, April 25, 1863 ; Orson Henry, December 17, 1863 ; S. R. 
Tuttle, May 18, 1870; G. H. Brown, October 20, 1874; Leonard Loffelholz, 
April 13, 1886; G. H. Brown, May 9, 1889; 0. J. McGinnis, June 30, 1893; 
Adam Reichart, October 2, 1895; F. E. Wood, Jr., July 30, 1897; S. D. Garling- 
house, March 2, 1903 ; William J. Gelvin, December 14, 1906 ; Alexander Blair, 
March 23, 1909. 

For a number of years the manufacture of brooms was an important indus- 
try at this place, T. H. and Asa C. Bowen, of Hopkinton, giving it an impetus 
that put the innovation on a substantial footing. Broom making meant rais- 
ing of the raw product, all of which increased the revenues of those directly 

The Wilson dam and sawmill were built soon after the village was founded 
and supplied lumber to many of the settlers for their homes and outbuildings. 
This property was totally destroyed by the flood of 1865. 

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This is township 90, range 6, and was created January 6, 1851, taking at the 
same time the name of Richland. The voting place was the house of Stephen 
R. Reynolds. 

Richland is in the northwest corner of the -county, having on its western 
and northern boundaries Buchanan and Clayton counties respectively. Coffin's 
Grove Township is on the south and Honey Creek Township on the east. When 
first settled large tracts of timber were to be found here. Much of this has been 
cleared and good farms developed. North and northeast of what is known as 
the " Devils Backbone' ' the surface is rather hilly, so that the country is better 
adapted to orchard, timber, vineyards, or small fruit culture. However, Rich- 
land is fairly well settled and her people are prosperous. 

The Maquoketa River enters the county in Richland Township and flows 
nearly southeast, finally leaving the county in South Fork Township. Above 
Forestville the valley for some distance is a rock-walled gorge and this appear- 
ance obtains two or three miles below that village. The affluents of this stream 
afford plenty of water for stock and good drainage for the land. 

William Turner and his father (name not known) were the first to settle in 
Richland, choosing for a location a tract of land in the east half of section 22, 
on the east bank of the Maquoketa River. They built a sawmill in 1847 and 
in the year last mentioned Stephen R. Reynolds became a settler here. Mr. 
Reynolds had the honor of giving the township its present name. 

Hiram D. Wood located and made preparations for a new home, on section 
26, in 1848. In the spring of 1847, being then nineteen years of age, he enlisted 
in a cavalry company and served until the end of the Mexican war in 1848. 
After his discharge he came to Delaware County and located his land warrant 
upon the land where he resided so many years. Mr. Wood was one of the 
prominent citizens of this community, held a number of local offices and served 
as county surveyor. He was the father of a number of children, sketches of 
whom will be found in the second volume of this work. % 

C. R. Davis settled on a farm in section 5, in 1850. Forty acres of his land 
contained excellent limestone, which Mr. Davis converted into the commercial 
product, having at one time three kilns in operation. 

Henry W. Graves came with his parents to Delaware County in 1851, first 
settling in Colony Township. Later they took up their residence in Richland 
Township. Mr. Graves married Nancy Cuppett in 1866, and in 1867 settled 
on section 24. 

Franklin Emerson, a native of New York, located in Dubuque in the '40s. 
In October, 1852, he came with his family to this township and settled on a 
farm. He had previously served as sheriff of Claytwi County. 


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William B. Smith, with his family, came from Nova Scotia to the United States 
in 1850, and in the fall of 1853 located in this township on a farm consisting of 
315 acres. His son Henry is now one of Manchester's prominent business men. 

John Scriben, of Pennsylvania, came with his parents to the prairies of 
Delaware County in 1853 and settled in Richland Tow T nship, where he married 
Rozella Bliss in 1857. 

George C. Hawley, of Kane County, Illinois, married Aurelia Lake in 1855. 
Two years previous, however, he settled on section 20 in this township, where 
he raised a large family of children and became one of the progressive farmers 
of the community. 

Edward Rolfe left England in 1851 and first settled in Illinois. In 1853, 
coming to Delaware County, he chose a tract of land on section 18 as his future 
home. This farm he cultivated and brought to a high state of improvement. 
Mr. Rolfe was a veteran of the Civil war. 

E. D. Stone, a Vermonter, settled in the township in 1854. 

S. A. Thompson took up land on section 6 in the fall of 1854 and at once 
began to improve it. For many years he was justice of the peace and a member 
of the Methodist Church. 

Thomas Clark was born in England in 1830. He immigrated to the United 
States and settled on sections 14, 11 and 24 in 1854. In 1855 he married Eliza- 
beth Wharton, who was also born in England. 

John Durham, of Yorkshire, England, crossed the Atlantic in 1828 with his 
parents, who settled in Lower Canada. Mr. Durham married, Mary Dunham in 
Vermont and in the spring of 1854 found his way to Iowa, settling on section 
13, Richland Township. At the time there was not a house between his and 
York. On his first trip to Delhi to pay his taxes, he stopped where Manchester 
now stands to get some crackers and cheese but there was none to be had. 

William J. Millett was a pioneer of the '50s, coming from Illinois in 1855 
and settling on section 7. Mr. Millett enlisted in the Twenty-seventh Iowa 
Volunteer Infantry ~in 1862. Returning from the war, he resumed farming 
and was elected to positions of trust in the township by his neighbors. 

George Hebron, with his family, came from England to this country in 
1853 and immigrating from New York State to Iowa, settled in Richland Town- 
ship on section 1, in 1856. Here he carried on an extensive dairy business, 
having at one time forty cows. 

E. S. Cow r les, one of Richland's prosperous farmers, entered land in that 
township in 1856, on which he resided for many years. He was born in 
Wyoming County, New York, September 27, 1829. Through his efforts the 
Campton Postoffice was established in 1857 and he ^as appointed postmaster 
and held the office so long that he had the distinction of being one of the oldest 
continuous postmasters in the county. He was sheriff of the county from 1878 
to 1881. He served in the Seventh Iowa Cavalry and now, at the age of eighty- 
five, is quite vigorous, living at Lamont, not far from the old farm. 

H. D. Cowles was a native of Massachusetts and came to the county in 1854, 
where he married Sarah Emerson in 1859. Mr. Cowles for many years was 
in the creamery business and manufactured both butter and cheese. He is a 
brother of E. S. Cowles and was also a member of the Seventh Iowa Cavalry. 

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William Hebron, also of England, settled in this county in 1857, locating on 
section 11, Richland Township. 

John Dubois came to Delaware County from the State of New York in 1857 
and first settled in Delhi, where he married Marian Walters. He later settled 
in this township and in 1861 enlisted in the Twenty-first Iowa Infantry. 

John Seward was born in England, immigrated to the United States and 
settled in Richland Township in 1857, where he first worked as a common laborer 
for about a year and then rented a farm for himself. He was soon able to 
purchase forty acres of land, on which he settled and began to improve. He 
broke the forty, fenced it and erected a shanty 14 by 18 feet, in which he made 
his home for eight years, when a better home was prepared. 

W. P. Sheldon, a native of New York, immigrated from. Wisconsin to Dela- 
ware County in 1858, where he married Julia A. Smith in 1862. For many 
years he held office in the township and was highly respected by all who knew 


Forestville is one of the towns that have been forced to give way to the 
inexorable laws of trade. For some years it was quite a busy little place and 
drew from a large area a paying clientele. But that has passed away and today 
all that remains of the place is a few houses and about fifty inhabitants. The 
town was laid out on section 22, in April, 1854, by Joel Bailey, surveyor, for 
Daniel Leonard, proprietor, and the plat was recorded July 15, 1856. 

The first one to settle here was William .Turner, who located on the east 
bank of the Maquoketa River, in section 22. Here he built a sawmill and in 
1847 Stephen R. Reynolds became his neighbor. The mill was swept away 
by a freshet in 1851, but immediately rebuilt. 

William Turner opened a store at his home in 1850 and in the following 
year he kept the postoffice at his house, the office then having been established. 
Mail was brought from Coffin's Grove and Marcus Phillips was mail carrier. 
D. Leonard purchased the Turner Mill in 1852, including the claim, and opened 
a store in Forestville. In 1853 he put up a grist mill near the sawmill and his 
days were busy ones keeping up with orders for lumber and corn meal. 

The first tavern in the village was built in 1852 by Charles Hall, who came 
from New York. He afterwards put an addition to the house in which he 
opened a general store. 

In May, 1852, the first schoolhouse in the community -was built of logs, on 
Lee's farm, in the southeast part of the township. That summer school was 
opened, for the few children of that section, and was presided over by William 
Wilson. The next school building was a better one. It was a frame, erected 
at a cost of $300 in 1854. Elihu Andrews was the contractor and builder. 
Part of this large (then) amount of money was raised by taxation and the 
rest was borrowed of the school fund by H. D. Wood, who mortgaged his land 
in the transaction. This schoolhouse stood just outside the town plot on the 
east side and the school was first presided over by Mrs. Brayman. Fire 
destroyed the building in the winter of 1870-1, but the summer of that year saw 
a new brick building in its place, built by Contractor Henry Doyle, at a cost 
of $700. In 1872 Forestville became an independent school district. 

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Rev. John Brown, who located at Rockville and built the first caravansary 
there, preached the first sermon in Forestville, in the log schoolhouse, in June, 

At one time there were four creameries in Richland Township. The first 
established was by Hiram D. Wood, near Forestville, in the spring of 1874. 
Large quantities of butter were made and shipped to the eastern markets. 
Loomis & Housman had a creamery in the southwest part of the township in 
1875; H. D. Cowles in the western portion in 1876; and John Hollister in the 
northeast part. 

Among others who held the position of postmaster here were Thomas Hickox, 
Enos M. Littlefield, Nathaniel G. Luken, Franklin Emerson, Hiram D. Wood, 
Charles F. Vincent, William H. Church, Henrietta Van Kuren, Walter Moon, 
David M. Noland, Volney Wheeler. The office has long since been discontinued 
and Forestville is scarcely a memory. 


Dundee is a small station on the Chicago Great Western Railroad, situate 
on section 27, just south of the old Village of Forestville. It came into existence 
a short time before the postoffice was established, which was in 1887. There 
is now a population of about one hundred. The town has a general store, a 
bank and shops. IT. D. Wood was commissioned postmaster. January 14, 1887. 
The names of his successors follow: Gertie Larrabee, July 27, 1889; Maggie 
Wood, October 30, 1891; Ollie A. Hazelrigg, December 11, 1894; J. L. Gilbert, 
September 14, 1897; A. 0. Stone, November 26, 1900; Nelson Gilbert, Sep- 
tember 11, 1902. 

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January 6, 1851, the County Commissioners ' Court ordered the division of 
South Fork Township as then constituted, separating therefrom that part of 
it lying on the southwest side of the Maquoketa River. Township 87, range 4, 
was thereupon created and named Buck Creek, the first "election to be held 
at the schoolhouse near Aaron Blanchard 's. ' ' Later the name was changed to 

This township lies in the southern tier and borders on Jones County. On 
the north is Delhi Township, on thfc west Hazel Green and on the east South 
Fork. The waters of the Maquoketa and its tributaries drain the land and 
afford ample quantities for stock the year round. Plenty of good soil is found 
here, which early attracted settlers. Today the township has many fine farms 
and the prevailing high prices of their generous yields of food stuffs give the 
surroundings an aspect of prosperity that is really substantial. Union lias less 
area than any township in the county and it is the smallest in population. The 
absence of any town or village within its confines may, in a measure, account 
for this. 

The first person to choose land in that part of Delaware County set off as 
Union Township was Samuel P. Whitaker, who located here in 1839. 

Richard Waller, Joseph Ogilby, Ira A. Blanchard and ' Orlean Blanchard 
located in the township in 1840. Nelson Main, Silas Main, Charles Roff, 
Green, William Robinson and Aaron Blanchard were not far be- 
hind those just mentioned. L. D. Cross arrived in 1842, and for many years 
lived on section 33. 

Robert Hogg entered land in this township in 1846. lie built a cabin, in 
which he had a small stock of merchandise for barter and sale. Mr. Hogg was 
a gunsmith and was frequently called upon by the Indians to mend their rifles. 
A daughter, Mrs. I. C. Bacon, was born in this house in 1847. Her husband, 
I. C. Bacon, came to the township in the fall of 1853. A son, I. C. Bacon, now 
owns the homestead. 

Nicholas Wilson was a settler of Union Township of 1849. He became one 
of the prominent farmers and owned several hundred acres of land. 

Henry W. Winch was a settler of 1850 and lived on section 32 in this town- 
ship, where he held various local offices. 

James H. Hogg was born in Delaware County and came to this township 
in 1850. He was engaged in business at Grove Creek a number of years and 
also was postmaster five years. 

William Danford settled in Union Township in 1852. He bought 200 
acres of land, on which he erected a log house. Mr. Danford planted 
a cottonwood tree in 1853 that is now five feet in diameter at the base. 


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Amos Richardson built a frame house in the '50s, opposite the present Buck 
Creek Church. During the Civil war this house was the distributing point 
for ujail of families living in that part of the county. Mr. Richardson also 
built before the Civil war the schoolhouse still standing near the Buck Creek 

Christopher Dolley, a native of Prussia, immigrated to the United States 
in 1843 and spent the winter in Chicago. After a residence of ten j'ears in 
Cook County he came to Delaware County in the spring of 1853 and located 
on a farm in Union Township, where he died in 1888. With him at the time 
was his son Godfrey, who enlisted in 1861 in the Twelfth Iowa Infantry. After 
the war he returned to the Delaware County farm and married Malinda Robin- 
son, a daughter of William and Olive Robinson, who came to Delaware County 
in 1846. 

Marion E. Davis was brought here in 1854 by his parents, who settled on a 
farm in this township. 

Benjamin Keith, Jr., settled here in 1854 and lived on section 6. His son. 
George, now lives on the land entered by him. Peter Keith came in 1851 and 
lived on section 7. 

Christopher Stanger left the State of Illinois in 1854 for Iowa and settled 
in Union Township. In the following year a calamity overtook his family when 
two children ate wild parsnips. The untimely death of the little ones cast a 
gloom over the whole community. 

George H. Dutton came from Washington County, Ohio, to Delaware County. 
Iowa, in the spring of 1856, bringing a young wife with him. He possessed but 
limited means but what he had he invested in a tract of forty acres of land on 
Buck Creek, in Union Township, settled on it and went to work. He afterward 
removed to Milo Township, where he owned a farm lying on sections 34 and 35. 

James Milroy settled in this community in 1856, buying land at the high 
price of $12 an acre. A son, James Milroy, still owns thirty acres of the 
original place, and a grandson, John W. Milroy, eighty acres. 

Alexander Johnson became a pioneer farmer of Union Township in 1856. 
He bought 160 acres of land, upon which six of his children are now living. 

It is said that during the recruiting days of the Civil war, Union Township 
furnished to the Union armies seven men over her quota. 

The Freewill Baptists built the first house of worship in Union Township 
in the early days of the settlement, and here both Baptists and Methodists wor- 
shipped in harmony of spirit and delectability of soul. 

The Methodists organized a society of that creed in the log schoolhouse. 
built in the '50s near the Buck Creek Church. They erected a church about 
one and one-half miles north of their present building and, after using it about 
twenty years, erected the present Buck Creek Church. L. B. Stanger, a mem- 
ber of the board of trustees and for many years superintendent of the Methodist 
Episcopal Sunday School, made a bequest to the church of $600, which was 
paid at his death in 1907 and used for permanent improvements. Mr. Stanger 
was an ideal citizen and is greatly missed in the church and community. This 
is one of the very best rural churches in the state, employing a resident pastor 

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at a salary of $1,200. The membership is now over one hundred. The present 
pastor is Rev. G. J. Chalice, who was appointed in September, 1914. 

The first schoolhouse in Union Township was a log structure, which stood 
three-fourths of a mile west of Hogg's store. The second was also built of logs 
and stood across from and below the Buck Creek Church. 

Vol. 1-18 

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Elk Township was organized in 1853 and is congressional township 90, 
range 4. It lies in the northern tier, with Clayton County for the northern 
boundary line. On its west line is Honey Creek Township, on the south Oneida 
Township and on the east Colony Township. 

Tn its primitive state this township had considerable timber, principally 
along the streams. Plum Creek, the largest tributary of the Maquoketa in 
Delaware County, has a number of ramifying branches in the southern part 
of the township. The northeastern part is drained by branches of the Turkey 
River or Elk Creek. Thus the land conditions, in so far as water and drain- 
age are concerned, are very good. Alluvial plains, but of no great width, border 
Elk Creek and its branches, which make for fertile fields. And there are many 
of them here, as the fine buildings, fences, roads, bridges and other improve- 
ments attest. 

It definitely has not been determined who was the first settler in Elk Town- 
ship, but as far as can be learned Richard T. Barrett was located here about 
1840 or 1841. His name is on the tax list of 1842, which is some indication 
of his early* settlement. 

Squire Stancliffe, one of the township's first justices of the peace, came as 
early as 1842 and located on section 1. Benjamin Lakin was also here about 
this time and was one of the pioneer justices of the township. 

Herman E. Steele was accompanied by his son of the same name, to this 
county from the State of New York, in 1845, and settled in this locality, where 
there were but few white men but plenty of Indians, as well as an abundance 
of game and wild animals of all kinds. 

Jerome Baker was one of the first, if not the first, wagonmaker to locate in 
Greeley. He, like so many of the early settlers in Elk Township, was a man 
of character and lived an honest upright life. He married a Miss Witter and 
the daughter of this worthy couple married A. B. Holbert, the noted importer 
of horses and the present candidate for state representative. Mr. and Mrs. 
Baker and Mr. and Mrs. Holbert are still residents of Greeley. 

Amos Wood, one of the first settlers in this section of the county, came here 
in 1845. A daughter, Julia, was married in 1847 to James H. Robinson, who 
came here in 1845. He met his death in 1874 by being gored to death by an 
infuriated bull. 

About the year 1846, James Stalnaker and McLain located on 

section 29 and Stalnaker erected a cabin on the land, near the future Town of 
Greeley. Both settlers remained but a short time and disposed of their hold- 
ings, in 1847, to Samuel Lough. About this time Grant Stebbins and one 
Balch located in the neighborhood. Then came Elias Hutton. 


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John Grant became a citizen of the township in the " forties,' ' and donated 
land for burial purposes, now a part of Grantview Cemetery, at Greeley. 

John Corell settled in Elk Township in 1849, coming from the State of New 
York. His death took place at Greeley in 1860, and his widow, whose maiden 
name was Elizabeth Risden, followed him to the grave in 1878. 

Henry C. Drybread was the first blacksmith to permanently locate in 
Greeley. He was not only a good horseshoer, but he was one of the splendid 
citizens that helped to make Delaware County an ideal place in which to live. 
Every old settler in the vicinity of Greeley has only good words for Henry 

Samuel Penny and his wife, Elizabeth Le Lascheur, came to Delaware 
County on Christmas day of 1850, and settled near Greeley. Mr. Penny died 
in 1860 and his widow married John Harris in 1864. 

Robert Hunter and his wife, Mary H. Hunter, came with his father, James 
Hunter, to Illinois in 1845. At Rockford, Illinois, Robert enlisted in Company 
A, Sixteenth United States Regular Infantry for the Mexican war and served 
in the Army of the Rio Grande under General Taylor until mustered out at 
Newport, Kentucky, in August/ 1848. He came to Delaware County in 1850 
and located on a quarter section of land on section 25, Elk Township, where 
he resided for more than fifty-seven years. The land warrant entitled him to 
160 acres of land, which was offered and received in part payment for the farm 
upon which representatives of his family still reside, under the original patent 
for the same issued by the Government and still an honored possession of the 

Eli W. Le Lascheur came from Prince Edward Island in May, 1850, and 
with him was his wife, son Elisha, and daughter Elizabeth, who married Samuel 
Penny. The family settled in this township near Greeley. 

mallory 's tavern 

In the early history of Delaware County one of the central lounging places 
in Elk Township was Mallory 's Tavern, located on the stage road about three 
miles east of Greeley. It was owned by Elder Mallory who was a preacher 
as well as landlord. The four-horse stages running between Dubuque and 
West Union made Mallory's Tavern the half-way house, and as a rule this 
tavern in those early days was crQwded to the roof every night by passengers 
who came in on the stage. Elder Mallory had two sons, Ira and John, all of 
whom have gone ta their reward and the old tavern was long ago put to other 

Augustus Davis came from Ohio to Iowa in 1851 and settled in Elk Town- 
ship. He was one of the charter members of the Christian Church, organized 
in a log schoolhouse near the Robert Hunter home, in 1857. Mr. Davis died 
September 16, 1913. 

Among the first settlers in this township was James Martindale, who came 
in 1851. He proved to be one of the leading farmers in this community, as 
was also John Martindale, who arrived in 1851. John Martindale was a clergy- 
man of the Christian Church and was a valiant expounder of its tenets for over 
a half century. He settled two miles northwest of Greeley. He organized the 

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Christian Church at Greeley and was instrumental in erecting the building 

Job Odell settled in this township in 1851, coming from Ohio in that year. 
He built a residence on his land, which was the only one between Greeley and 
Delhi on the main road. A son, G. H., was one of the sheriffs of Delaware 
County and William Odell was a leading farmer of this township. 

Samuel Lewis was an early settler in Elk Township, coming from Dubuque 
county in 1852 or 1853 and settling here. He married Catherine Overocker in 
1854. Mr. Lewis became prominent in the township. 

Thomas J. Armstrong came to Delaware County in 1852. He married Lucy 
M. Bellows, a daughter of Ira Bellows, who was one of the first settlers in Elk 
Township. Mrs. Armstrong still resides at Greeley and is unusually active for 
a woman of her age. 

Zebina Snow immigrated to Iowa from Massachusetts in 1853 and settled 
here in the brush, where he opened a farm consisting of 164 acres. 

Henry Millen had reached the venerable age of ninety-one years at the time 
of his death in August, 1913. Up to that time he had been a resident of Dela- 
ware County sixty-two years, having settled in Elk Township in 1853. He 
joined the Advent Church at Greeley soon after his arrival and was one of 
its leading spirits. H. G. Millen of Marion, once superintendent of schools for 
Delaware County, and W. I. Millen of Earlville, are sons of Henry Millen. 

William Stoner came to Delaware County as early as 1853 and settled on 
a farm in Elk Township north of Earlville, where for many years he resided. 
He was a good farmer, thrifty and industrious, and died in 1913, regretted by 
a large number of friends. 

John S. Drybread came to this county in 1853 and settled on a farm on sec- 
tion 21, near Greeley, where he lived many years. About twenty years before 
his death he retired, making his home at Greeley. Mr. Drybread, or "Uncle 
John,'' as he was more familiarly known, was for ipany years prominent in the 
county as one of its leading farmers and business men, having bought and sold 
grain at Greeley for many years. 

Father John Trowbridge, as his neighbors called him, with Philander Daw- 
ley, his son, and their families, moved from Solon, Cuyahoga County, Ohio, to 
th*» eastern part of Elk Township in 1854. 

Father Trowbridge was born in 1790 and died in 1884. The forty years of 
his life in the West were nearly all spent in Elk Township with his son 
Dawley, as he was familiarly known. Both of these men were physically strong, 
were also men of strong convictions and ardent Methodists. They not only 
preached, but practiced the Golden Rule. 

In 1906 P. D. moved to Holtville, in the Imperial Valley, California. In 
1911 he died and his remains were brought to Earlville. His wife, one of the 
noblest of women, died at Holtville, September 27, 1914, and her remains were 
also brought to Earlville and now these two worthy people who lived together 
so many years in Elk Township, sleep side by side on the same lot in Fairview 
Cemetery, Earlville. 

John Winters belongs in the ranks of Elk Township's first settlers, coming 
here in 1850 and entering land on which he located and improved. The elder 
Winters died that spring and John's mother then built a log cabin on the 

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farm, which gave way to a frame house in 1857, still standing on the (now 
Lillibridge) place. 

Ira Bellows built a log cabin on his land IV2 miles from the present 
Corell schoolhouse, in 1852. With a large family he had left "the old home 
in Ohio," and made his way by ox team to the blooming Iowa prairies, in the 
year above mentioned. A heavy snow falling made the journey from Dubuque 
long and tedious; four days were consumed. 

William Cattron made his first stop in Delaware County after his arrival 
in May, 1854, in Elk Township, and in the following year opened a store in 
Greeley. Mr. Cattron continued to live on his Plum Creek place until 1860, 
when he removed to Earlville and became prominent in all the activities of that 
community. Prom Earlville he moved to Manchester and until the time of 
his death was engaged in the mercantile business. He was one of God's noble- 
men, an honest man. To him and his wife, Judith, were born three daughters, 
Mary, Emma and Eva. Mrs. Cattron, at the age of ninety, is still vigorous, 
and resides with her eldest daughter, Mary, at Tacoma, Washington. The sec- 
ond daughter, Emma, married Capt. John Merry in 1866, and died January 18, 
1903. The youngest daughter, Eva, married Capt. W. T. Rigby, chairman of 
the National Military Park Commission at Vicksburg, Mississippi, where they 
now reside. 

Duane and James M. Jenkins located here in 1856, upon land entered 
from the Government. 

Horace C. Merry was one of the men who assisted in building up Elk 
Township from its early days. He was a native of New York and in 1853 re- 
moved to Ohio. The far West attracted his notice and in 1857 he found his way 
to Iowa and became a citizen of Delaware County, first locating in Elk Town- 
ship. In 1866 Mr. Merry became a resident of Oneida Township, settling on a 
farm in section 23. Capt. John F. Merry, supervising editor of this history, 
was a son. For several years the elder Merry was a justice of the peace for 
Elk Township, and during this period of his official activities there lived at 
"Yankee Settlement' ' two brothers named Peet — Schuyler and Cornelius. It 
chanced that two of 'Squire Merry's neighbors had a disagreement which 
brought them into the justice court and, as was quite common, the Peets figured 
as opposing lawyers. The trial came on during the winter, when the farmers 
had more time to spare than anything else, so that 'Squire Merry's court room 
(the sitting room of his residence) was more than comfortably filled by the 
neighboring farmers. Captain Merry was then but a lad in his teens, and 
was well supplied with curiosity, an attribute always to be found in boys. 
Therefore, it was not strange that he hurried home from school on this particu- 
lar day, to hear what the lawyers had to say in the case before his father. The 
captain, now a boy of seventy years, still has clearly in his memory how those 
lawyers lambasted each other, using language such as only the bitterest ene- 
mies were expected to call up ; but what surprised the callow youth most, after 
the vitriolic tongue lashings bad ceased, was to see these brothers, who had so 
violently reviled each other, get into the same seat of their conveyance after 
the trial, and ride home together, a distance of twelve miles, in amiable and 
brotherly converse. 

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The pioneer has never been slow to realize the inestimable virtue of knowl- 
edge, and their immediate efforts, after building a habitation, have always been 
to devise plans for the education of their children. To this end subscription 
schools were the initiative and when too poor to provide a schoolhouse for 
pupils and teacher, a room in the cabin of a settler always could be found for 
the purpose. The Elk Township settlers were no exception to the rule. Pro- 
visions early were made for the children's education and in the later '40s a mod- 
est cabin was built by subscription, on the southwest corner of the northeast quar- 
ter of section 30, and Miss Emma Wood was introduced as the first teacher. 

The Poultney schoolhouse stood on the northeast corner of the present 
Wulfekuhle farm, and children of the community gathered in this old log 
house to be taught the rudiments of an education. Mrs. Robert Hunter taught 
here in 1855, Addie Orcut in 1856 and Martha E. Merry in 1857. And the 
crude structure performed an important part in other interesting historical 
events of Elk Township, for within its homely walls religious meetings were 
held, that brought in the men, women and children from far and wide, to 
hear the Gospel expounded by the circuit rider, who was then in the heydey 
of his popularity. As a matter of fact, a resident minister was a little too 
much of a luxury in those days even to be thought of. But they soon came. 
Spelling schools, singing schools, political meetings, festivals, -all had a place 
in this primitive temple of learning. The Christian Church of Greeley was or- 
ganized in the Poultney schoolhouse. Rev. P. X. Miller, a Methodist clergy- 
man, first appeared here on horseback with his saddlebags, containing a Bible, 
a change of linen and a song book, in 1857, and expounded the Word to the 
satisfaction of an appreciative audience and the glory of the cause. In a let- 
ter recently written by this veteran of the church militant to Capt. John Merry, 
he portrays, in a measure, the scenes of the early days brought to mind by the 
little old Poultney schoolhouse: "I was sent to Delaware circuit in the year 
1857. The circuit then included * Yankee Settlement,' now Edgewood, Greeley, 
Bads' Grove, and York. Poultney schoolhouse was then built of logs, if I 
remember correctly. A man by the name of Hiram Cooper was postmaster 
at that time. My first work as a circuit preacher was to preach at 'Yankee 
Settlement,' 10:30 A. M. ; Greeley, 3 P.M.; and Poultney in the evening. The 
schoolhouse was usually full, mostly of young people. They gave me a good 
hearing. At close of service all would start in their wagons across the prairie, 
led by yourself (Captain Merry) singing 'Rain, Rain, Lord, Send It Down 
Among the People.' It sounded good, I assure you, for it gave me an inspira- 
tion for my work. Brother John Cattron took me home that night and treated 
me like a kid. That was the beginning of my ministry, fifty-seven years ago 
this fall. My impression is that Father Trowbridge was classleader, but I am 
not certain. I remember him well as a grand, good man, and very active. I 
was a single man at that time and remained so until 1864. As you stated in 
your letter, you remember me as a boy, which is true. I was not quite twenty- 
one years old. # * * I remember very distinctly that I enjoyed preaching 
at Poultney very much, for the reason that the brethren were very responsive. 
That was a great year for me all over the circuit. I was sent from conference. 
Reverend Churchill, who worked with me that year, was a supply under the pre- 
siding elder. We held revival meetings in every schoolhouse on the circuit and 

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also in the church at 'Yankee Settlement. ' There were somewhere near two 
hundred conversions. Much of my time was spent at the home of A. R. Loomis, 
Manchester. Mrs. Loomis assigned me a 'prophet's' room, and Mr. Loomis a 
stall for my horse, showing me the bin containing the oats and telling me to 
see that the animal was well fed. I have never forgotten their kindness. The 
children were all small then, but were always at the gate when I returned from 
my trip around the circuit, to open it for me. I do not forget the treatment 
received from the William Cattrons of Greeley and James Prestons and Isaac 
Prestons of 'Yankee Settlement;' and the Watsons, at Greeley." 


The Town of Greeley is quite an important business center of the northern 
portion of the county. It was laid out on the northwest quarter of the north- 
east quarter of section 29, the survey being made August 28, 1854, by A. G. 
Noble, and plat recorded February 24, 1855. Samuel Lough owned the land 
and projected the town, giving it much assistance in its infancy. The post- 
office was established in 1854 and named Plum Spring, but in 1863 this was 
changed to Greeley. The reason of the first name was that a splendid spring 
of water was near the Lough residence, near the town site. 

In the fall of 1854, Charles S. Taylor built a house one-half mile east of 
the Lough home and was the first building to be put up in Greeley. 

Early in March, 1855, William Cattron purchased the Taylor property and 
also lot six of Lough. On lot six he put up a building, stocked it with mer- 
chandise and at once opened the first mercantile establishment in the place. 

The next persons to build and enhance the importance of Greeley were J. 
B. Taylor, H. C. Drybread and Miss Lizzie White. Soon their activities in 
this direction were followed by others, who engaged in business. 

It is probably not generally known in Delaware County that the Village of 
Greeley is the home of one of America's most famous song writers and talented 
• vocalists — J. F. Martindale, better known in theatrical circles by the stage name 
of "Prank Howard.' ' Mr. Martindale is the son of one of Delaware County's 
early settlers and esteemed citizens, Rev. John Martindale, of the Christian 
Church. J. P. Martindale was born March 7, 1851, and that same year his 
father settled in the vicinity of the present Village of Greeley, where the 
young man spent his childhood and youth. He was a musician from infancy, 
although he never took a lesson in his life, his father being opposed to children 
receiving any musical training. His first song was entitled "Baby's Kiss," 
written in 1878, and met with public favor. This was followed by "Still Far 
From Me." Then in 1882 appeared "Pansy Blossoms." Everybody sang 
that, and the author's next songs were "When the Robins Nest Again," "I'll 
Await My Love," "Sweet Alpine Roses," "Howard's Cradle Song," "Sweet 
Heather Bells;" and the "Springtime and Robins Have Come," "Veneta," 
"A Faded Pansy," "The Sailor Boy's Return," "Two Little Ragged Urchins," 
"Only Blue Bells," and others of less popularity. Mr. Martindale sang for 
two years in the Coliseum at Chicago, and in 1874 was with Happy Cal Wag- 
ner 's minstrel troupe, one of the popular organizations of its day. He then 
joined the Barlow, Wilson, Primrose & West Company, and it was during his 

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engagement with this company that he brought out and sang for one season 
"When the Leaves Begin to Turn." His next engagment was with Thatcher, 
Primrose & West, with whom he traveled three years. He also was with Dock- 
stader's Twenty-ninth Street and Broadway minstrels in New York City. Re- 
tiring from the stage, Mr. Martindale took up his residence at his old home in 
Greeley, giving his attention to farming in a small way, and to the breeding 
and developing of trotting horses on a somewhat extensive scale. He owns a 
farm of 200 acres adjoining the site of Greeley, which is well improved and 
has a splendid stud of thoroughbred horses, containing some notable purse 
winners, among which may be mentioned "Happy Medium," "Membrino Me- 
dium' ' and "Saxony." His brood mares were all of the Hambletonian and 
Membrino breed. 

Greeley did not amount to a great deal until the coming of the Davenport 
& St. Paul Railroad in 1873. Then outsiders began to take notice of the coming 
little village, and the population grew apace, until now there are about four 
hundred souls within its corporate limits, 100 less than in 1900, however. In 
1872 Horace White contributed to the advance by building a hotel, which 
received the traditional name of the "White House," and was Greeley's premier 
hotel. Previous to this event, however, a tavern had been kept for some time 
by Abram Parliman, at his house on the Lough farm. 

Greeley was incorporated August 29, 1892, and on the 3d day of April, 
1914, voted by a majority of 26, for the establishment of a municipal electric 
light plant. - Work on the improvement at once was begun ; it was completed 
and in full operation August 15, 1914. The corporation was empowered by 
vote of the citizens to issue $8,000 in bonds and the powerhouse, equipment, 
poles, wire, etc., built and installed at a cost within the obligation assumed in 
selling the bonds. The town has not as yet a waterworks or sewerage system, 
but these are in contemplation and \vill be inaugurated at no far distant day. 

Greeley's equipment for educating its children is of the best. The Inde- 
pendent School District of Greeley was organized April 11, 1875, at which 
time H. C. Drybread, L. H. Keyes, and George Griffith were elected directors; 
the board then selected H. C. Drybread for president of the board, L. H. Keyes 
secretary, and James Wilson treasurer. In the fall of 1875 a schoolhouse was 
built, which in 1894 was destroyed by fire and the present excellent building, 
a two-story brick, was immediately built to take its place. This is a graded 
school and employs four teachers. 

The postoffice was established in 1863. S. N. Talcott received his commis- 
sion as postmaster April 28, 1863. The names of those who succeeded him 
follow : Jerome Baker, December 7, 1863 ; Job Gildersleve, April 7, 1871 ; Milo 
Blodgett, August 8, 1876; E. H. Cummings, July 24, 1882; Milo Blodgett, 
June 15, 1883; B. E. Farwell, December 3, 1885; Timothy W. Hatfield, De- 
cember 3, 1901. 

Greeley claims the largest creamery in the county. It has been established 
a quarter of a century, and is operated on the cooperative plan. 

Another claim Greeley boasts of is its market for imported draft horses. 
A. B. Holbert has long been in the business of going to Europe and bringing 
back with him large strings of big horses for breeding purposes and claims to 
have the largest stables of them in the United States. The many large and 

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splendidly appointed* buildings on his farm near town, filled with the choicest 
and handsomest of big, splendidly built Percheron and Belgian horses, go a long 
way to confirm the position the people here take in regard to this great industry. 
The firm of Lang & Co. also is extensively engaged in the importation and sale 
of horses. 

The Security Savings Bank is an outgrowth of the private banking concern 
of Thomas Cole, founded in 1890. This was a year or so after William Milieu 
attempted to found a bank in the village and failed. The Security .Savings 
Bank was incorporated September 15, 1908, after taking over the Cole interest, 
by J. U. Rector, J. D. Chase, I. C. Odell, William Odell, W. P. Harris, G. L. 
Baker, Gertrude G. Cole, H. Wilson, D. W. Clements and W. H. Xorris. The 
capital stock was $1^,000, and officials: W. H. Norris, president; J. D. Chase, 
vice president, who died February, 1914, and was succeeded by I. C. Odell : 
F. B. Wilson, cashier. 

The Christian Church was organized before the founding of Greeley, at 
a meeting in the Poultney schoolhouse, three miles east of the town, June 15, 
1851. Rev. John Martindale and H. C. Drybread and wife, James Roe and 
wife, David Martindale, Robert Overocker and Job Gildersleve established this 
society. After additional members had been admitted, Job Gildersleve and 
John Fosselman were chosen elders, and E. Hutton and S. Talcott, deacons. 
The first services of the society were held in the schoolhouse and private homes 
of members until 1867, when the present church building was erected. For 
over a quarter of a century John Mtfrtindale ministered to the spiritual welfare 
of this congregation and then resigned, when the pulpit was occupied in their 
turn by Rev. W. M. Roe, John Eucell and John Smith. For some time past 
.there has been no resident minister. 

St. Joseph's Catholic* church building was erected in 1874. The first serv- 
ices were held by Rev. M. Quirk, in May, 1875, in the new structure. He 
remained until October, when he was succeeded by Rev. B. Coyle, who was 
followed by Rev. John Hackett. For many years past there has been no resident 
priest in Greeley, the church being attended by a priest from Strawberry 
Point. The present pastor who visits here from the place mentioned is R<»v. 
Father Erdland. 

The Methodist Episcopal Church of Greeley, was founded in the old Poult- 
ney log schoolhouse in the early ? 50s and became a part of the church at 
Greeley, organized in 1883, by Rev. L. L. Lockland, then pastor of the charge 
at Edgewood. Among the members at that time were Jesse Perkins and wife, 
James Rutherford, Sr., and wife, Mrs. Alvira Wilson, Mrs. Harris, Mrs. Miller. 
Mrs. Henry Box and daughter, Charlotte Box, Mrs. A. A. Strong and daughter, 
Jennie Strong. Under Reverend Lockland 's faithful pastorate, the member- 
ship increased in number and soon a Sunday school was established. The first 
meetings of the society were held at Greeley, in the Universalist Church. In 
1886 Reverend Lockland, by request, returned to Greeley for the third time. 
He was succeeded in 1887 by Rev. E. J. Lockwood, under whose administra- 
tion a house of worship was built and dedicated. 

In 1913 Rev. B. A. Alexander came to this charge and during his stay re- 
modeled the church. The following pastors, in addition to the ones already 
mentioned, have presided over this charge: Revs. John Gammons, DeWitt (\ 

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Perry, E. R. Leainon, Jesse Smith, Robert Lusk, Charles Blake, W\ A. Gibbons, 
John Dunson, under whose pastorate the parsonage was built; J. B. Metcalf, 
H. C. Crawford, Elmo Keller, Earl Carnahan and B. A. Alexander. 

There was a Universalist Church here at one time. It was established De- 
cember 28, 1865, at the residence of J. Baker. In 1868 the society built a 
house of worship and Rev. Joy Bishop was the pastor. This church lost its 
local identity a number of years ago. 

Tadmor, Lodge, No. 225, A. F. & A. M., was instituted under dispensation, 
November 15, 1867, and received its charter June 3, 1868. The first officers 
fleeted and installed were J. H. Nietart, W. M. ; D. W. Jenkins, S. W. ; John 
Drybread, J. W. ; John Corell, Treas. ; Luther Keyes, Sec. ; Jerome Baker, S. D. ; 
Timothy Noble, J. D. ; Lewis Wells, Tyler. The lodge has 121 members. 

Rob Morris Chapter No. 208, Order Eastern Star, was organized October 28, 
1891, with twenty-nine members.* The above lodge of Masons has an autograph 
letter hanging on the wall of its lodge room which it prizes very highly. It 
was sent to the lodge April 15, 1901, by the Marquis Landsdown, acknowledg- 
ing receipt of a letter by him, in which the lodge expressed the regrets of its 
members upon the occasion of the death of Queen Victoria. 

Greeley has a very strong and enthusiastic lodge of Odd Fellows, the mem- 
bership now numbering 140. It is Greeley Lodge No. 418, organized October 
21, 1880. In the year 1904 this organized body of men erected a splendid 
two-story brick business and lodge building, having a frontage on the main 
street of the town of fifty feet, and extending back eighty feet. The cost was 
about twelve thousand dollars. 

Elk Encampment of this body, No. 141, was organized October 20, 1891, 
and has eighty members. 

Maple Degree No. 227, Daughters of Rebekah, was organized October 18, 
1895. It now has 150 members. The names of the charter members follow: 
N. Griffith, Nancy Griffith, Q. M. Taylor, Kittie Taylor, S. B. and Sarah S. 
Sloan, R. W. and Annie C. Fishel, May Fishel, J. M. Fishel, Ida V. Fishel, 
L. Matthews, C. Matthews, J. M. Lillibridge, Mary Lillibridge, Ed and Louisa 
Corell, Charles and Belle Kellogg, Cyrus and Etta MeKinnis, Etta McRichard, 
M. C. and Jennie L. Way and Henry and Lolee McGarvey. 

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Coffin's Grove Township lies to the west, on the Buchanan County line, and 
on the north of it is Richland Township. To the east is Delaware Township 
and the southern line is demarked by Prairie Township. Congressional town- 
ship 89, range 6, was separated from Delaware Township by the Commissioners' 
Court, February 7, 1855, and named Coffin's Grove, in honor of its first settler, 
Clement Coffin. The schoolhouse, one of the first to be built, was designated as 
the voting place for the first election. The land here is very fertile and some 
of the best farms in the state are noticed, monuments of the judgment of those 
who first selected the land, and evidences of thrift and splendid husbandry. 
Prairie Creek, sometimes called Coffin's Grove Creek, begins in slough lands 
in the eastern part of Buchanan County and flows eastward through the southern 
portion of Coffin's Grove Township, to join the Maquoketa above Manchester. 
In section 28, the channel of Prairie Creek is cut through a timbered, rocky hill. 
The drainage is excellent and conditions are equally so for stock-raising. 

During the year 1840 immigration to the Delaware settlements began to 
increase and among those who sought homes in the groves and prairies of this 
county was Clement Coffin, who made his headquarters at Eads' Grove while he 
explored the country. He afterwards permanently located in a beautiful grove 
in the south central part of the township, which afterwards was given his name 
and he became one of the leading and influential citizens of the county. A 
friend, in speaking of him, passed this eulogium upon Judge Coffin: "He was 
a genuine and true man to his friends, of great fidelity to his trust, entirely 
free from anything like hypocrisy. He made up his mind with deliberation and 
then expressed his opinion whether his hearers were pleased or not and we 
always knew where to find him. He was a millwright and carpenter, a dairy- 
man and wagon-maker, and a successful, energetic farmer. Mrs. Coffin knew 
how to draw around her wilderness home the wise and the good. She raised 
her family well and fitted them for the highest and best social positions." 
Judge Coffin was largely instrumental in the organization of the county and 
always took a lively interest in its affairs. Among other offices held by him 
was that of probate judge, being the second person in the county elected to 
that position. The first frame barn raised in the county was built by Clement 
Coffin and Henry Baker in Coffin's Grove, in the summer of 1849. On the 4th 
of July of that year Judge Coffin had a "barn raising," at which the people 
from all parts of the county, from Delhi, Plum Creek, Colony, South Fork and 
other localities gathered. The barn was raised in the forenoon and settlers 
dined and supped at the Coffin home. Judge Coffin died July 28, 1867. 

In 1841 quite a number of additions were made to the settlement in this 
county. Among those who came this year were Charles Osborn, Hiram Mink- 
ler, Henry Baker, Horace Tubbs and others. 


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Henry Baker, as has been stated, settled here in 1841, locating on section 
22. At the time there were but four families in the township. His wife was 
Elizabeth W. Coffin, whom he married in 1840." She was a daughter of Judge 
Clement Coffin. The young couple arrived in the early part of June and pur- 
chased eighty acres of Government land in Coffin's Grove township, where they 
built a temporary log cabin 12 by 12 feet. There were at the time but two 
families besides themselves within the limits of the township. Deer, elk and 
bear were frequently seen. Mr. Baker killed quite a number of deer and one 
bear and for the first few years was seldom without venison for table use. 
The Winnebago Indians were stationed north of him and frequently passed 
through the neighborhood on hunting expeditions, camping within thirty or 
forty rods of his house for four or five days at a time. They always evinced a 
friendly disposition and with the exception of begging food or some trifling 
trinket never molested him. In the fall of 1841 he erected a story and a half 
hewed log house 16 by 20 feet in dimensions, which he occupied for a number 
of years. In 1845 he purchased 200 acres of land and in like manner continued 
to purchase until he at one time owned over seven hundred acres. In 1856 he 
erected a handsome brick residence and a large frame barn a few years before 
that time. 

Aaron Sullivan, an Ohioan, made a permanent settlement in this township 
in 1844, on section 28. This became one of the fine farms of the county and was 
the home of the Sullivans for many years. 

Oscar Wellman left the old home in the State of New York in 1852 and in 
the fall of that year located on a farm of 320 acres in section 31, Coffin's Grove 
Township. In 1856 he built a large frame house, hauling thf lumber from 
Dubuque — a distance of fifty-five miles, which consumed four daj^' steady travel 
to make the trip there and return. The following year he put up one of the 
first large frame barns in the county. For a number of years he kept what 
might be called a wayside inn. Here the old-time stage coaches in their over- 
land route from Dubuque westward would stop for refreshments or put up for 
the night, and many were the times when the house was crowded with travelers 
and the haymows were resorted to for shelter and rest. At one time during a 
driving wind and rain storm the roads became impassable when the Wellmans 
furnished food and shelter for forty teams and eight men, women and children. 
One of Mr. Wellman 's principal occupations on his farm was raising horses and 
cattle, in which he made a marked success. 

William Cook settled on section 11 in 1853. He was one of the influential 
men of the township, and being held in high esteem, was elected to local offices 
by his neighbors. 

Charles P. Tripp, by energy and good judgment, was successful in gaining 
a foothold in Coffin 's Grove Township and became quite influential as one of its 
prosperous and leading citizens. He settled here in 1853 and in 1862 enlisted 
in Company F, Twenty-seventh Iowa Infantry. 

Prank K. Smith took up his residence in Delaware County in 1853, and this 
became his permanent home. He drove through in a two-horse wagon from 
Ohio to Iowa and located on a tract of land consisting of 120 acres in Coffin's 
Grove Township. He built a log house of the regulation dimensions and at once 
entered upon the pioneer life of the then far West. 

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Harvey Minkler was a native of New York. After living in Ohio a while he 
immigrated to Iowa in May, 1853, and settled on a farm on section 29, Coffin's 
Grove Township. Mr. Minkler was one of the first trustees of Coffin's Grove 
Township and at the time there were but fifteen votes here, five of which were 
cast by members of his family. He was a member of Company P, Twenty-seventh 
Iowa Infantry. 

Alexander G. Alcock settled near the present Town of Masonville in 1854, 
coming from the State of Illinois. His first habitation for himself and family 
was built by driving poplar poles in the ground and then weaving willows 
in around the poles. The roof was of hay and for many years this house was 
called Willowdale. 

D. N. Davis came from the State of New York to Delaware County in 1854 
and settled in this township, where he lived for many years on section 30. 
Edwin Davis, a native of Connecticut, arrived in the township in 1854 and 
settled on section 28. That year he erected a log house. By industry and 
thrift he brought his farm to a high state of cultivation, became an extensive 
dealer in and raiser of fine stock and was looked up to by his neighbors as one 
of their leading citizens. 

Among the pioneers of Coffin's Grove Township was James Towner, who 
came from New York with his family and located here in the spring of 1855. 

Patrick Trumblee left the State of Massachusetts in the year 1855 and in 
September settled in Coffin's Grove Township, where he was successful as a 
farmer and held a high place in the estimation of his neighbors. 

Isaac McGee was born in Canada, immigrated to the United States and set- 
tled in this county in 1855, locating on section 23. He was an extensive farmer 
and a prosperous one. John McGee left Canada in 1854 and selected a tract of 
land for his future activities on section 23. He became prosperous and was a 
good citizen of the community. 

James G. Johnston was a Pennsylvanian by birth. He found his way to 
Delaware County in 1858 and settled in Coffin's Grove Township, where a few 
months later he located on section 32, which for many years was his home. 

The marriage register in the office of the Commissioners' Court was com- 
menced in 1844, and the first marriage that year was that of Joel Bailey and Miss 
Arabella Coffin, the interesting ceremony occurring on the 24th of April. At 
the time Joel Bailey was thirty years of age and his bride, a daughter of Judge 
Clement Coffin, was eighteen. G. D. Dillon, justice of the peace, consummated 
the marriage ceremony. The wedding took place at the home of the bride in 
this township. 

Log schoolhouses were early built in districts 1, 2, 3 and 5. The one in 
District No. 1 was built in 1854. This was at Coffin : s Grove. 


Masonville is one of the thirfty little villages of Delaware County. It is 
located on the southwest corner of the township, on section 31 and was laid 
out July 22, 1858, by Francis Daniels and the Iowa Land Company. Mr. 
Daniels owned the quarter section on which the village was built and as an in- 
ducement to the land company to locate a station here, he offered to donate one- 

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288 History of Delaware county 

third of the tract of land to the company, which was accepted and a depot was 
built thereon. Eight years later another depot building took the place of the 
old one, which was converted into a carpenter shop. 

Oscar Wellman, who came West from New York in 1852, built the first 
house in Masonville in 1854, in which he kept hotel. He also had a stable for 
the public and for the accommodation of the stage line that passed through here 
at that time. Masonville has a population of about three hundred. It is sur- 
rounded by one of the richest grain and grass belts in this section of the state 
and is a station on the Omaha branch of the Illinois Central Railroad. It has 
three general stores, a lumberyard, two implement houses, two elevators, a 
farmers' cooperative creamery, three churches, a savings bank and a public 
school. The Catholics and Methodists both have good substantial buildings. 
Ebenezer Lodge, No. 587, Order of Odd Fellows, has headquarters in a frame 
building of its own. There is a commodious two-story frame school building, 
where the classes are graded. The enrollment for 1913 was seventy-five pupils. 
This is a good shipping point, from which are transported large quantities 
of grain, hay, creamery products, poultry and eggs, hogs and cattle. 

The Farmers Savings Bank was organized in 1905 by Daniel Fagan, M. 
Lillis and F. S. Griffin. It was capitalized at $10,000 and began business in a 
rented building belonging to Mrs. O'Hagan. Recently the concern erected a new 
brick structure, which it now occupies. President, Daniel Fagan; cashier, 
M. Lillis. 

Ebenezer Lodge, No. 587, I. O. O. F., was organized August 3, 1893, under 
a dispensation. In October of that year a charter was granted to the following 
members: F. H. Parkhurst, F. S. Harris, C. E. Durston, Thomas Rose, George 
Harwood and about fifteen others. The first officials were: F. H. Parkhurst, 
N. 6. ; George Harwood, V. G. ; C. E. Durston, secretary ; Thomas Rose, treas- 
urer; F. S. Harris, financial secretary. The lodge held its first meetings in 
what is now Preston's warehouse. The membership is about forty-eight. 

North Star Chapter, No. 260, Daughters of Rebekah, was organized in 
October, 1895. The charter members were : E. H. and Ella Blanchard, C. H. 
and Kate Blanchard, Lewis and Winnie Huyck, F. H. and Ada Parkhurst, 
J. W. and Melissa Preston, F. S. and Augusta Harris, W. A. and Etta Dover, 
W. P. and Leola Seward, S. J. Kelly, T. E. Smith, Maria Smith, Thomas and 
L. L. Rose, John and Anna Rose and Frank Kenyon. 

The postoffice was established here February 8, 1860, with H. H. Tubbs 
in charge. The names of his successors follow: ^illiam A. Crowther, June 1, 
1861; A. J. Pease, May 17, 1864; Lucius Kinsman, March 4, 1870; Reuben 
Norton, August 1, 1872; William E. Lawrence, December 23, 1878; S. W. 
Quick, October 13, 1882; John Latimer, January 2, 1885; Thomas Gordon, 
October 30, 1885; Charles O'Hagan, December 13, 1888; James W. Turley, 
August 23, 1893; Charles O'Hagan, July 29, 1897; Josephine O'Hagan, Febru- 
ary 17, 1905 ; Mamie I. O'Hagan, June 20, 1913. 

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Adams Township was erected September 29, 1855, and is congressional town- 
ship 87, range 6. It lies in the extreme southwest corner of the county, having 
Buchanan County for its western boundary and Linn County on the south. 
Hazel Green Township is on the east and Prairie on the north. 

Buffalo Creek enters Adams on section 18 and cuts across the corner, leaving 
its territory on the southeast corner of section 32. This stream receives the 
drainage from the greater part of the township and the land in general is 
covered with a heavy bed of drift, upon which is a soil unexcelled in the Mis- 
sissippi Valley. This means that Adams Township farms are highly productive 
an4 in keeping with the general harmonious customs of the people in Delaware 
County. These farms indicate thrift and progress on the part of their owners. 

James Robinson, an Irishman, came to America in 1844 and to Delaware 
County in 1852. He married Mary A. Gregg, in 1854, also of Ireland, and they 
were the parents of twelve children. For many years Mr. Robinson lived on 
section 8. John Robinson also came from Ireland and settled in the township 
in 1854. He married Margaret Swindle in March of that year. She was also 
born in Ireland. Their home was on section 5. 

Benjamin Burgess, an early settler of Adams Township, came to the county 
in 1855, and in 1859 married Ellen Haight, a native of Ohio. Mr. Burgess 
was a good farmer and citizen. 

Charles Falconer, a native of Scotland, came to America in 1842, and to 
Delaware County in 1855. He married Rebecca Pierce in 1857, and in 1864 
enlisted in Company I, Fourth Iowa Volunteer Infantry. He was with Sherman 
in his march to the sea. 

James Cromwell came to the township in 1855 and was one of its valued 
citizens. By a strong effort he succeeded in having Tower Hill Postoffice estab- 
lished, which was the first in the township and was kept by him for many years. 
He was one of the few who succeeded in organizing the first district school, in 
1858, when the first schoolhouse in the township was erected. 

Henry Ehlers was a native of Germany, whence he emigrated to Canada in 
1854. Mr. Ehlers arrived in this township in the spring of 1855 and in 1862 
married Anna B. Mangold, who was born in Switzerland. Mr. Ehlers was a 
member of Company I, Fourth Iowa Infantry and was with Sherman in his 
memorable march to the sea. He was a member of the board of supervisors, 
and the station on the Illinois Central near his farm was named Ehlers in his 

Cornelius Hurley was born in Ireland and immigrated to America in 1853. 
He found his way to Delaware County in 1856 and the same year married 
Jane Garman, also of Ireland. 

fol. 1—19 


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Andrew De Woody was born in Pennsylvania in 1820, married Rachel 
Bardue in 1843, and with his family came to this county in 1856, settling in 
Adams Township. 

W. H. Lenox came from Ireland to America in 1832 and to this county in 
1857, settling on section 27. He married Sarah Burgess in 1858. James 
McElligott was also a son of the Emerald Isle. He crossed the Atlantic in 1848 
and arrived in this township in 1857. He married Ellen Behan in 1858, and 
for many years their home was on section 10. 


One of the best business towns in Delaware County is that of Ryan, which 
was laid out August 28, 1888, by J. A. Thomas, Andrew E. Anderson and 
Arthur I. Flint. 

Perhaps the first business enterprise in Ryan was started by Arthur Flint, 
who opened a general store about the year 1886, in a one-story frame building, 
now occupied by Worley 's harness shop. 

Some time in the year 1891 Lon Benninger and John Snyder, under the 
style of Benninger & Snyder, opened a store. In 1892 Nicholas Weiler had his 
meat market running and he is still in the business. 

C. E. Worley was Ryan's first harness maker. He began business in 1893, 
in the old Flint Building, and still holds forth there. Mr. Worley, active and 
progressive, became Ryan's chfef executive and during his administration a 
splendid system of waterworks was established. 

Shortly after Worley 's arrival F. M. Foley engaged in general merchandis- 
ing, also J. A. Thomas. After a short while Thomas sold out to Charles Van 
Anda and Will Sutton, who made up the firm of Van Anda & Sutton. Their 
successors were Connor & Smith, both surnamed Charles," who came two years 

The next business concern to open its doors in Ryan was a department store, 
stocked with goods by the Standard Lumber Company, of Dubuque. This has 
been under various managements, since the initial one of Joseph Gloden. 


The first school was established in 1888, in a store building owned by Barney 
Magirl and taught by Joseph Beacom. In the year 1892 the district erected a 
school building — one-story frame — on Union Street. The structure was re- 
modeled in 1901, by putting on another story, thus giving four rooms for the 
accommodation of 135 pupils, who are taught by four instructors. The school 
has twelve grades. 


The Ryan Postoffice was established in 1884, with Dennis Magirl in charge. 
The names of his successors follow : A. I. Flint, May 3, 1889 ; J. A. Thomas, 
September 24, 1890; J. H. Beacom, August 23, 1894; James Ireland, September 
17, 1897; F. L. Houston, December 20, 1901. 

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Upon petition of John Dolphin, C. E. Worley, John Reilly, J. Coakley, N. 
Weiler, P. L. Houston and others, asking that the Village of Ryan be separated 
from the townships of Adams and Hazel Green, and empowered to formulate 
and maintain a government of its own, with the rights and privileges of an 
incorporated town, the prayer was granted and the court appointed John Reilly, 
E. C. Pound, Robert M. Merriam, C. E. Worley and Pred Houston a commission 
to call an election, to be held at Koehler's implement store, to vote upon the 
proposition. In accordance and with directions of the court an election was 
called and held on the 5th day of February, 1901, at which time the electorate 
cast its voice strongly in favor of incorporation. 

In the month of March, at the regular municipal election, John Dolphin was 
elected mayor, and John Reilly, Gottlieb Heiseman, P. M. Foley, 0. M. Wright, 
P. L. Houston, John Evart, trustees. The first meeting of the council was held 
on the 13th day of May following and the city government was in full running 
order. At that session the officials qualified, who agreed to act without pay the 
first year. John Hazelrigg was appointed clerk, and J. P. Striegel, treasurer. 
An ordinance was passed for the building of sidewalks and Ed Pugh, at a special 
meeting, received the appointment of marshal. 


The citizens of Ryan early appreciated the fact that a system of waterworks 
was necessary to give the people an abundance of water, both for public and 
private use. They realized the virtue of being secure against losses by fire and to 
these ends a special meeting of council was held August 28, 1901, for the 
purpose of calling an election, whereby the general sentiment of the community 
on the movement could be obtained and majde a matter of record. On September 
21, 1901, the election was held at Koehler's implement store. Fifty votes were 
cast, of which thirty-nine favored the building of waterworks, while only seyen 
taxpayers voted against the improvement. Four votes were mutilated and were 
not counted. The judges of this important election were John Dolphin, John 
Reilly, H. C. Koehler, John Hazelrigg and R. M. Merriam. 

In 1902 council was empowered to sell the corporation bonds to the amount 
of $3,000 at 5 per cent interest and a levy of 5 mills on the dollar was made 
for the purpose. An 8-inch well was drilled, which produces a splendid supply 
of good water. A one-story brick power and pumping station was erected in the 
heart of the town, in which was installed a vertical steel tank 9 by 9 by 36 
feet, as a reservoir, having a capacity of 16,000 gallons of water. The pressure 
is sixty pounds and the water is driven into the reservoir by a 12-horsepower 
gasolene engine. The power house stands on a lot, purchased of P. H. Ryan, 
for $350. The total cost of the waterworks, including the power house and 
1,000 feet of hose, was about five thousand dollars. 


Ryan people organized a fine body of men into a volunteer fire company 
in 1902, and this department of the town's utilities erected a brick fire station 

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at its own expense in 1913. The building is in the form of a tower from the 
ground up and on the face of the structure is a tablet, on which is inscribed the 
following names, the owners of which contributed to the sum of $900, cost of 
the station: C. E. Worley, chief; J. M. Brayton, W. H. Ward, G. C. Johnston, 
N. Weiler, A. 0. Thompson, R. A. Barry, T. P. Turner, A. J. Keegan, S. S. 
McAreavy, J. M. Duncan, E. E. Coakley, J. A. Lyness and J. J. Dolphin. 


Since Ryan was incorporated the following persons have served as mayor 
and clerk: 1901 — John Dolphin, mayor; John Hazelrigg, clerk; 1902 — C. E. 
Worley, mayor; A. G. Duncan, clerk; 1904 — P. W. Beacom, mayor; A. G. 
Duncan, clerk; 1906 — August Feilebein, mayor; John Tarleton, clerk; 1908—. 
George C. Johnston, mayor; John Brayton, clerk; 1910-12 — E. E. McCloud, 
mayor; A. O. Thompson, clerk; 1914 — W. T. McElliott, mayor; Joseph Cody, 
clerk. Ryan has a population of 511, of which 370 live in the part situate in 
Adams Township, and 141 in Hazel Green. 


The Bank of Ryan was the first financial concern established here in 1896 
and the company was made up of J. A. Thomas, John Dolphin, John Reilly 
and E. E. McCloud, they having purchased the brokerage interests of J. A. 
Thomas, who had been in business about one year. The Bank of Ryan main- 
tained its identity until 1900, when, on June 19th of that year, the Ryan State 
Bank was incorporated by J. A. Thomas, E. C. Pound, Patrick Donnelly, John 
Reilly, Charles Barry, W. B. Robinson and John Dolphin. This institution 
began doing business in July following in its present home, which is a brick 
building, purchased of Mrs. J. A. Thomas. The bank was capitalized at $25,000, 
and had for its first officials: J. A. Thomas, president; E. C. Pound, vice 
president ; John Dolphin, cashier. Mr. Thomas died in 1906, when the position 
vacated was occupied by John Dolphin, and at the same time his son, J. J. 
Dolphin, succeeded to the cashiership. In December, 1910, John Dolphin died 
and his son succeeded him in the presidency, retaining the office of cashier until 
June, 1911, when J. M. Foley was elected to that position. Mr. Foley resigned 
about April 1, 1914, on account of ill health, and F. L. Houston was elected in 
his stead. At that time F. M. Foley was elected vice president. The present 
officials are: J. J. Dolphin, president; F. M. Foley, vice president; F. L. 
Houston, cashier; John K. Dolphin, assistant cashier. Capital, $25,000; sur- 
plus, $25,000; undivided profits, $20,000; deposits, $310,000. 


The Ryan Creamery was built in 1903 by the Palmer-Hubbard Company, of 
Independence, Iowa. It was bought in 1906 by E. E. McCloud, George Emery 
and John Dolphin, and since that time has been known as the Ryan Creamery 
Company, which has been under the management, since April, 1914, of A. W. 
Dickinson. This is a large concern which makes a grade of butter that always 
finds a ready market. During the years 1911, 1912 and 1913, the average out- 
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put of butter was 500,000 pounds per year. The building is a two-story brick, 
44 by 54 feet, ground dimensions. It has a one-story addition 28 by 44 feet 
for furnaces and coal. The original cost was $9,000. 


st. Patrick's cathouc church 

St. Patrick's Catholic Church of Ryan is an outgrowth of a church estab- 
lished in Adams Township. Here the first mass was said by Father Farley in 
June, 1882, at the home of Dennis Magirl, who was then living on section 24 
of Adams Township. Among those present on this occasion were Patrick 
Donnelly, Thomas and James Keegan, Patrick Kinley, Ed Reilly, Newton Fuller, 
William Drummy, John Holahan, Con Sullivan, Dennis Harrington, Philip 
Clark and Michael O'Hara. In the parish were seventeen families. 

The first house of worship was built in the summer of 1882 on section 19, 
in Hazel Green Township. The cornerstone was laid by Rev. Fathers M. J. 
Farley and Brady on the 18th of July of that year. The building was of 
brick, 40 by 60 feet. A steeple was attached some time after the church was 
finished. The original cost of this building was between seven and eight 
thousand dollars. Some years later $5,000 on improvements was expended. 
The ten acres of land upon which the church stood was purchased of Mrs. 
Harger, with the proviso that the building should be finished within three years 
from the day of purchase. This was accomplished just before the time limit. 
Part of the land was devoted to burial purposes and the property was known 
as Belmond Church and Cemetery. Dedicatory exercises were held in the 
summer of 1883 by Rev. P. H. Ryan and others. 

After the Town of Ryan began to grow and assume proportions this church 
was practically transplanted to that village about sixteen years ago. A frame 
church building was erected, 40 by 50 feet, a short distance from the present 
edifice, which cost about five thousand dollars. Services were held here until 
February 12, 1912, when the present new building was occupied. In the fall 
of 1907 the priest's house, a two-story frame building, 32 by 36 feet, was moved 
from Belmond to Ryan, a distance of two miles. The parochial school, a three- 
story brick building, with basement, having ground dimensions of 40 by 60 feet, 
was built a few years ago at a cost of $12,000. This school has an attendance of 
140 pupils and is taught by six Presentation nuns of Dubuque. The property 
of this church is easily worth $75,000. 

The first pastor of St. Patrick's who succeeded Reverend Farley was Rev. 
Fr. P. H. Ryan, who came in 1882 and remained until October, 1906. He was 
followed by Fr. Patrick Lahey, who was here three years and then came the 
present pastor, Rev. Fr. John Maloy. 


During the summer of 1888, Reverend Hansen, of Earlville, Iowa, visited 
a small group of German Lutherans, living in Hazel Green Township, .near Ryan, 
and gathered them under the influence of the word and sacraments of God. 

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Services were held for some time in different schoolhouses. Then these people 
were organized in August, 1888, as a congregation which adopted the name 
Priedens Gemeinde (Congregation of Peace), having adopted the conditions 
of Evangelical Lutheran congregations recommended by the Iowa Synod. 

Reverends Romberg and Poedisch served the congregktion for a short time 
and then Reverend Melchert was called in 1892 as resident pastor of this small 
flock, and has since served as their pastor. At that time the congregation was 
in a very poor condition, but it was developed by God's blessing and by earnest 
German diligence and perseverance into a fairly strong congregation. At the 
time that Reverend Melchert took charge it had hardly a dozen members; 
now it has a -strong voting membership of seventy, with 400 souls. Though 
some differences of opinion arose in the first years of the church, the faithful 
God helped and all difficulties were overcome and under the influence of 
God's word and sacraments the congregation has steadily increased in mem- 
bership and strength. 

In 1893 a church was built as a permanent home of the congregation. In 
1895 the parsonage was built and later on it was remodeled and enlarged. In 
1903 the steeple of the church was remodeled and a bell was purchased; for 
this purpose about one thousand dollars was raised. Finally a cemetery was 
acquired. The actual value of the property amounts to $6,000 with no debts. 


Some time before the year 1891 the Methodists established a society and 
held services in the schoolhouse at Tower Hill. Rev. Frank Loveland, who was 
pastor of the church in Coggon, ministered to the spiritual wants of the con- 
gregation and in the summer of 1891 through his efforts a house of worship 
was built in Ryan, at a cost of $1,600, on a lot donated by J. A. Thomas. Among 
the first members here were J. H. Preston and wife, Q. Searight and wife and 
George Walkup. The first pastor was Rev. Frank Loveland, but since his time 
the church usually has had a student pastor. Among the resident pastors 
were Revs. H. C. Culver and Edward Lee. There is now a membership of 
about fifty and the attendance at Sunday school averages forty. The Epworth 
League also has a good attendance. 


The Village of Ehler was laid out on the southwest part of section 26, and is 
a small station on the Illinois Central Railroad. General stores are supported 
by a good trade from the rich country surrounding it. The place was named in 
honor of Henry Ehlers, who located near by in the spring of 1855. A postoffice 
was established August 9, 1888, and F. P. Ryan commissioned postmaster on 
the same date. His successors were : James Henderson, March 20, 1891 ; Alex- 
ander McDonald, May 21, 1902; William H. Ehlers, September 7, 1906; N. P. 
Patton, October 4, 1907. 


Robinson is the youngest town in Delaware County and is a sprightly vil- 
lage for its age, especially in this part of the state. The place was laid out 
in 1912 and now has a bank, two general stores, one under control of the 

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Robinson Mercantile Company, and the other owned by the firm of White & 
Stebbins. A. P. Burrows & Sons and W. D. Hoyt & Co. have hardware 
stores. Peter Kiene has a lumber yard. There are also a blacksmith shop, har- 
ness shop, restaurant, barber shop and a pool hall, an elevator and last, but 
not least, the Robinson Herald, a busy, newsy little sheet, that sat itself down 
in the new town as soon as it could secure a roof to cover machinery and the 
head of its editor. 

The postoffice was established and Mary Irene Robinson commissioned post- 
mistress, April 5, 1913. 

The Robinson Bank was incorporated August 27, 1912, by W. B. Alexan- 
der and J. W. Robinson, Arthur McEnamy and W. H. Swindle. 

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Congre&sional township 89, range 4. was organized September 29, 1855, and 
named Oneida. It is bounded on the north by Elk, on the east by Bremen, on 
the south by Delhi and on the west by Delaware townships and the beauties of 
its prairies and richness of soil early attracted the pioneers seeking homes in 
this great state. In and near the timber along Plum Creek the first locations 
were made, but it was not long before the settlers realized in full the value of 
the prairie soil and in the course of a few years the plains were dotted with the 
buildings of prosperous and contented farmers. 

Plum Creek, the Maquoketa's largest affluent in Delaware County, with its 
ramifying branches, extends to the northern part of this township on the east 
and the north half. The soil is thin in some parts of the township, rock ledges 
showing near the surface. Sands that bear evidence of having been carried 
by winds in the glacial period appear near Earlville and pretty generally 
throughout the township. On section 7, in a low ridge, there are from four 
to six feet of sand resting on an old soil bed. However, Oneida Township has 
some of the finest farms in the county; a general air of prosperity is notice- 
able on every hand. 

The first person to take up a residence in this locality was William Van 
Order, but upon what section has not been determined. It is kown, however, 
that a brother-in-law, named Wilson, lived with him. Wilson was, in the 
words of a certain strenuous ex-president, "an undesirable citizen," whose 
bad reputation led Van Order to remove to another part of the country. Wil- 
son finally was shot by settlers whose horses had been stolen, presumably by him, 
and he was buried, so it is said, in Adams Township, where he met his death. 

Andrew J. Rector came early. He was a North Carolinian by birth. In 
1849 he arrived in Delaware County from his adopted state, Indiana, and 
located on a farm in this township, where he and his bride built a home and 
lived there many years. It was in this house the first election was held in 
Oneida Township after its creation, the place having been designated for 
the purpose by County Judge P. B. Doolittle. Mr. Rector died in 1904. 

A. S. Scott and family emigrated from Ohio in 1851 and located in this 
township on section 13, near Almoral. A. R. Scott came in 1853 and some 
years later settled on section 10. 

J. A. G. Cattron was one of the foremost men in Oneida Township. He 
removed from Indiana in 1854 and with his family settled on section 2. He 
was prominently identified with township affairs and held several offices. Mr. 
Cattron was also a great church man and one of the founders of the Methodist 
Society in this vicinity. He was trustee and one of the incorporators of the 
Earlville Methodist Episcopal Church. A man of good judgment and in- 
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dustrious habits, he accumulated several hundred acres of land and all in all, 
was a good citizen. 

William Cattron came to the township with his brother John in 1852. They 
first stopped -at Delhi and from there walked across the prairie and chose land 
on section 2, which they entered. They then returned to Laporte County, 
Indiana, from whence they brought their families to the new home in Oneida 
Township. Six months later, William sold his interest in the claim to his brother, 
and located in Elk Township. John Cattron built a log cabin on the prairie 
claim, hauling the lumber from Guttenburg. 

The last Government land unclaimed by settlers was entered by E. B. Con- 
ger and James Jones, who came to the township in 1853. Mr. Conger's father 
was with the party. Among others who came this year were James Ball, William 
Hefner, I. R. Williams and Joel Seger. 

James Ball, still living, as has been mentioned, came to this township in 
1855. He entered a tract of land, part of which is within the limits of the 
Town of Delaware, and built a small frame residence. He prospered in his 
undertakings as farmer and live-stock dealer and is now taking the shady side 
of life gracefully and happily. 

John Cruise and son by the same surname, settled in Oneida Township in 

1853, when the country was wild and still meandered by bands of Indians, who 
temporarily camped in the groves close by their cabin. The elder Cruise 
lived tp be over eighty years of age. The younger man became prominent in 
the county government, serving as sheriff three successive terms, securing his 
first election to that office in 1861. He became a large land owner, was an 
extensive breeder and raiser of live stock, carried on dairying and was generally 
an active, wide-awake citizen and is now a resident of Manchester and at the 
age of seventy-seven operates his own automobile. 

Jasper S. Hunt settled in this township in the early '508 and for many 
years resided on section 32. Mr. Hunt was one of the most active in organiz- 
ing the township in 1855. 

John P. Pear and D. M. Smith became identified with Oneida Township in 
1852, settling near the present Village of Delaware. 

William Hockaday came to Delaware County from Dupage County, Illi- 
nois, and settled in Oneida Township, married a Miss Rogers and to them were 
born eight children, five boys and three girls. Mr. Hockaday had an old team 
and a few dollars in his pocket when he came to Iowa. Now he is one of 
Delaware County's many retired farmers. He served in the One Hundred and 
Forty-first Illinois Infantry is a member of the G. A. R. and of the Jones Mill 
Grange and while his home is now in Manchester, Iowa, where he spends his 
summers, for the past three seasons he has with his wife and a few Delaware 
County friends spent the winters in Southern California. 

E. A. Seger was born in the State of New York and came to this county in 

1854, with his father, Joel Seger. L. G. Seger, another son of Joel, came at 
the same time. 

William E. Wilson settled in the township in 1854. One Pierce also settled 
here in the same year and bought eighty acres of land, for which he paid $700 — 
a big price for the time. 

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Walter S. Sanderock, a native of England, emigrated to the N United States 
in 1845, and to this county in 1855, locating in Oneida Township. 

W. G. Strickland removed from Massachusetts to this county in 1856 and 
settled on section 11, this township. At the time of his locating here he had a 
wife and two children. 

James P. and Electa B. Enos, with their son, James B. Enos, settled here 
in 1856 and entered land, upon which the family resided and prospered for 
many years. 

In the spring of 1856 several families of the Congregational faith came in, 
among whom were Rev. J. A. Kasson, Rev. H. N. Gates, Daniel B. Noble, L. 0. 
Stevens and F. W. Dunham. They made a little settlement on and near sec- 
tion 11. This was called Stafford Colony, which later became known as Al- 
moral (See Almoral). 

Joseph Dunham, father of P. W., J. B., Buel and Abbie Dunham came from 
Franklin County, Vermont, and located at Almoral in Oneida Township in 1856. 

F. W. Dunham was the first postmaster at Almoral, afterward became prin- 
cipal of the Earlville school and later of the Manchester schools. * His children, 
both of whom are now living, are Judge George W. Dunham, Manchester, and 
Mrs. Laura Barrett of Vermilion, South Dakota. Mr. Dunham died many years 
ago, but his widow, who several years after became Mrs. Sanborn, still resides 
at Manchester and is dearly loved by all who know her. 

J. B. Dunham, usually called "B^kue!!," succeeded his brother, F. W., as 
postmaster at Almoral and continued to hold that office until his death a few 
years since. He was one of Oneida Township's best men. His widow now re- 
sides at Manchester and his ttoo sons at Oneida. 

J. B. Taylor came in 1855. George M. Earl, William Everton and Benja- 
min F. Kahl came in 1857. Of course there are many others who located in 
the township this year and the immediate years succeeding, but even if their 
names were at hand, want of space will not permit mention of them here. How- 
ever, in the second volume detailed sketches of most of the prominent pioneers 
will be found. 


The original Town of Earlville, first known as Nottingham, was laid out on 
sections 35 and 36, in October, 1857, for the Iowa Land Company, by its presi- 
dent, R. B. Mason. The plat was filed for record in the county recorder's office 
on the 22d day of the month mentioned. The village was named Nottingham, 
in honor of one of the leading officials of the railroad company, then first 
operating within its circumscribed limits. 

The first person to locate on the land here was a man named Downer, who 
came in 1857, and remained but a short time. He disposed of his interests 
to George M. Earl who, accompanied by Henry Bentley, arrived in the locality 
that year. Bentley did not stay long and before leaving sold his share in the 
land to Earl, whose name is now dignified as the appellation for the second 
largest and important town in Delaware County. 

Joel Seger located in the new town in 1853 and was the first carpenter in 
the community. He built the first schoolhouse in the place, a small frame 

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There is no record or account of anyone following Seger onto the future 
townsite until 1857, when the Dubuque & Sioux City (now Illinois Central) 
reached this place. That year the townsite was laid out on the Earl land and 
settlements therein were quite numerous. On December 10, 1857, the first train 
arrived in the growing trade center and both the postal authorities and railroad 
company changed the name to Earlville. The old name of Nottingham clung 
to the place and in 1861, Judge Bailey of the County Court, enforced the name 
on the place by a judicial order. However, this was changed to Earlville at 
the time of the incorporation of the village as a town later on. 

The first mercantile establishment here was opened by Benjamin Thorpe, 
Sr., in the spring of 1857. He kept a general line of goods then in demand by 
his patrons, and soon after he had established a good trade. F. Bates began 
in the same line of business in a building, the upper story of which was used 
as a hall, which was the first one in the town. This hall was used for many 
purposes, including religious services of the sects then recently organized. 

Earlville soon became a leading trading point and grain market, the rail- 
road facilitating transportation to a degree scarcely looked for by the settlers, 
and in 1858 Benjamin Thorpe built a warehouse for the storage of grain, which 
came in from the fertile farms many miles around. Within a short time two 
more grain depositories were built. But so much grain began seeking the mar- 
kets in the east, that they became inadequate for the purpose and an elevator 
was built in 1861, by J. S. Harris and Joseph Deiley. This was one of the 
three elevators on the line of the railroad at that period. In 1864, the elevator 
passed into the hands of Josiah Tilson and later Hersey & Company became 
proprietors. The latter firm built another elevafbr in 1875, with a capacity of 
15,000 bushels, being erected on the foundations of an elevator built by Hersey 
& Company, destroyed by a cyclone in 1869, the year it was put up. 

By the year 1877, Earlville was well on the road towards reaching its 
ambition to become one of Delaware's important marts and had dry-goods and 
general mercantile establishments, groceries, shoe stores, harness shops, hard- 
ware stores, wagon and carriage factories, blacksmith shops, furniture stores, 
jewelers, druggists, physicians,- milliners, tailors, coopers, butchers, a livery 
stable, established by J. B. Taylor, first in the town and still in operation by a 
son ; and other lines of business, including a newspaper, an indispensable luxury 
in a community of intelligent people. 


. A petition, signed by many citizens of Earlville, was filed in the Circuit 
Court, May 10, 1882, praying that the village be incorporated as a town. The 
matter coming before the court, Judge John C. Lacey granted the prayer of 
the petition and appointed George Staehle, Sr., F. Werkmeister, W. H. Merton, 
Samuel F. Parker and L. G. Hersey a committee to call an election, to ascertain 
the wishes of the electorate. An election was thereupon called to be held Mon- 
day, June 12, 1882, at the drug store of J. S. Harris & Son, and its results 
showed that the proposition was carried by a majority of 59, out of a«total vote 
of 101. On the 8th day of August, 1882, an election was held for town officers, 
and the following persons were chosen: Mayor, Samuel F. Parker; clerk, C. 

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Starr Barre ; trustees, Charles Schubert, Charles B. Bush, George G. Williams, 
L. G. Hersey, George Staehle and Alex Riddell. 

The council held its first meeting on the evening of August 21st, in the 
office of the Graphic. Members of the council were all present, but the mayor 
elect was absent. On motion of Staehle, Mr. Hersey was made mayor, pro tern, 
and presided. 

On motion of Staehle it was moved that a tax of 3 mills on the dollar of 
assessed valuation of taxable property be levied ; also that 5 mills be levied on 
all farm lands of ten acres and over within the corporation, for the ensuing 
year, for road purposes. 

Councilman Riddell nominated John Cruikshank for marshal and Council- 
man Williams nominated J. B. Taylor. On a ballot being taken, Cruikshank 
received the appointment, at a salary of $25 from September 1 to the next 
annual election. 

The mayor was authorized to appoint a committee of three on ordinances 
and for that purpose named Riddell, Staehle and Bush. 

A committee, consisting of Bush and Williams, was named to take the meas- 
urement of the railroad tracks within the corporate limits. The place selected 
for the next meeting was the Hersey Building ; and this is the manner in which 
Earlville started out on its career as an incorporated town. 

The following named citizens have served Earlville as chief executive and 
clerk: 1882-83, Parker, mayor; Barre, recorder; 1884-85, George Staehle, Jr., 
mayor; Barre, recorder; 1886, G. H. Bush, mayor; Barre, recorder; 1887, George 
Staehle, mayor; S. K. Virtue, recorder; 1888, J. H. Trewin, mayor; S. K. 
Virtue, recorder; 1889, H. G. Millen, mayor; S. K. Virtue, recorder; 1890, 
E. H. Russel, mayor; S. K. Virtue, recorder; 1891, W. I. Millen, mayor; S. K. 
Virtue, recorder; 1892, S. W. Klaus, mayor; S. K. Virtue, recorder; 1893, S. W. 
Klaus, mayor; S. K. Virtue, recorder; 1894, James Currie, mayor; S. K. Virtue, 
recorder; 1895, James Currie, mayor; S. K. Virtue, recorder; 1896, James 
Currie, mayor; S. K. Virtue and E. South, recorder; 1897, J. B. Taylor, mayor; 
E. South, recorder; 1898, J. B. Taylor, mayor; E. South, recorder; 1899, J. B. 
Taylor, mayor; E. South, recorder; 1900, J. B. Taylor, mayor; E. South, re- 
corder; 1901, J. B. Taylor, mayor; E. South, recorder; 1902, J. C. Nieman, 
mayor; R. V. Lucas, recorder; 1903, J. C. Nieman, mayor'; R. V. Lucas, recorder; 
1904, H. A. Tobie, mayor R. V. Lucas, recorder; 1905, H. A. Tobie, mayor; 
R. V. Lucas, recorder; 1906, S. S. Douglass, mayor; C. B. Rogers, recorder; 
1907, S. S. Douglass, mayor; C. B. Rogers, recorder; 1908, John Werkmeister, 
mayor ; William Hunt, recorder ; 1909, John Werkmeister, mayor ; William Hunt, 
recorder; 1910, John Werkmeister, mayor; William Hunt, recorder; 1911, John 
Werkmeister, mayor; William Hunt, recorder; 1912, J. M. Dunn, mayor; Wil- 
liam Hunt, recorder; 1914, H. A. Tobie, mayor; William Hunt, recorder. 


On the evening of May 10, 1887, the town was threatened with destruction. 
Fire was noticed in a frame building, occupied by a saloon, but it had gotten 
under such headway before its discovery, that before means could be taken to 
subdue its ravages the flames had spread and consumed three blocks of busi- 

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ness houses, including residences and churches. The Congregational Church and 
parsonage were in ruins; the Voit residence, a handsome brick structure cost- 
ing $5,000, met the same fate ; also, T. O. Eaton's meat market, F. Werkmeister's 
furniture establishment and residence, George Staehle's hardware store and 
lumber yard, Alex Riddell & Company's general merchandise store, Bush & 
Klaus, general merchandise, E. Healey, farm implements, the Garfield Hotel, a 
new brick building; Farmers Hotel, also a new brick building; Shubert & Hess, 
wagon shops, John Young's carriage factory, and others. The loss was placed 
at over two hundred thousand dollars, on which was some insurance. 


The heavy losses by fire sustained by Earlville citizens awakened them to 
the imperative necessity of installing a system of waterworks, as security in a 
measure at least, against a repetition of the calamity. To this end the matter 
was presented to the electorate of the town in the spring of 1900 and the ques- 
tion of bonding Earlville to the extent of $5,000 for the construction and main- 
tenance of a system of waterworks was carried by a generous majority. It was 
not until 1903, however, that construction of the improvement began. In that 
year an 8-inch well, 175 feet in depth, was drilled in the rock, when a bounteous 
supply of pure, clear water was obtained. A reservoir, 36 feet in diameter and 
15 feet in depth, was built, giving a capacity of 112,000 gallons of the liquid, on 
Reeder's hill, one-half mile southwest of town. The elevation of the reservoir 
is so intense as to afford a pressure of forty pounds, more than sufficient to 
throw a stream over the tallest structure in the community. Six-inch cast iron 
mains were laid and with a building in which pumps were installed, Earlville 
completed its waterworks at an expenditure of about eight thousand dollars. 


In the year 1912 the authorities of the corporation installed a small dynamo 
at the pumping station to utilize the excess power there and furnish lights for 
the streets. This arrangement was so satisfactory, it created a demand for more 
lights, both for public and private use. To meet the exactments of the citizens 
in this relation meant the construction of a larger plant and the matter was 
submitted at the polls December 9, 1913. While the question of issuing $10,000 
in bonds for the purpose was answered in the affirmative by the electorate the 
project was defeated for the time being through a technicality which necessitated 
the resubmission of the proposition at another election, held September 14, 
1914. But not waiting for the election, being well assured of its confirmatory 
results, all the necessary equipment for a first class lighting plant, including 
dynamos, one 35-horse-power engine and one 25-horse-power, both of the Bes- 
semer type, was set up in the waterworks power house, a two-story brick struc- 
ture, and now the Town of Earlville owns two splendid utilities — waterworks 
and an electric lighting system. 


Earlville has a very good city hall, a two-story brick building, erected in 
1888. In the front of the ground floor is the equipment of the fire department, 

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used by a volunteer company. To the rear are cells or iron cages, for the safe 
keeping of law-breakers. The upper story is devoted to the council chamber 
and mayor's office. 


The banking facilities of Earlville are excellent, all needs of {he citizens 
in that respect being amply provided for by the State Bank, which began exist- 
ence as a private financial concern in 1882. The firm of Conger Brothers were 
the first proprietors, having George W. Dunham, now Judge Dunham of Man- 
chester, as cashier. The bank in course of time was the property of A. H. 
Conger. On September 1, 1887, H. Millen & Son took charge and later added 
W. I. Millen, another son of the senior member of the firm. H. G. Millen and 
W. I. Millen then conducted operations as Millen Brothers. 

The bank was organized as the Savings Bank of Earlville in 1895, the incor- 
porators being J. C. and W. T. Wood, Ed Bisgrove, Thomas Cousins, C. M. 
and D. M. Laxson, H. G. and W. I. Millen and George Staehle, Sr. The capital 
was $20,000. C. M. Laxson, president ; J. C. Wood, vice president ; D. P. Laxson, 
cashier. In 1887 the deposits were $10,000. 

The bank was reorganized in 1902 and chartered as the State Bank, with 
a capital of $25,000. President, C. M. Laxson ; vice president, W. T. Wood ; 
cashier, H. G. Millen ; assistant cashier, W. I. Millen. The latter resigned and 
was succeeded by Emor Millen, who remained until 1904, when his place was 
taken by D. F. Laxson. Present officials, C. M. Laxson, president; Edward 
Bisgrove, vice president; D. P. Laxson, cashier. Capital, $25,000; surplus and 
undivided profits, $27,000; deposits, $225,000. 


On the 12th of February, 1858, the postoffice was established at Earlville 
and S. D. Moody commissioned postmaster. The names of his successors follow : 
C. B. Stowe, commissioned November 9, 1858 ; J. S. Harris, December 5, 1860 ; 
J. G. Verplank, March 29, 1861; Cummings Sanborn, January 28, 1864; R. L. 
Jones, September 17, 1867 ; R. H. Van Wagenen, January 4, 1886 ; J. G. Cousins, 
December 18, 1890; William H. Flynn, October 25, 1894; J. C. Cousins, August 
22, 1898; R. V. Lucas, October 11, 1902; Philip M. Cloud, December 22, 1905. 


Earlville has always been recognized as one of the foremost towns in the 
county in all matters pertaining to education. As early as 1853 a school was 
erected on what afterwards became the townsite. Joel Seger, a carpenter set- 
tling here in that year, was the builder. The little cabin school had for its first 
teacher Benjamin Thorpe, Jr., and the building was utilized for various pur- 
poses until 1859, when a two-story frame structure took its place, C. C. Gilman 
being the contractor. This old school stood for many years and instructors 
presiding within its walls had for pupils lads and lassies who became the bone 
and sinew of the county. 

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Earlville was made an independent school district in 1865. H. N. Gates 
under the new dispensation was appointed principal and Mary Ellis, assistant. 
Later, additions were made to the building, to meet the growing demand for 
more room. The attendance at this time is large and the erection of the new 
building, a two-story brick, a year or two ago, was a necessity and its cost was 
cheerfully met by the parents and taxpayers of the community. 



In the month of August, 1854, a Methodist Episcopal class was formed at 
this place, by George Clifford, of the Iowa Conference, the meeting taking place 
at the home of Samuel Sandercock, who then lived at Plum Creek, on the farm 
now occupied by James Hunt. That pioneer class of Godly men and women 
was indeed a small one, but in this regard it made up in enthusiasm and sin- 
cerity of purpose all that was lacking in number. They were : Samuel Sander- 
cock and wife, Walter Sandercock and wife, Thomas Rogers and wife and M. A. 
Dieley. Preaching was held on occasions by the year 1855, in the schoolhouse 
at the east end of town, and it was Reverend Hyde, who first came and ministered 
to this small flock of worshipers. 

When the railroad began operations in and through Earlville, in 1857, a 
box car was set aside on the switch and utilized for church purposes, or preach- 
ing at least, and here a small body of men and women gathered for some time. 
Prior to this, however, in 1856, the conference was divided and Earlville was 
attached to the Delhi circuit ; at this period Rev. A. M. Smith was pastor. He 
was succeeded in 1859 by Rev. Samuel Lamont, and he in turn stepped aside 
for Rev. J. P. Hestwood, who came in 1860. Rev. E. W. Jeffries was here from 
1861 to 1862 and in 1865 Earlville became an independent charge, with Reverend 
Julius as pastor. He remained until 1866 and was followed by Rev. T. Thompson. 

For several years and up to 1867, services were held in Bates' Hall, the 
schoolhouse (then new), Thorpe's Hall and in the basement of the Congrega- 
tional Church. In 1866 lots were purchased and on September 11, 1867, the 
church was incorporated, by Josiah Dieley, J. B. Taylor, T. R. Long, J. A. G. 
Cattron and F. W. Sandercock, trustees. That year the church was built on 
the lots previously secured. It is a frame structure, still standing, but not in 
its original form. A parsonage was purchased about this time and in 1868 
Rev. J. L. Garrison was called to the charge. His successors in the pulpit were 
T. Thompson, 1870-71; J. N. Piatt, 1871-73; J. B. AUbrook, 1873-74; J. E. 
Cowgill, 1874-75; S. Knickerbocker, 1875-76; S. Ketcham, 1876-79; William 
Cobb, 1879-82; J. K. Schiffer, 1882-84; L. M. Pratt, 1884-86; L. L. Lockwood, 


The first public improvement toward the formation of a Congregational 
Church in Earlville, then called Nottingham, was made May 9, 1858, when 
service was held, with preaching by Rev. H. N. Gates, then pastor of the Con- 
gregational Church at Almoral, in a railroad car. 

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A Sunday school was organized at this service by Horace Pitkin, who served 
as the first superintendent. Services were held here for some time and after- 
ward removed to a hall over the store of Mr. Bates. In this hall, on February 
6, 1859, a church was organized with the following charter members: Mrs. 
Stowe, Mrs. J. S. Harris, Mrs. Dawes, Mr. Bates, James G. Verplank and 
Rev. and Mrs. H. N. Gates. Reverend Gates remained as pastor until September, 
1861. Meetings were continued in the hall for about a year, when they were 
removed to the upper room of the new schoolhouse and afterwards to the room 
over Mr. Thorpe's store. 

The first house of worship was completed in December, 1867, and dedicated 
early in the new year. A parsonage was built beside the church in 1882. On 
the night of May 11-12, 1887, both church and parsonage were burned, together 
with nearly all the business part of the town. In this fire all the records of the 
church were destroyed. 

After the loss of the church the Methodist Episcopal people kindly offered 
to share the use of their church. The offer was thankfully accepted, the pastors 
of the two churches alternating in preaching to the united congregations. In 
the meantime the Sunday school met in the Odd Fellows Hall, which was kindly 
offered to the church for services. 

The second church edifice was erected during the summer after the fire and 
was dedicated December 4, 1887, the dedicatory sermon being preached by Rev. 
J. W. Ferner, of Postville. A new building was purchased for the parsonage, 
at a cost of $2,800. 

This sketch would be incomplete if it dealt only with beginnings. Follow- 
ing the foundation layers came the builders — the names and services of the 
Herseys, the Sanborns, Nicholsons, Morriseys and all the host, who in season 
and out, in labors abundant have toiled for the establishment of the church, 
leaving an organization of 180 members, a good building well equipped for the 
work, and a commodious parsonage. The attendance at Sunday school is 120 
and in the adult Bible class, eighty-six. 

The following named have served as pastors of this congregation: Revs. 
H. N. Gates, A. M. Loring, Boardman, Charles Gibbs, J. L. Atkinson, Jordan, 
Hudson, J. Brooks, J. M. Bowers, J. R. Barnes, Thomas Kent, L. W. Winslow, 
D. M. Ogilvie, D. L. Hilliard, D. W. Blakely, R. F. Paxton, J. C. Stoddard, 
A. B. Keeler, W. A. Alcorn, T. B. Couchman and A. Winfield Wiggins, the 
latter having had charge since October, 1913. 

st. Joseph's catholic church 

St. Joseph's Church was founded January 12, 1887. Before this, however, 
Father Lynch, located at Cascade, came here in the primitive days of the com- 
munity and said mass at the homes of his people. The church building, a neat 
frame structure, was built in 1887, chiefly through the efforts of Father Farley, 
and at the time there were but a few families in the parish. On the day men- 
tioned above the edifice was dedicated by Rt. Rev. Bishop Hennessey, of Du- 
buque. High mass was celebrated by Rev. J. M. Farrell, assisted by Revs. T. 
Rowe, P. F. Farrelly and W. F. Pape. At the time were noticed in the sanc- 

Vol. 1—20 

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tuary Revs. P. H. Ryan, D. Heelan, G. Heer, W. Oberbreckling and H. Brick- 
man. The visiting pastor was Reverend Dunkel. 

In January, 1912, the church was reorganized, at which time the families 
in the parish numbered about twenty-five, most of whom lived on the surround- 
ing farms. St. Joseph's never has had a resident priest, but up to 1912 priests 
attended the church from Manchester and Dyersville, holding services about 
once each month. Since then Father Theodore Warning, of the Dyersville par- 
ish, has sent his assistant, Father Dunkel, regularly every Sunday, and it is 
now anticipated that St. Joseph's will have its own pastor within a short period 
of time. 

The German Lutheran Church was organized in June, 1873, by Rev. J. 
Christ, in Exchange Hall. The membership was about twelve families and 
Daniel Raforth, Henry Young, C. Klaus, were elected trustees. In the spring 
of 1875 a neat frame building, 22x40 feet, was erected for church purposes, 
under the direction of Rev. S. De Young, John Young and F. Werkmeister. 
The dedicatory services were presided over by Rev. John Bucka, who long 
remained as the pastor. 


Square Lodge, No. 286, A. F. & A. M. was organized June 7, 1871, by C. F. 
Stevenson, J. Dilley and N. Clark, who were also the first principal officials. 
The lodge now has fifty members and is in a prosperous condition. Its perma- 
nent headquarters, after two or three removals, were set up in what is known 
as the Masonic Building. 

In the year 1883 the Masonic Town Hall Company was organized by citi- 
zens of Earlville and vicinity, for the purpose of building a structure to be 
used by the town and for lodge purposes. The required amount of money, 
$5,000, was subscribed, Square Lodge of Masons taking $500. The building, a 
three-story brick, was at once erected, on the north side of the railroad and 
nearly opposite the depot. The temple was dedicated January 19, 1884. Grand 
Lodge was opened at Oneida Hall (I. O. O. F.), at 2 P. M. of that day, from 
which a procession <waa formed, headed by Nazareth Commandery of Man- 
chester, and marched to the new home of the lodge, which now owns $2,700 
of the original $5,000 of stock issued for its erection. 

Acacia Chapter, No. 140, Order Eastern Star, was organized October 29, 
1896, by twenty-eight men and women. This is a strong and faithful auxiliary 
of the Masonic bodies and numbers eighty members. 


Oneida Lodge, No. 132, I. O. O. F., was organized October 16, 1861, and 
now has about fifty members. The lodge owns a two-story frame building, the 
upper floor of which is arranged for lodge purposes and the lower is devoted 
to banquets, entertainments, etc. In its original form, a one-story structure, 
this building was erected by Jacob Moreland in 1866. Here he kept a general 
store for some time. In 1873 the Odd Fellows bought the property and added 
another story and an addition wide enough for a stairway. 

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Christina Lodge, No. 290, Daughters of Rebekah, kindred to and an auxiliary 
of Oneida Lodge, was organized October 16, 1895, with thirty-seven members, 
which at the present time have been increased to fifty-five members. 

Earlville Encampment, No. 99, was organized October 16, 1878, with eighteen 
members. The present number is forty-five. 


Mistletoe Camp, No. 88, Modern Woodmen of America, came into being 
and was authorized to open a lodge December 21, 1899. There were twelve 
charter members. The lodge membership is now forty-five. 


Charles Schubert Post, No. 462, G. A. R., was organized July 19, 1889, 
with the following charter members : E. A. Allen, S. Hbskins, C. L. Rundell, 
L. W. Winston, B. L. Delano, William Everton, G. H. Bush, E. H. Hall, D. W. 
Wordand, R. Aubrey, D. Stallard, E. A. Colyon, S. S. Spearing, W. G. Foster, 
William Hockaday, H. Wische, J. S. Reed. 

Through disease and wounds, concomitants of camp life, battles with the 
enemy and other strenuous duties of warfare, the ranks of this post have noti 
only been decimated, but almost obliterated by the mighty and inexorable hand 
of Death. A corporal's guard of the old veterans now cannot be mustered or 
even a quorum, consequently no regular meetings are held and the post may 
truly be said to have practically gone out of existence. 


Delaware lies on parts of sections 32 and 33, in Oneida Township and was 
laid out in March, 1860, by F. B. Doolittle, James Ball, John Hefner and George 
Watson, owners of the land. The Davenport & St. Paul, now part of the 
Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul system of railroads, crosses the Dubuque and 
Pacific (Illinois Central) at this point, both having depots. 

The first persons to locate in this vicinity were James P. Ball, John Hefner, 
W. M. Hefner, John P. Pear, D. M. Smith, George Watson and families, aH 
coming in 1853, or near that time. There were then three families between 

this point and Delhi : Ephraim Cummings and four children ; Scroggins 

and family, and John W. Penn and family. 

The railroad company established a station in 1859, which was a great 
accommodation for Delhi, then the county seat, a town largely visited and of 
comparatively large importance at that period. The people interested furnished 
the ground and built a depot and then the town began to grow. 

The first station agent in Delaware was W. M. Hefner, who kept a little 
store in the depot building in 1860 ; he was the first merchant One of the 
Hefners and James Ball built the first house on the town plat, in the winter of 
1860, in which Mr. Ball opened a hotel, called the Delaware Center House. The 
building is still standing and doing duty as a hostelry. How many times its 

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name has been changed no one living can tell. It is now called the Knowles 

An elevator was built here in 1864, with a capacity of 4,000 bushels. F. B. 
Doolittle and R. Boon were the owners. In 1870 Mr. Boon built another, wnose 
capacity was 8,000 bushels. 

In 1866 the Delaware Cheese Company was organized by W. M. Hefner, 
A. A. Enos, J. A. Garfield and K. W. Kingsley. A building was erected for the 
proposed creamery and cheese was made here until 1871. The company ex- 
changed the property for a farm and then after it ran one year James Ball, 
the owner, sold the building, to J. S. Knowles, who made of it a stable. In 
July, 1866, another industry was started, by the Delaware Manufacturing Com- 
pany, of which L. E. Beebe, J. S. Knowles and R. Boon were the ruling spirits. 
A planing mill was built by the company and conducted until 1870, when failure 
was acknowledged and the property was converted into a creamery. 

The Delaware Improvement Company, organized in 1874 with local capital, 
for the purpose of developing the town's interests, built a two-story brick busi- 
ness building, with hall on second floor. On the first floor was the Grange 
store. The building still remains. 

Mercantile establishments of various kinds flourished a number of years and 
then business waned and the town ceased to grow. A reason for this was found 
in the fact that the place was too close to Manchester on the west, and Earlville, 
on the east, to have much chance to expand. In the 70s the Delaware County 
Grange Company had a large general store; Stringham & Carlin, drugs and 
sundries; B. M. Gardner, shoe shop; Moore & Sessions, creamery; C. S. Austin 
and Moses Benson, livery stables. Other merchants who at one time were in 
business here were Al Thorpe, J. Dieley, I. E. Eldridge and R. Phelps. At the 
present time there is a creamery. There is but one general store, an implement 
establishment, blacksmith shop, garage and telephone exchange. The popula- 
tion is about one hundred. 


The postoffice was established in Delaware in 1859 and on the 19th day of 
December, James P. Ball was commissioned postmaster. He kept the office at 
his place of business, the Delaware Center Hotel. Those who succeeded Mr. 
Ball in the mail service are the following named persons: William M. Hefner, 
May 8, 1861; David Greaves, October 21, 1865; B. M. Gardner, October 19, 
1870; C. J. Simons, September 13, 1881; Charles T. White, January 27, 1882; 
Horace Davey, March 26, 1883 ; Clara Hefner, November 23, 1885 ; Clara Mar- 
shall, May 26, 1887; Martha Kingsley, March 27, 1889; J. S. Knowles, April 
10, 1894; M. P. Hunt, March 26, 1898; Lucia K. Hunt, December 14, 1898; 
A. E. Larson, September 10, 1904; E. R. Leamon, March 30, 1906; C. H. Maack, 
June 9, 1910; E. F. Ortberg, March 9, 1912; J. P. Dawson, November 8, 1913. 


Delaware has a good graded school that was established in 1863, when a 
frame building for the purpose was erected on lots 307 and 317. A few years 

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later the present two-story frame building was put up on the west side of 
town, in which three teachers are employed. 


The Baptist Church was organized in January, 1865, at the house of David 
Greaves, by Rev. J. Carrington. The first members were Capt. David Greaves 
and wife, James Ball and wife, Deacon Jasper Hunt, wife and mother-in-law, 
Catherine White, Richard Boon and wife, W. M. Hefner and wife, Jury Hefner 
and wife, W. P. Fear and wife, Francis Robinson, Joseph Long, George Cham- 
berlin, Mercy Chamberlin, Clarissa Wood, Mary Phillips and D. M. Root. The 
first meetings were held at "Hoosier Point/ ' or Penn's Grove and at Delhi, in 
the courthouse. 

Joseph S. Hunt and Richard Boon were elected deacons and in 1866 R. 
Phillips, David Greaves and George Chamberlin were appointed a committee 
on building. By their efforts, ably assisted by other members, a house of wor- 
ship was erected and dedicated before the close of the following year. Rev. 
Milton Whitehead was the minister in charge. 

For a number of years the Baptist Church flourished at this place and kept 
on its rolls from forty to fifty members. But through deaths, removals and 
other causes not to be avoided, the membership waned and about two years ago 
services were discontinued. The society, however, yet owns a good church build- 
ing and parsonage. 

The Methodists organized a class of seven members, in the schoolhouse in 
1866. Reverend Thompson was the presiding minister on that occasion and the 
first class leader was R. Gould. In 1876 a building for church purposes was 
erected and dedicated, March 18, 1877, by Rev. D. Sheffer. Before securing a 
church of their own, this people worshiped in the Baptist Church and then in a 
hall. There has been no resident pastor for several years. 

The Swedish Lutheran Church was organized in Delaware, in 1895, in the 
German Lutheran Church building, by Peter Malnigren, Peter Nelson, John 
Ortberg, Nels Nelson, Olof Nicholson, Peter Pearson and others. .Bernhard 
Modin was the first pastor and services were held in the German Lutheran 
Church. About three years later a church was built costing about fifteen hun- 
dred dollars. The Swedish Lutherans are served with a pastor from Cedar 
Rapids. The membership is about fifty. 

St. Paul's Evangelical Lutheran Church was organized about the year 1888, 
by John Yelden, William Maurer, Fred Voelschow, Fred Voelker, Carl Zirtz- 
man, William Zirtzman, Henry Meyer, Christian Klaus and others. The corner 
stone of the house of worship, a frame building, was laid September 6, 1903, 
and the parsonage was built in 1912. The parochial school is held in a small 
frame building, which was the first place in which the people of this church 
worshiped. The church has a membership of forty-five. 


The Delaware Savings Bank is the first and only institution of its kind to 
establish itself at this place. It was organized in 1914 and received a charter 

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to conduct a banking business under the state law, May 7, 1914, with a capital 
stock of $10,000. At once a home was built for the bank, a neat one-story brick 
building, in which operations began in the fall. The officers are: President, 
W. H. Norris, of Manchester; vice president, James P. Ball, of Delaware; 
cashier, 6. L. Baker, of Greeley. 


The Village of Oneida lies on section 6 in this township, and is quite a little 
railroad point, as the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul and the Chicago Great 
Western railroads cross here, and each has a depot. The Manchester & Oneida 
has its northern terminus at this place and by a certain arrangement is asso- 
ciated with the other roads and uses the tracks at both depots for the conven 
ience of travelers. 

Oneida was laid out October 8, 1896, by D. O. Potter, surveyor, for Eliza- 
beth Hoag Barr and the Oneida Building and Improvement Company, by P. 
M. Burbridge, president, L. G. Clute, secretary. Of the first merchants, men- 
tion should be made of Jesse Ruhlin, who kept a general store. William Bundy 
also had a general store and was the second postmaster. 

Early in the village's career a stock company was organized, in which the 
railroad company took an interest. A store was opened, in which a large stock 
of goods of a general character was kept. 

Shell Tuttle was also one of the first men to engage in business here; he 
had a general store. 

About the year 1902 a cooperative company put up a creamery. The build- 
ing burned to the ground three years afterwards, but was rebuilt and operated 
some time. A Dubuque creamery company now has a depot here, from which 
cream is shipped to the home plant. 


About ten years ago a school was established and a small frame structure 
built for the purpose. The first instructress is said to have been Miss Anna 
Lien, of Manchester. Within a very short time the necessity will have come for 
a larger building, to meet an increasing demand for more space. 

Oneida was incorporated in the spring of 1912, upon the petition of S. T. 
Knox, F. M. Burbridge, G. B. Cox, J. B. Dunham, W. P. Miller, C. W. Ferris, 
J. B. Howe, F. H. Dunham, C. H. Kimber, M. Joslin, D. A. Leahie, Joseph 
Beckel, J. D. Bushnell, W. C. Bushnell, George A. Ott, W. A. Connell, James 
Hood, William Boardman, Henry Miller, F. R. Burbridge, David Hankins, 
Walter Bowman and others, twenty-seven in all. A committee of three was 
appointed by the court to call an election, composed of S. T. Knox, W. F. Miller, 
and J. B. Howe. The election returned for office the following named persons: 
Mayor, S. T. Knox; clerk, George A. Ott; treasurer, C. M. Kimber; council, 
J. B. Howe, J. B. Dunham, C. W. Ferris, W. F. Miller, J. D. Bushnell. 

As a trading point, with splendid transportation facilities, Oneida is grow- 
ing in importance steadily. There is now a population of about two hundred 
The village has two or three general stores, a drug store, implement establish- 

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raent, produce and poultry market, blacksmith shop, bank, church, school and 
a good hotel. The bank was incorporated in 1909, under the name of the Oneida 
State Savings Bank, with a capital of $10,000. The incorporators included J. 
D. Chase, J. C. Odell, F. M. Burbridge, J. U. Rector, Greeley; G. L. Baker, A. N. 
Stearns, W. H. Norris, Manchester; D. U. Clements, West Union. Officials: 
W. H. Norris, president ; G. L. Baker, cashier. 

♦ The postoffice was established in 1887, and Adolph Zumhof received his 
commission as its head on the 18th day of May. The names of his successors 
follow : William R. Bundy, July 29, 1891 ; William G. Thomas, March 31, 1902 ; 
Samuel T. Knox, October 18, 1904. 


There are few who appreciate the schools and churches of a community. It 
is only after years of development and growth of community enterprises that 
a sympathetic research reveals the predominant influence of the church. In 
this limited review of the development of the Methodist Episcopal Church of 
Oneida, we are inspired by a new conception of her usefulness. When we speak 
of the history of Methodism in Oneida we do not mean just the hamlet but 
rather the whole community. Consequently we shall give the history of the 
present society of Methodist people since their first organization. 

The present society of Methodist people is of great age. It has been forty 
years since its organization. It commenced its long and tried career one-half 
mile east of where the church now stands. Its location was known as Hickory 
Grove. Jonathan Lukinbill, Henry Nietert and George Goodhile were some of 
the leading characters at that time. For many years the church stood at 
Hickory Grove. Year after year she invited the loyalty, inspired the minds 
and sweetened the hearts of men, women and children of those early times. Not 
until the faces of twenty years ago are made to shine in the light of the Church 
above will the accomplishments of the Hickory Grove church be known. 

The Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul and Chicago Great Western railways 
were built through the little cluster of buildings which /were afterwards called 
Oneida. Finally a little village grew up about the junction of the two railways, 
the church was moved to the site that it now occupies and was remodeled at a 
cost of $3,500. With this more advantageous place as a center of activities the 
church commenced a new epoch of usefulness. For many years she has reached 
out to grasp some program more comprehensive than the one that she was invit- 
ing the people to adopt. She realized her inability to minister to all the needs 
of the community. Consequently the change has come. 

The congregation has no regular pastor, but the pulpit is often filled by 
visiting clergymen. / 


Rev. J. H. Kasson, of Baraboo, Wisconsin, about the year 1854 left the place 
mentioned, with the intention of joining a colony of homeseekers at Grinnell, 
Iowa. Upon reaching Delaware County he had grown tired and disspirited 
and being pleased with the location of section 11, in Oneida Township, pur- 
chased the southwest quarter, on which he built a frame house. This tract of 

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land eventually became the site of Almoral. In the spring of 1856 a group of 
men, styled the Stafford Emigration Company, of Amherst, Massachusetts, sent 
delegates to Iowa in search of a place to locate a colony. The men composing 
the delegation, upon inspection of the country, did not see enough to interest 
them and returned east without making a selection, but did report unfavorably 
to the company of their investigations. At the time the organization was ef- 
fected in Massachusetts, Rev. H. N. Gates and D. S. Noble were living at Jhe 
Yankee Settlement; L. 0. Stevens at Hopkinton; and Joseph Dunham, P. W. 
Dunham and J. B. Dunham, at Bowen's Prairie. These persons, with their 
families, had joined the colony and expected to become members of the colony. 
After the failure of the delegation to select land for the proposed scheme of 
colonization, F. W. Dunham, Rev. H. N. Gates, L. 0. Stevens and D. B. Noble 
took up the investigation of the country through Western and Northwestern 
Iowa, and finally came upon the present site of Almoral, where they camped 
and met Rev. J. H. Kasson, who had by this time secured a neighbor in the 
person of John A. G. Cattron, who had built a home on the northwest quarter 
of section 11. Mr. Kasson was induced to dispose of his holdings. Adjoining 
land was purchased by the quartette of homeseekers, making in all six hundred 
and forty acres, which was intended as a nucleus of a settlement whose people 
should build up the Congregational Church and an institution for the educa- 
tion of their children. . One-fifth of the land thus secured was donated as a 
permanent endowment for an academy or high school. 

On November 23, 1857, James H. Kasson laid out the town of Almoral on 
section 11, being part of a tract of land he had retained. F. W. Dunham was 
the surveyor. Here Rev. H. N. Gates had built a house in the previous fall, the 
first one in the village. The structure was removed to Earlville about the year 

A school was opened in Almoral in the summer of 1857 by Abbie E. Dun- 
ham, in a log cabin, which stood on the northwest quarter of the southwest 
quarter of section 11. 

In September, 1858, the progenitors of the settlement, which was first des- 
ignated as the Stafford Colony, incorporated the Almoral Institute under the 
laws of the State of Iowa. The incorporators were J. H. Kasson, L. 0. Stevens, 
Joseph Dunham, William G. Strickland, H. N. Gates, Elijah Gates, J. A. G. 
Cattron and David Roland. These worthy men were also the first trustees. 
Building operations were commenced immediately and a frame structure, 24x30 
feet, was erected on lot 1, block 10, in which the first term of the Almoral 
Institute opened December 1, 1857, under the charge of Rev. H. N. Gates. 
There were about twenty pupils. Before the institution closed its doors, Rev. 
H. N. Gates, L. 0. Stevens, R. M. Marvin and P. W. Dunham taught here and 
a district school was conducted in connection with the institute until its clcwe 
in 1860. 

After the close of the institute this property reverted to the donors, who 
transferred it to the Almoral Congregational Church, together with other prop- 
erty. The church had been organized in 1857. Rev. H. N. Gates was the first 
pastor, and W. G. Strickland, deacon. 

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The postoffice was established here March 24, 1857, and F. W. Dunham 
was placed in charge. At first mail was received weekly. The first arrived 
at this office in April, 1857. The office has long since been discontinued. 

Almoral has the distinction of having organized the first brass band in 
Delaware County. It came into existence in 1858. J. B. Dunham was its leader. 
This musical organization appeared in different parts of the county at political